Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Claudette Colbert was an American stage and film actress. Colbert began her career in Broadway productions during the late 1920s and progressed to motion pictures with the advent of Talking pictures. Associated with Paramount Pictures, she shifted to working as a freelance actress, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress in It Happened One Night, received two other Academy Award nominations. Other notable films include The Palm Beach Story. With her round face, big eyes, aristocratic manner, flair for light comedy, as well as emotional drama, Colbert was known for a versatility that led to her becoming one of the industry's best-paid stars of the 1930s and 1940s and, in 1938 and 1942, the highest-paid star. During her career, Colbert starred in more than 60 movies. Among her frequent co-stars were Fred MacMurray in seven films, Fredric March in four films. By the early 1950s, Colbert had retired from the screen in favor of television and stage work, she earned a Tony Award nomination for The Marriage-Go-Round in 1959.
Her career tapered off during the early 1960s, but in the late 1970s she experienced a career resurgence in theater, earning a Sarah Siddons Award for her Chicago theater work in 1980. For her television work in The Two Mrs. Grenvilles, she won a Golden Globe Award and received an Emmy Award nomination. In 1999, the American Film Institute posthumously voted Colbert the 12th-greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema. Émilie Claudette Chauchoin was born in 1903 in Saint-Mandé, France, to Jeanne Marie and Georges Claude Chauchoin. Although christened "Émilie", she was called "Lily"; because she had an aunt living with her by the name of Émilie. The aunt was her maternal grandmother's adopted child, Emilie Loew, not a blood relative, worked as a dressmaker, never married. Colbert's nickname "Lily" came from Jersey-born actress Lillie Langtry. Jeanne, Emilie Loew, Colbert's grandmother, Marie Augustine Loew, were born in the Channel Islands between England and France, thus were fluent English speakers before coming to the U.
S. though French and English were spoken in the family circle. Colbert's brother, Charles Auguste Chauchoin, was born in the Bailiwick of Jersey. Jeanne held various occupations. While Georges Chauchoin had lost the sight in his right eye and had not settled into a profession, he worked as investment banker, suffering business setbacks. Marie Loew had been to the U. S. and Georges' brother-in-law was living in New York City. Marie was willing to help Georges financially, but encouraged him to try his luck in the U. S. To pursue more employment opportunities and her family, including Marie and Emilie Loew, emigrated to Manhattan in 1906, they lived in a fifth-floor walk-up at 53rd Street. Colbert stated that climbing those stairs to the fifth floor every day until 1922 made her legs beautiful, her parents formally changed her legal name to Lily Claudette Chauchoin'. Georges Chauchoin worked as a minor official at First National City Bank. Before Colbert entered public school, she learned English from her grandmother Marie Loew and continued to be fluent in French.
She had hoped to become a painter since she had grasped her first pencil. Her family was naturalized in the U. S. in 1912. Her mother wanted to become an opera singer. Colbert studied at Washington Irving High School, where her speech teacher, Alice Rossetter, encouraged her to audition for a play Rossetter had written. In 1919, Colbert made her stage debut at the Provincetown Playhouse in The Widow's Veil at the age of 15. However, Colbert's interest still leaned towards painting, fashion design, commercial art. Intending to become a fashion designer, she attended the Art Students League of New York, where she paid for her art education by working as a dress-shop employee. After attending a party with writer Anne Morrison, Colbert was offered a bit part in Morrison's play and appeared on the Broadway stage in a small role in The Wild Westcotts, she had been using the name Claudette instead of her first name Lily since high school, for her stage name, she added her maternal grandmother's maiden name, Colbert.
Her father, died in 1925 and her grandmother, Marie Loew, died in New York in 1930. After signing a five-year contract with producer Al Woods, Colbert played ingenue roles on Broadway from 1925 through 1929. Through the influence of Woods, she was cast in Frederick Lonsdale's The Fake, but was replaced by Frieda Inescort before it opened. Woods tried to promote Colbert as his "British discovery". During this period she disliked being typecast as a French maid. Colbert said, "In the beginning, they wanted to give me French roles … That's why I used to say my name Col-bert just as it is spelled instead of Col-baire. I did not want to be typed as'that French girl.'" She received critical acclaim on Broadway in the production of The Barker as a carnival snake charmer. She reprised this role for the play's run in London's West End. Colbert was noticed by the theatrical producer Leland Hayward, who suggested her for the heroine role in For the Love of Mike, a silent film now believed to be lost; the film didn't fare well enough at the box-office.
In 1928, Colbert signed a contract with Paramount Pictures. Colbert's elegance and musical voice were among her best assets. In The Hole in the Wall, audience
Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis was an American actress of film and theater. With a career spanning 60 years, she is regarded as one of the greatest actresses in Hollywood history, she was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic characters, was famous for her performances in a range of film genres, from contemporary crime melodramas to historical and period films, suspense horror, occasional comedies, although her greatest successes were her roles in romantic dramas. After appearing in Broadway plays, Davis moved to Hollywood in the summer of 1930. However, her early films for Universal Studios were unsuccessful, she joined Warner Bros. in 1932, established her career with several critically acclaimed performances. In 1937, she attempted to free herself from her contract, although she lost the well-publicized legal case against Warners, it marked the beginning of her most successful period; until the late 1940s, she was one of the most celebrated leading ladies of US cinema, known for her forceful and intense style.
Davis gained a reputation as a perfectionist who could be combative and confrontational. She clashed with film directors, as well as many of her co-stars, her forthright manner, idiosyncratic speech, ubiquitous cigarette contributed to a public persona, imitated. Davis was the co-founder of the Hollywood Canteen, a club venue for food and entertainment for servicemen during WWII, was the first female president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress twice, was the first person to accrue 10 Academy Award nominations for acting, was the first woman to receive a Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute. Her career went through several periods of eclipse, she admitted that her success had been at the expense of her personal relationships. Married four times, she was once widowed and three times divorced, raised her children as a single parent, her final years were marred by a long period of ill health and a tell-all book, My Mother's Keeper by daughter B.
D. Hyman, but she continued acting until shortly before her death from breast cancer. With more than 100 film and theater roles to her credit during her six-decade-long career. In 1999, Davis was placed second behind Katharine Hepburn on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female stars of the Classic Hollywood cinema era. Ruth Elizabeth Davis, known from early childhood as "Betty", was born on April 5, 1908, in Lowell, the daughter of Harlow Morrell Davis, a law student from Augusta and subsequently a patent attorney, Ruth Augusta, from Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. Davis' younger sister was Barbara Harriet. In 1915, Davis' parents separated, Davis attended a spartan boarding school called Crestalban in Lanesborough in the Berkshires. In 1921, Ruth Davis moved to New York City with her daughters, where she worked as a portrait photographer. Davis changed the spelling of her first name to "Bette" after Honoré de Balzac's La Cousine Bette. During their time in New York, Davis became a Girl Scout who proved so successful she ranked as a Patrol Leader.
Davis attended Cushing Academy, a boarding school in Ashburnham, where she met her future husband, Harmon O. Nelson, known as "Ham". In 1926, a 18-year-old Davis saw a production of Henrik Ibsen's The Wild Duck with Blanche Yurka and Peg Entwistle. Davis recalled for Al Cohn of Newsday, "The reason I wanted to go into theater was because of an actress named Peg Entwistle." She auditioned for admission to Eva Le Gallienne's Manhattan Civic Repertory, but was rejected by LeGallienne, who described her attitude as "insincere" and "frivolous". Davis auditioned for George Cukor's stock theater company in New York. Ed Sikov sources Davis' first professional role to a 1929 production by the Provincetown Players of Virgil Geddes play The Earth Between. In 1929, Davis was chosen by Blanche Yurka to play Hedwig, the character she had seen Entwistle play in The Wild Duck. After performing in Philadelphia and Boston, she made her Broadway debut in 1929 in Broken Dishes, followed it with Solid South. In 1930, 22-year-old Davis moved to Hollywood to screen test for Universal Studios.
Davis and her mother traveled by train to Hollywood. She recounted her surprise that nobody from the studio was there to meet her. In fact, a studio employee had waited for her, but left because he saw nobody who "looked like an actress", she was used in several screen tests for other actors. In a 1971 interview with Dick Cavett, she related the experience with the observation, "I was the most Yankee-est, most modest virgin who walked the earth, they laid me on a couch, I tested fifteen men... They all had to give me a passionate kiss. Oh, I thought. Just thought I would die." A second test was arranged for the 1931 film A House Divided. Hastily dressed in an ill-fitting costume with a low neckline, she was rebuffed by the film director William Wyler, who loudly commented to the assembled crew, "What do you think of these dames who show their chests and think they can get jobs?". Carl Laemmle, the head of Universal Studios, considered terminating Davis' employment, but cinematographer Karl Freund told him she had "lovely eyes" and would be suitable for Bad Sister, in which she subsequently made her film debut.
A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography; the cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, filters, etc. to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano, ASC who lensed Frozen River and Beyonce's Lemonade before winning an Emmy for directing The Handmaid's Tale. Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as Summer of Sam and He Got Game before directing episodes of Legion and Ozark.
In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence. In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was also the director and the person physically handling the camera; as the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematography was key during the silent movie era. In 1919 Hollywood, the then-new motion picture capital of the world, one of the first trade societies was formed: the American Society of Cinematographers, which stood to recognize the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making. Similar trade associations have been established in other countries too; the ASC Vision Committee is known for working to encourage and support the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers, to inspire us all to enact positive changes through hiring talent that reflects society at large.
However, the Soviet filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, writing in Kino-fot No.1 rejected the role of Cinematographer in the "We: Variant of a Manifesto": "We call ourselves kinoks – as opposed to "cinematographers", a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags. We see the cunning and calculation of the profiteers. We consider the psychological Russo-German film-drama – weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories – an absurdity." There are a number of national associations of cinematographers which represent members and which are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. These include: the American Society of Cinematographers the International Collective of Women Cinematographers the Canadian Society of Cinematographers the British Society of Cinematographers the Australian Cinematographers Society the Cinematographers Guild of Korea the Filipino Society of Cinematographers the French Society of Cinematographers the Italian Society of Cinematographers the Indian Society of Cinematographers the German Society of Cinematographers the Netherlands Society of Cinematographers the Spanish Society of Cinematography Works the European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO the Uruguayan Society of Cinematographers the Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers Cinematographers XX IlluminatrixThe A.
S. C. defines cinematography as: A creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than the simple recording of a physical event. Cinematography is not a subcategory of photography. Rather, photography is but one craft that the cinematographer uses in addition to other physical, managerial and image-manipulating techniques to effect one coherent process. Camerimage Cinematography Cinematography Mailing List, a communication forum for cinematographers Filmmaking Glossary of motion picture terms Indian cinematographers List of film director and cinematographer collaborations List of film formats List of motion picture-related topics Cinematography.com Cinematography Mailing List International Cinematographers Guild The History of the Discovery of Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers The Guild of British Camera Technicians British Society of Cinematographers Indian Society of Cinematographers European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO Australian Cinematographers Society German Society of Cinematography, BVK Italian Society of Cinematography, AIC Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers, LAC
Seinfeld is an American television sitcom that ran for nine seasons on NBC, from 1989 to 1998. It was created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, with the latter starring as a fictionalized version of himself. Set predominantly in an apartment building in Manhattan's Upper West Side in New York City, the show features a handful of Jerry's friends and acquaintances, including best friend George Costanza and former girlfriend Elaine Benes, neighbor across the hall Cosmo Kramer, it is described as being "a show about nothing", as many of its episodes are about the minutiae of daily life. Seinfeld was produced by Castle Rock Entertainment. In syndication, the series has been distributed by Columbia TriStar Television Distribution and since 2002, Sony Pictures Television, it was written by David and Seinfeld with script writers who included Larry Charles, Peter Mehlman, Gregg Kavet, Carol Leifer, David Mandel, Jeff Schaffer, Steve Koren, Jennifer Crittenden, Tom Gammill, Max Pross, Dan O'Keefe, Charlie Rubin, Marjorie Gross, Alec Berg, Elaine Pope, Spike Feresten.
A favorite among critics, the series led the Nielsen ratings in seasons six and nine, finished among the top two every year from 1994 to 1998. Seinfeld is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential sitcoms of all-time, it has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, TV Guide. The show's most renowned episodes include "The Chinese Restaurant", "The Parking Garage", "The Contest". In 2013, the Writers Guild of America voted it the No. 2 Best Written TV Series of All Time. E! named the series the "Number 1 reason the'90s ruled", quotes from numerous episodes have become catchphrases in popular culture. Main Jerry Seinfeld – Jerry is a "minor celeb" stand-up comedian, depicted as "the voice of reason" amidst the general insanity generated by the people in his world; the in-show character is a mild germaphobe and neat freak, as well as an avid Superman, New York Mets and breakfast cereal fan. Jerry's apartment is the center of a focus of the show.
Elaine Benes – Elaine is Jerry's ex-girlfriend and friend. She is attractive and genial, while being humorous and impulsive, she sometimes has a tendency to be too honest with people, which gets her into trouble. She gets caught up in her boyfriends' quirks, eccentric employers' unusual behaviors and idiosyncrasies, the maladjustment of total strangers, she tends to make poor choices in men she chooses to date and is overly reactive. First she works at Pendant Publishing with Mr. Lippman, is hired as a personal assistant for Mr. Pitt, works for the J. Peterman catalogue as a glorified assistant. Elaine is popularly described as an amalgamation of David's and Seinfeld's girlfriends during their early days in New York as struggling comedians. Cosmo Kramer – Kramer is Jerry's lovable rogue neighbor, his trademarks include his humorous upright pompadour hairstyle, vintage clothes, energetic sliding bursts through Jerry's apartment door. Kramer was based on a neighbor of David's during his amateur comedic years in Manhattan.
At times, he appears naïve, ignorant, at other times, intelligent and well-read. This is seen in his success with employers, he has been described as a "hipster doofus". Although he never holds a steady job, he is short of money and invents wacky schemes that work at first eventually fail. Kramer is longtime friends with Newman, they work well together despite their differences. George Costanza – George is Jerry's best friend, has been since high school, he is miserly, dishonest and envious of others' achievements. He is depicted as a loser, perpetually insecure about his capabilities, he complains and lies about his profession and everything else, which creates trouble for him later. He uses the alias Art Vandelay when lying or concocting a cover story. Despite these shortcomings, George has a sense of loyalty to his friends and success in dating women and secures a successful career as Assistant to the Traveling Secretary for the New York Yankees. Recurring Many characters have made multiple appearances, like Jerry's nemesis Newman and his Uncle Leo.
In addition to recurring characters, Seinfeld features numerous celebrities who appear as themselves or girlfriends, boyfriends and other acquaintances. Many actors who made guest appearances became household names in their careers, or were well known. Many Seinfeld episodes are based on the writers' real-life experiences, with the experiences reinterpreted for the characters' storylines. For example, George's storyline, "The Revenge", is based on Larry David's experience at Saturday Night Live. "The Contest" is based on David's experiences. "The Smelly Car" storyline is based on Peter Mehlman's lawyer friend, who could not get a bad smell out of his car. "The Strike" is based on Dan O'Keefe's dad. Other stories take on a variety of turns. "The Chinese Restaurant" consists of George and Elaine waiting for a table throughout the entire episode. "The Boyfriend", revolving around Keith Hernandez, extends through 2 episodes. "The Betrayal" is famous for using reverse chronology, was inspired by a similar plot devic
A political decoy is a person employed to impersonate a politician, to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on that person's behalf. This can apply to military figures, or civilians impersonated for political or espionage purposes; the political decoy is an individual, selected because of strong physical resemblance to the person being impersonated. This resemblance can be strengthened by plastic surgery; such decoys are trained to speak and behave like the "target". The practice of decoying is little different from the profession of celebrity lookalike, in which people mimic famous entertainers whom they resemble; the only difference is. The decoy must conceal his or her imposture from the "audience". In 2001, Poland hosted the first-ever doppelganger convention, to which lookalikes from across the country turned up, offering the unlikely spectacle of Joseph Stalin hobnobbing with Elizabeth Taylor. Nearly all the doppelgangers at the event had complemented their resemblance to a famous person by costume.
Some "lookalikes" stop mimicking their targets and start pretending to be them. Comedian Robin Williams was one such victim, whose identity was "stolen" by professional look-alike Michael Clayton, for financial reasons. Since deception is the whole purpose of employing a political decoy, there are many instances of alleged decoying which remain uncertain. Joe R. Reeder, an undersecretary for the U. S. Army from 1993 to 1997, has gone on record with claims that a number of figures around the world have or have had decoys, including Manuel Noriega, Raoul Cédras, Enver Hoxha, Fidel Castro, George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden. Of Noriega's alleged four decoys, Reeder said, "They were good, they practiced his gait, his manner of speech and his modus operandi – what he did during the day and night." Information on these instances of decoying is hard to come by. And falsely accusing an enemy of using a decoy can be an effective psychological operations tactic; this means that the confusion generated by the existence of real decoys is deepened by counterclaims of decoys where there may be none.
The case of Osama bin Laden is instructive. In the absence of confirmed sightings of the terrorist figurehead, many sources speculated that videotaped messages from bin Laden were in fact recordings of a double - either as part of a "frame-up" operation, or as part of a strategy of deception on bin Laden's part. Speculation in such situations is liable to run high. For the purposes of this entry, only well-documented allegations or confirmed cases of political decoying are discussed. Instances which are still under debate will have section headings below in quotes. Soldier M. E. Clifton James impersonated General Bernard Montgomery for intelligence purposes during World War II. In 1940, James acted in an Army production called When Knights Were Bold and his photograph appeared in an Army newspaper with a remark about how much he resembled General Montgomery; as a result, he was approached by actor David Niven in May 1944. Niven a Colonel in the Army Kinematograph Section, told James he was wanted to impersonate "Monty", as this would allow Montgomery to be somewhere else, thus confusing the Germans.
James had to learn Montgomery's gestures, mannerisms and voice and had to give up smoking. Because James had lost his right-hand middle finger in the First World War, a realistic replacement was made, his wife had to be deceived and was both kept in the dark and sent back to Leicester. Once he was trained, his trip as "Monty" was from there to Algiers. "Monty's" presence succeeded in confusing the Germans in regard to the invasion plans. James was the subject of a biopic called I Was Monty's Double starring James himself in the double role as Monty and himself; the second "Monty's Double", Keith Deamer Banwell, was serving with the land-based Long Range Desert Group. Banwell was captured in a raid on Tobruk, but with a friend managed to steal a German vehicle and escape. During a subsequent raid on Crete he was taken prisoner at Heraklion and put under the personal supervision of former world heavyweight boxing champion Max Schmeling, serving in the German Army. Banwell and a few of his comrades managed to slip away from their captors and acquired an assault landing craft.
With the help of some Cretan fishermen they made their getaway, but the craft ran out of fuel and drifted for nine days before reaching the North African coast. The privations of this voyage put Banwell in hospital for 12 weeks; when he had recovered, someone noticed. It was decided that he participate in deception ploys, so Banwell was sent to Cairo to meet Montgomery, given the appropriate clothing and General's badges and sent on trips around the Middle East to confuse enemy spies. However, as he was taller than Montgomery, he was told that on no account should he get out of the car. Banwell, finding the assignment boring, sought a return to the infantry. Adolf Hitler is known to have employed Gustav Weler. British surgeon and historical writer W. Hugh Thomas reported in his 1996 book “Doppelgangers” that Gustav Weler was found alive after the war and that Allied troops interviewed Weler following Hitler’s death. Hugh Thomas claims that the man who committed suicide after his capture in Lüneburg in May 1945, was not in fact Heinrich Himmler.
Thomas's book on this subject, SS-1: The Unlikely Death of Heinrich Himmler, sets out the alleged deception in great detail. This theory is not accepted by historians. S
Robin McLaurin Williams was an American actor and comedian. Born in Chicago, Williams began performing stand-up comedy in San Francisco and Los Angeles during the mid-1970s, is credited with leading San Francisco's comedy renaissance. After rising to fame playing the alien Mork in the sitcom Mork & Mindy, Williams established a career in both stand-up comedy and feature film acting, he was known for his improvisation skills and the wide variety of memorable character voices he created. Williams has been called the funniest person of all time. After his first starring film role in Popeye, Williams starred in numerous films that achieved critical and commercial success, including The World According to Garp, Moscow on the Hudson, Good Morning, Dead Poets Society, Aladdin, The Fisher King, One Hour Photo and World's Greatest Dad, as well as box office hits, such as Hook, Mrs. Doubtfire, The Birdcage, Good Will Hunting and the Night at the Museum trilogy. Williams was nominated four times for the Academy Awards, winning once for Best Supporting Actor for his performance as psychologist Sean Maguire in Good Will Hunting.
He received two Primetime Emmy Awards, seven Golden Globe Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, four Grammy Awards. On August 11, 2014, Williams committed suicide in his Paradise Cay, home at the age of 63, his wife attributed his suicide to his struggle with Lewy body disease. Robin McLaurin Williams was born at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, on July 21, 1951, his father, Robert Fitzgerald Williams, was a senior executive in Ford Motor Company's Lincoln-Mercury Division. His mother, Laurie McLaurin, was a former model from Mississippi. Through her, he was a great-great-grandson of Mississippi governor Anselm J. McLaurin. Williams had two elder half-brothers, he had English, Welsh, Irish and German ancestry. While his mother was a practitioner of Christian Science, Williams was raised in the Episcopal Church his father belonged to. Williams wrote a list: "Top Ten Reasons to Be an Episcopalian". During a television interview on Inside the Actors Studio in 2001, Williams credited his mother as an important early influence on his humor, he tried to make her laugh to gain attention.
Williams attended public elementary school in Lake Forest at Gorton Elementary School and middle school at Deer Path Junior High School. He described himself as a quiet child who did not overcome his shyness until he became involved with his high school drama department, his friends recall him as funny. In late 1963, when Williams was 12, his father was transferred to Detroit; the family lived in a 40-room farmhouse on 20 acres in suburban Bloomfield Hills, where he was a student at the private Detroit Country Day School. He excelled in school, where he was on the school's soccer team and wrestling team, was elected class president; as both his parents worked, Williams was attended to by the family's maid, his main companion. When Williams was 16, his father took early retirement and the family moved to Marin County, settling in Tiburon, California. Following their move, Williams attended Redwood High School in nearby Larkspur. At the time of his graduation in 1969, he was voted "Most Likely Not to Succeed" and "Funniest" by his classmates.
After high school graduation, Williams enrolled at Claremont Men's College in Claremont, California, to study political science. Williams studied theatre for three years at the College of Marin, a community college in Kentfield, California. According to College of Marin's drama professor James Dunn, the depth of the young actor's talent became evident when he was cast in the musical Oliver! as Fagin. Williams improvised during his time in the drama program, leaving cast members in hysterics. Dunn called his wife after one late rehearsal to tell her that Williams "was going to be something special". In 1973, Williams attained a full scholarship to the Juilliard School in New York City, he was one of 20 students accepted into the freshman class and one of two accepted by John Houseman into the Advanced Program at the school that year. William Hurt and Mandy Patinkin were classmates. According to biographer Jean Dorsinville, Franklyn Seales and Williams were roommates at Juilliard. Reeve remembered his first impression of Williams when they were new students at Juilliard: He wore tie-dyed shirts with tracksuit bottoms and talked a mile a minute.
I'd never seen. He was like an untied balloon, inflated and released. I watched in awe as he caromed off the walls of the classrooms and hallways. To say that he was "on" would be a major understatement. Williams and Reeve had a class in dialects taught by Edith Skinner, who Reeve said was one of the world's leading voice and speech teachers. According to Reeve, Skinner was bewildered by Williams, who could perform in many accents, including Scottish, English and Italian, their primary acting teacher was Michael Kahn, "equally baffled by this human dynamo". Williams had a reputation for being funny, but Kahn criticized his antics as simple stand-up comedy. In a production, Williams silenced his critics with his well-received performance as an old man in The Night of the Iguana by Tennessee Williams. "He was the old man," wrote Reeve. "I was astonished by h