A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of 1,435 mm. The standard gauge is called Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, International gauge, UIC gauge, uniform gauge, normal gauge and European gauge in Europe, it is the most used railway track gauge across the world, with 55% of the lines in the world using it. All high-speed rail lines use standard gauge except those in Russia, Finland and Uzbekistan; the distance between the inside edges of the rails is defined to be 1435 mm except in the United States and on some heritage British lines, where it is still defined in U. S. customary units as "four feet eight and one half inches". As railways developed and expanded, one of the key issues was the track gauge to be used. Different railways used different gauges, where rails of different gauge met – a "gauge break" – loads had to be unloaded from one set of rail cars and re-loaded onto another, a time-consuming and expensive process; the result was the adoption throughout a large part of the world of a "standard gauge" of 1,435 mm, allowing interconnectivity and interoperability.
A popular legend, around since at least 1937 traces the origin of the 1,435 mm gauge further back than the coalfields of northern England, pointing to the evidence of rutted roads marked by chariot wheels dating from the Roman Empire. It is curious that the Roman pace or passus was 1435 mm. Snopes categorised this legend as "false", but commented that "it is more labelled as'True, but for trivial and unremarkable reasons'"; the historical tendency to place the wheels of horse-drawn vehicles 5 ft apart derives from the width needed to fit a carthorse in between the shafts. In addition, while road-travelling vehicles are measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims, it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels was the important one. There was never a standard gauge for horse railways, but there were rough groupings: in the north of England none was less than 4 ft. Wylam colliery's system, built before 1763, was 5 ft, as was John Blenkinsop's Middleton Railway.
Others were 4 ft 4 in or 4 ft 7 1⁄2 in. The English railway pioneer George Stephenson spent much of his early engineering career working for the coal mines of County Durham, he favoured 4 ft 8 in for wagonways in Northumberland and Durham, used it on his Killingworth line. The Hetton and Springwell wagonways used this gauge. Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington railway was built to transport coal from mines near Shildon to the port at Stockton-on-Tees; the initial gauge of 4 ft 8 in was set to accommodate the existing gauge of hundreds of horse-drawn chaldron wagons that were in use on the wagonways in the mines. The railway used this gauge for 15 years; the historic Mount Washington Cog Railway, the world's first mountain-climbing rack railway, is still in operation in the 21st century, has used the earlier 4 ft 8 in gauge since its inauguration in 1868. George Stephenson used the 1,435 mm gauge for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, authorised in 1826 and opened 30 September 1830; the success of this project led to Stephenson and his son Robert being employed to engineer several other larger railway projects.
Thus the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge became dominant in Britain. Robert was reported to have said that if he had had a second chance to choose a standard gauge, he would have chosen one wider than 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. "I would take a few inches more, but a few". During the "gauge war" with the Great Western Railway, standard gauge was called narrow gauge, in contrast to the Great Western's 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge; the modern use of the term "narrow gauge" for gauges less than standard did not arise for many years, until the first such locomotive-hauled passenger railway, the Ffestiniog Railway was built. In 1845, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, a Royal Commission on Railway Gauges reported in favour of a standard gauge; the subsequent Gauge Act ruled that new passenger-carrying railways in Great Britain should be built to a standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in, those in Ireland to a new standard gauge of 5 ft 3 in. In Great Britain, Stephenson's gauge was chosen on the grounds that existing lines of this gauge were eight times longer than those of the rival 7 ft or 2,134 mm gauge adopted principally by the Great Western Railway.
It allowed the broad-gauge companies in Great Britain to continue with their tracks and expand their networks within the "Limits of Deviation" and the exceptions defined in the Act. After an intervening period of mixed-gauge operation, the Great Western Railway completed the conversion of its network to standard gauge in 1892. In North East England, some early lines in colliery area
B2X GmbH is a customer service outsourcing company for manufacturers of smartphones and other electronic devices, insurance providers, mobile network operators and retailers. The services are based on a technology platform called SMARTCARE Technology. Although its headquarters are located in Munich, the company works in more than 130 countries through a network of over 400 service partners and 2,000 service locations; the company was founded in 2007 by management consultant Karim Barkawi. In 2008, B2X took on the warranties held by Siemens Mobile after the company decided to discontinue its mobile phone operations. B2X's core business is provision of customer service solutions in the business process outsourcing arena; this includes customer care and after-sales solutions to global smartphone and IoT brands. For example, Microsoft outsourced support for Nokia and Microsoft mobile devices to B2X in 2016. Shortly after its launch B2X received initial investment from Grazia Equity in 2009. In 2010, B2X announced the closing of a financing round with Earlybird.
The financing was said to be used to further drive international growth and to expand the service scope to a broader range of end-product markets. In January 2014 it was announced that it has been named as one of the final 100 businesses and Ruban d'Honneur recipients in the 2013/2014 European Business Awards. Selected as one of ten finalists in the InfoSys Business of the Year Award for companies with more than EUR 150m in revenue B2X was awarded Winner of the European business awards in May 2014. Furthermore, Gartner selected B2X as a Cool Vendor for Supply Chain Management in 2014. In 2016, B2X ranked on the third position of the Inc. 5000 Europe list. As of 2017, B2X had over 1,000 employees across 35 countries. B2X' headquarters is located in Germany; as of 2017, the company has a presence in Argentina, Belarus, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam.
The company additionally maintains a strong presence in India. B2X’s service range comprises backend and frontend solutions and begins with the term SMART, followed by a description of the service application, their backend solutions include SMARTLOGISTICS, SMARTREPAIR, SMARTPARTS and SMARTRECOVERY. B2X’s frontend solutions include SMARTAPP, SMARTWEB, SMARTHELP and SMARTBAR. Since April 2016, B2X is led by Rainer Koppitz as Chief Executive Officer, CEO at Nfon, a provider of Cloud-based telephone systems. Chairman of the Advisory Board of B2X is Lothar Pauly, CEO of T-Systems, a German global IT services and consulting company and a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom. Third position, Inc. 5000 Europe
The longfin escolar, Scombrolabrax heterolepis known as the black mackerel, is a widespread but uncommon deep sea fish that presents some difficulties for taxonomy. It is placed in its own family Scombrolabracidae, but the family's placement in the suborders of Perciformes has included Scombroidei and Trichiuiroidei, while some authors place it in its own suborder Scombrolabracoidei and in its own order the Scombrolabraciformes; the fish bears some resemblance to members of Gempylidae, but has protrusible premaxillae, serrated opercles and preopercles, a spur on the lowest principal caudal ray, all of which are characteristic of percoids. Its color varies from black to dark brown; this fish is known to grow to 30 cm in length. The body is covered in soft scales which slough off when handled; the eyes are large with a single pair of elongated teeth in the middle of the top jaw. The longfin escolar is unique among fishes for having several of its vertebrae hollowed out and filled by evaginations of the gas bladder.
It is most encountered as a bycatch species in pelagic longline fisheries. "Scombrolabrax heterolepis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 April 2006. Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Scombrolabracidae" in FishBase. January 2006 version. Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Scombrolabrax heterolepis" in FishBase. January 2006 version. J. S. Nelson, Fishes of the World
Syed Darbar Ali Shah was a Central Superior Services officer civil servant and has held many important Administrative positions including that of Commissioner Karachi during the 1965 War between India and Pakistan. He was allocated in 1949 in District Management Group, he was one of the most senior officer of PAS Pakistan known as District Management Group. He was the batchmate of another CSP office Roedad Khan of KhyberPakhtunkhwa. Shah was born in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in 1923 to a Syed family, he studied earlier in a local school in Malakand and graduated from Government College University, Lahore. During his career he served as Commissioner Karachi One Unit system under President Ayub Khan from 1961 to 1965. Shah was born in July 21, 1923 to a small village, Mohallah Darbar Village Chakdara of Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. After completing a local high school, Shah went to Lahore to attend GC University, he went on to become Commissioner of Karachi in 1961. He served as the chief administrator of Karachi in Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
He laid the foundation of Gulshan Town Karachi on the name of great poet Allama Iqbal. Syed Darbar Ali Shah joined the Civil Services of Pakistan in 1949 and has held several appointments, including those of Commissioner Khairpur, Commissioner Karachi, Commissioner Peshawar. Shah, Darbar. "Darbar Ali Shah". Facebook. Retrieved 2019-11-22. Kazi, Dr Ghulam Nabi, Pervez Ahmed Butt, Z A Bhutto and Syed Darbar Ali Shah, retrieved 2019-11-22 Kazi, Dr Ghulam Nabi, President Ayub Khan decorating Syed Darbar Ali Shah with SQA, retrieved 2019-11-22
Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima is one of 32 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand. Nakhon Ratchasima was built in the reign of King Narai the Great of Ayutthaya kingdom; the king merged two cities, Mueang Sema and Mueang Khorakha Pura, moved to the present area. He named the new city "Nakhon Ratchasima". "Khorat", as it is known, is on the Khorat plateau, the lower part of northeastern plateau of Thailand. The city itself serves as the gateway to the northeastern region. From Bangkok, it is 259 km by road, it has about 468,704 rai with a population of 433,838 inhabitants. Neighbouring districts are: Non Thai, Non Sung, Chaloem Phra Kiat, Chok Chai, Pak Thong Chai, Sung Noen, Kham Thale So; the main river through the district is the Lam Takhong. The district is divided into 25 sub-districts with 27 local administrations; the district contains one city municipality. The City of Nakhon Ratchasima or Korat City, covers the area of Nai Mueang Sub-district and parts of Ban Ko Sub-district.
Nine township municipalities: Pho Klang covers Pho Klang Sub-district. And 17 Subdistrict Administrative Organizations: Ban Ko, Ban Mai, Ban Pho, Chai Mongkhon, Cho Ho, Muen Wai, Nong Bua Sala, Nong Chabok, Nong Krathum, Nong Rawiang, Phon Krang, Phutsa, Si Num and Talat responsible for the non-municipal areas
Jimmy Russell was a professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s. He played at club level for Featherstone Rovers, as an occasional goal-kicking scrum-half, i.e. number 7. Russell made his début for Featherstone Rovers on Saturday 1 April 1939, he appears to have scored no drop-goals, but prior to the 1974–75 season all goals, whether. In addition, prior to the 1949–50 season, the archaic field-goal was still a valid means of scoring points. Russell's benefit season at Featherstone Rovers, shared with Jack Blackburn, took place during the 1951–52 season. Search for "Russell" at rugbyleagueproject.org A FEATHERSTONE ROVERS BLOG: Jimmy Russell A FEATHERSTONE ROVERS BLOG: Wilf Evans, Joe Evans, Ray