Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Cache County, Utah
Cache County is a county on the northern edge of Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census the population was 112,656, its county seat and largest city is Logan. Cache County is included in UT-ID Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indigenous peoples occupied the valleys of present Cache County as much as 10,000 BCE. Near the present epoch, the valley served the Shoshone. Trappers and explorers visited the area in the late early 19th centuries. John Henry Weber and Jim Bridger came through in 1824. In July 1855 a group of Mormon settlers drove a herd of cattle into the valley and camped at Haw Bush Spring. However, the cold winter conditions drove the settlers back to the Salt Lake Valley; that summer local leaders of the LDS Church sent Peter Maughan to establish a permanent settlement in the Cache Valley. His settlement, Maughan's Fort, grew into the present Wellsville. More settlers arrived in the valley, by 1859 the settlements of Providence, Logan and Smithfield had been established.
In preparation for this influx, the Utah Territory legislature created a county, effective January 5, 1856, with seat and government incomplete. By April 4, 1857 the organization was completed, Logan became the seat, it was named for the fur stashes, known in French as Caches, made by many of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company trappers. The county gained area in 1862. In 1863, the federal government enacted the Idaho Territory, which administratively removed the described portions of Cache County that lay north of the territorial border. In 1864, the east part of the county was partitioned to become Rich County; the borders of Cache County have remained in their present state since 1864. A rail line between Brigham City and Logan was completed in 1873; the line was extended into Idaho, a connection was made to the transcontinental railroad, which opened the world to Cache County. The county's sheep population burgeoned. By 1900 the Forest Service began regulating grazing practices, which brought the sheep population under control.
There were 16,000 dairy cows in Cache County in 1910. Commercial creameries, flour mills, woolen mills, knitting factories developed around the farm-based economy. Cache presently continues as the state's leader in dairy products and as a major producer of hay and grain. Cache County lies on the north edge of Utah, its north border abuts the south border of the state of Idaho. On the western edge of the county are the Wellsville Mountains and on the eastern edge are the Bear River Mountains, both northern branches of the Wasatch Range; the Cache Valley reaches north to the state border. The Bear River Mountains, the northernmost extension of the Wasatch Range, cover the eastern half of the county; the county's highest elevation is Naomi Peak in the NE part of the county, at 9,979' ASL. The Bear River flows through Cache Valley; the county has a total area of 1,173 square miles, of which 1,165 square miles is land and 8.2 square miles is water. Cache County is governed by a seven-member county council and elects eight officials at large.
As of 2019, all county elected. Cache County has trended Republican in national voting. In no national election since 1944 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 112,655 people, 34,722 households, 26,464 families in the county. The population density was 96.7/sqmi. There were 37,024 housing units at an average density of 31.78/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 89.12% White, 0.62% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.88% Asian, 0.39% Pacific Islander, 5.48% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races. 9.96% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,722 households out of which 41.34% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.22% were married couples living together, 7.73% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.78% were non-families. 16.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.54% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14 and the average family size was 3.55.
The county population contained 36.3% under the age of 20, 12.59% from 20 to 24, 26.97% from 25 to 44, 16.41% from 45 to 64, 7.72% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.5 years. For every 100 females there were 98.84 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.53 males. As of 2015, the largest self reported ancestry groups in Cache County were: As of 2016, the largest self reported ancestry groups in Cache County were: Cache College Ward White Horse Village National Register of Historic Places listings in Cache County, Utah Official website Cache Valley Tourism Council
J. Willard Marriott Library
The J. Willard Marriott Library is the main academic library of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah; the university library has had multiple homes since the first University of Utah librarian was appointed in 1850. The current building was opened in 1968 and named for J. Willard Marriott, founder of Marriott International, in 1969. After two major renovations, the building is more than 500,000 square feet and houses more than 4.5 million volumes. The University of Utah Press and Red Butte Press are divisions of the Marriott Library; the first University of Utah librarian was appointed in the same year the school was founded. University president John R. Park opened a library and reading room stocked with his personal collection of books on loan to the university in 1874; the library moved to the LeRoy Cowles Building in 1900 and the George Thomas Library Building in 1935, both on Presidents Circle. The current five-story building was opened in 1968 and was named for J. Willard Marriott in 1969 when he contributed $1 million for library collections, the largest single contribution received by the university at that time.
The library was expanded 210,000 square feet in 1996, which doubled the library's size, was expanded again during a major renovation between 2005 and 2009. The purpose of this renovation was to improve the seismic stability of the building, provide clearer pathways through the building, improve environmental controls, allow for more natural light. Several additions were made to the building including an automated storage and retrieval system that can store up to 2 million items, a larger computer lab, additional classrooms and teaching labs, a new indoor café, a rooftop garden, additional study areas including the George S. Eccles Grand Reading Room; the library's Special Collections department collects and makes available books, documents, photographs and original materials those documenting the history of Utah, the Mormons, the West, the Middle East, the University of Utah. These collections include the papers of Marriner Stoddard Eccles, Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1934 to 1938.
Materials are accessible to all patrons, regardless of their status. The library hosts over 100 unique digital collections, many of which include items from Special Collections. Digital collections include USpace, Utah Digital Newspapers, the Western Soundscape Archive, the Western Waters Digital Library; the library hosts the Mountain West Digital Library, a digital collaborative program of the Utah Academic Library Consortium. The library provides access to print on demand books via an Espresso Book Machine; the Aziz S. Atiya Middle East Library, located in the Marriott Library, is named after the founder of the University of Utah Middle East Center, Aziz Suryal Atiya, is the fifth largest library for Middle East studies in North America; the Katherine W. Dumke Fine Arts & Architecture Library collection includes artist's books, catalogue raisonnés, graphic novels, sheet music, other arts books and periodicals. Artwork in the library's collection includes pieces by Anna Campbell Bliss, a Salt Lake City-based artist.
Official website Marriott Library Special Collections Marriott Library Digital Collections
Davis County, Utah
Davis County is a county in northern Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 306,479, making it Utah's third-most populous county, its county seat is Farmington, its largest city is Layton. Davis County is part of the Ogden-Clearfield, UT Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Salt Lake City-Provo-Orem, UT Combined Statistical Area; the legislature of the provisional State of Deseret defined the county in a October 5, 1850 act, which designated Farmington as the seat due to its location midway between boundaries at the Weber River on the north and the Jordan River on the south. It was named for Daniel C. Davis, a captain in the Mormon Battalion; the county boundaries were altered in 1852, in 1854, in 1855, in 1862. In 1880 the county gained part of the islands and waters of Great Salt Lake, attached to Salt Lake County; the county boundary has remained unchanged since that time. During its first 50 years, Davis County grew slowly. With the advent of the Utah Central Rail Road in 1870, a transition to mechanized agriculture and a surge of commerce, improved roads, new water systems, electrification of homes began.
However, by 1940, the population was 16,000. With the establishment of Hill Air Force Base in northern Davis County, there was a surge of civilian employment after World War II; the county doubled in population between 1940 and 1950, doubled again between 1950 and 1960 as part of the nationwide suburb boom, occurring at the time. By 1990 there were 188,000 residents, in 2000, there were 239,000. By 2030, the county is expected to have a population of about 360,000. Davis County has an area of 634 square miles, of which 299 square miles is land and 335 square miles is water, it is second smallest by total area. The county lies between the Great Salt Lake on the west and the Wasatch Range on the east, which rises to a height of 9,707 feet in the county at Thurston Peak; the Great Salt Lake is surrounded by marshland and mudflats, lies at an average elevation of 4,200 feet, varying depending on the water level, which can lead to drastic changes in the lake size due to its shallowness. Davis County includes the lake's largest island.
The entire island is a state park, designated to protect natural scenery and wildlife on the island, which includes bighorn sheep, a bison herd. The inhabited portion of Davis County between the lake and the mountain range is called the Wasatch Front, a narrow stretch of land that restricts north-south transportation in the county. Davis County lies in a semiarid climate zone. Snow is frequent during winter, with up to 90 in annually on high bench areas in the east and at least 60 inches on the valley floor. Annual precipitation averages between 18 and 25 inches in the county, with spring being the wettest season and summer the driest. Summers are hot, with several days each year averaging above 95 °F. However, the humidity is low, making for comparatively comfortable temperatures. In winter, temperatures sometimes drop below 0 °F, but for extended periods of time. Compared to Salt Lake County to the south, the weather in Davis County is extreme. Lake-effect snows hit the southern portion of the county harder, in non-lake-effect storms, the lack of a rain shadow in Davis County means that storms hit Davis County harder.
In addition, canyon winds from the east can sometimes cause devastating wind damage, wind gusts above 100 mph have been reported. This occurs when a powerful high pressure system is over Wyoming, is a frequent occurrence. Extreme wind events, seemed to have declined in frequency in recent years; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 306,479 people, 93,545 households, 76,205 families in the county. The population density was 1,025/sqmi. There were 97,570 housing units at an average density of 320.95 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.04% White, 1.21% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 1.77% Asian, 0.59% Pacific Islander, 3.24% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races. 8.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 93,545 households out of which 45.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.99% were married couples living together, 9.59% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.54% were non-families.
15.23% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.27% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.24 and the average family size was 3.63. The county population contained 37.23% under the age of 20, 6.56% from 20 to 24, 28.13% from 25 to 44, 19.92% from 45 to 64, 8.15% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.85 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.09 males. A three-member board of commissioners is the county's governing body; the commissioners are elected to staggered four-year terms. They are responsible for all county operations, they approve and amend the budget. The county commissioners are: Randy B. Elliott Lorene Miner Kamalu Bob J. Stevenson Other elected offices include the County Attorney, Clerk/Auditor, Recorder and Treasurer; the assessor is respon
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
University of Utah
The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs; the university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S. J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school; as of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673. The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education, it received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, moved to its current location in 1900. The university ranks among the top 50 U. S. universities by total research expenditures with over $518 million spent in 2015.
22 Rhodes Scholars, four Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, eight MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university's Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U. S; the university has been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country. The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pac-12 Conference, its football team has received national attention for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl. Soon after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake valley in 1847, Brigham Young began organizing a Board of Regents to establish a university; the university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, Orson Spencer was appointed as the first chancellor of the university.
Early classes were held in private homes. The university closed in 1853 due to lack of funds and lack of feeder schools. Following years of intermittent classes in the Salt Lake City Council House, the university began to be re-established in 1867 under the direction of David O. Calder, followed by John R. Park in 1869; the university moved out of the council house into the Union Academy building in 1876 and into Union Square in 1884. In 1892, the school's name was changed to the University of Utah, John R. Park began arranging to obtain land belonging to the U. S. Army's Fort Douglas on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, where the university moved permanently in 1900. Additional Fort Douglas land has been granted to the university over the years, the fort was closed on October 26, 1991. Upon his death in 1900, Dr. John R. Park bequeathed his entire fortune to the university; the university grew in the early 20th century but was involved in an academic freedom controversy in 1915 when Joseph T. Kingsbury recommended that five faculty members be dismissed after a graduation speaker made a speech critical of Utah governor William Spry.
One third of the faculty resigned in protest of these dismissals. Some felt that the dismissals were a result of the LDS Church's influence on the university, while others felt that they reflected a more general pattern of repressing religious and political expression that might be deemed offensive; the controversy was resolved when Kingsbury resigned in 1916, but university operations were again interrupted by World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Student enrollment dropped to a low of 3,418 during the last year of World War II, but A. Ray Olpin made substantial additions to campus following the war, enrollment reached 12,000 by the time he retired in 1964. Growth continued in the following decades as the university developed into a research center for fields such as computer science and medicine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, the university hosted the Olympic Village, a housing complex for the Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prior to the events, the university received a facelift that included extensive renovations to the Rice-Eccles Stadium, a light rail track leading to downtown Salt Lake City, a new student center known as the Heritage Center, an array of new student housing, what is now a 180-room campus hotel and conference center.
The University of Utah Asia Campus opened as an international branch campus in the Incheon Global Campus in Songdo, South Korea in 2014. Three other European and American universities are participating; the Asia Campus was funded by the South Korean government. Campus takes up 1,534 acres, including the Health Sciences complex, Research Park, Fort Douglas, it is located on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, close to the Wasatch Range and 2 miles east of downtown Salt Lake City. Most courses take place on the west side of campus, known as lower campus due to its lower elevation. Presidents Circle is a loop of buildings named after past university presidents with a courtyard in the center. Major libraries on lower campus include the J. Willard Marriott Library and the S. J. Quinney Law Library; the primary student activity center is the A. Ray Olpin University Union, campus fitness centers include the Health, Physical Education, Recreation Complex and the Nielsen Fieldhouse. Lower campus is home to most public venues, such as the Rice-Eccles Stadium, the Jon M. Huntsman Center, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, a museum with rot
Sandusky is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. Situated in northern Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, Sandusky is midway between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east. According to 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,793, the Sandusky, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area had 77,079 residents. In 2011, Sandusky was ranked No. 1 by Forbes as the "Best Place to Live Cheaply" in the United States. The city has a median family income of $64,000. Sandusky is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company and its flagship amusement park, Cedar Point. Cedar Point has one of the largest collections of roller coasters in the world. Cedar Point includes 17 roller coasters, it is home to the second tallest roller coaster in the Top Thrill Dragster. The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky as a Tree City USA; the accepted etymology is that the name "Sandusky" is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning "water" or andusti, "cold water". In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the word as "Chinouski".
Sandusky Bay is identified as "Lac Sandouské" on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle. The name "L. Sandoski" appears on a 1733 map. Sandusky Bay was called Lac Ondaské, in another French transliteration of the Wyandot, it was used as the name of an English trading post on the north side of the bay, a French Fort Sandoské that replaced it, a British Fort Sandusky on the south shore of the bay, an American Fort Sandusky upriver at what is now Fremont. This area was a center of trading and fortifications since the 18th century: the English and Americans had trading posts and forts built on both the north and south sides of Sandusky Bay. Development by European Americans of the city of Sandusky, starting in 1818, on the southeast shore of Sandusky Bay, followed settlement of the war of 1812. Part of the city enveloped the site of an earlier small village named "Portland"; the city of Sandusky encompassed most of the entire township, called Portland. Some of the city was built on land occupied by a Native-American man named Ogontz, therefore the city is said to have been built on "Ogontz' place".
Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a major stop for refugee slaves on the Underground Railroad, as some would travel across Lake Erie to reach freedom in Canada. Although Ohio was a free state, they felt at risk from slavecatchers because of bonuses offered under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850; as depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, many refugee slaves seeking to get to Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario. Sandusky‘s original plat was designed by surveyor Hector Kilbourne according to a modified grid plan, known today as the Kilbourne Plat. Kilbourne became the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge known as Science Lodge #50, still in operation on Wayne Street, his design featured a street grid with avenues cutting diagonally to create patterns reminiscent of the symbols of Freemasonry. On September 17, 1835, Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, which brought change to the town.
Industrial areas developed near the railroad and goods were transported through the port. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way, but since the late 20th century, Battery Park Marina was developed on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad after restructuring of the industry reduced traffic on the line. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed. Most of the downtown industrial area is being redeveloped for other purposes, including marina dockage; the English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes. Said Dickens, who rode the newly constructed MR&LE railroad from Tiffin, "At two o'clock we took the railroad. We put up at a comfortable little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night, had no choice but to wait there next day, until a steamboat bound for Buffalo appeared; the town, sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season."
The city developed as a center of paper-making. With a mill in the industrial area near the lake, the Hinde & Dauch Paper Company was the largest employer in the city in the early 1900s. Sandusky is located at 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.91 square miles, of which 9.73 square miles is land and 12.18 square miles is water. Sandusky occupies the defunct township Portland and borders the following townships: Margaretta Township - west and south Perkins Township - south Huron Township - east Sandusky has a humid continental climate, typical of much of the central United States, with warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with an average January high temperature of 32 °F, an average January low temperature of 19 °F, with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 28.4 inches of snow per winter. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with an average July high temperature of 82 °F, an average July low temperature of 66°.
Summer weather is more stable humid with thunderstorms common