Standard & Poor's

Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC is an American financial services company. It is a division of S&P Global that publishes financial research and analysis on stocks and commodities. S&P is known for its stock market indices such as the U. S.-based S&P 500, the Canadian S&P/TSX, the Australian S&P/ASX 200. S&P is considered one of the Big Three credit-rating agencies, which include Moody's Investors Service and Fitch Ratings, its head office is located on 55 Water Street in New York City. The company traces its history back to 1860, with the publication by Henry Varnum Poor of History of Railroads and Canals in the United States; this book compiled comprehensive information about the financial and operational state of U. S. railroad companies. In 1868, Henry Varnum Poor established H. V. and H. W. Poor Co. with his son, Henry William Poor, published two annually updated hardback guidebooks, Poor's Manual of the Railroads of the United States and Poor's Directory of Railway Officials. In 1906, Luther Lee Blake founded the Standard Statistics Bureau, with the view to providing financial information on non-railroad companies.

Instead of an annually published book, Standard Statistics would use 5-by-7-inch cards, allowing for more frequent updates. In 1941, Paul Talbot Babson purchased Poor's Publishing and merged it with Standard Statistics to become Standard & Poor's Corp. In 1966, the company was acquired by The McGraw-Hill Companies, extending McGraw-Hill into the field of financial information services; as a credit-rating agency, the company issues credit ratings for the debt of public and private companies, other public borrowers such as governments and governmental entities. It is one of several CRAs that have been designated a nationally recognized statistical rating organization by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission. S&P issues both long-term credit ratings. Below is a partial list; the company rates borrowers on a scale from AAA to D. Intermediate ratings are offered at each level between AA and CCC. For some borrowers, the company may offer guidance as to whether it is to be upgraded, downgraded or uncertain.

Investment Grade AAA: An obligor rated'AAA' has strong capacity to meet its financial commitments.'AAA' is the highest issuer credit rating assigned by Standard & Poor's. AA: An obligor rated'AA' has strong capacity to meet its financial commitments, it differs from the highest-rated obligors only to a small degree. Includes: AA+: equivalent to Moody's Aa1 AA: equivalent to Aa2 AA−: equivalent to Aa3 A: An obligor rated'A' has strong capacity to meet its financial commitments but is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligors in higher-rated categories. A+: equivalent to A1 A: equivalent to A2 BBB: An obligor rated'BBB' has adequate capacity to meet its financial commitments. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitments. Non-Investment Grade BB: An obligor rated'BB' is less vulnerable in the near term than other lower-rated obligors.

However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties and exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions, which could lead to the obligor's inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments. B: An obligor rated'B' is more vulnerable than the obligors rated'BB', but the obligor has the capacity to meet its financial commitments. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will impair the obligor's capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitments. CCC: An obligor rated'CCC' is vulnerable, is dependent upon favorable business and economic conditions to meet its financial commitments. CC: An obligor rated'CC' is highly vulnerable. C: vulnerable in bankruptcy or in arrears but still continuing to pay out on obligations R: An obligor rated'R' is under regulatory supervision owing to its financial condition. During the pendency of the regulatory supervision, the regulators may have the power to favor one class of obligations over others or pay some obligations and not others.

SD: has selectively defaulted on some obligations D: has defaulted on obligations and S&P believes that it will default on most or all obligations NR: not rated The company rates specific issues on a scale from A-1 to D. Within the A-1 category it can be designated with a plus sign; this indicates that the issuer's commitment to meet its obligation is strong. Country risk and currency of repayment of the obligor to meet the issue obligation are factored into the credit analysis and reflected in the issue rating. A-1: obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong A-2: is susceptible to adverse economic conditions however the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is satisfactory A-3: adverse economic conditions are to weaken the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation B: has significant speculative characteristics; the obligor has the capacity to meet its financial obligation but faces major ongoing uncertainties that could impact its financial commitment on the obligation C: vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation D: is in payment default.


1998 1. deild

In 1998, 1. Deild was the top tier league in Faroe Islands football; this article details the statistics of 1. Deild in the 1998 season, it was contested by 10 teams, Havnar Bóltfelag won the championship. The schedule consisted of a total of 18 games; each team played two games against every opponent in no particular order. One of the games was at home and one was away. Source: 20 goals Jákup á Borg 18 goals John Petersen Kurt Mørkøre Súni Fríði Barbá 17 goals Allan Mørkøre 12 goals Henning Jarnskor Sámal Joensen 10 goals Rógvi Jacobsen 9 goals Fróði Benjaminsen

1997 UCF Golden Knights football team

The 1997 UCF Golden Knights football season was the nineteenth overall season for the team, second season as a NCAA Division I-A Independent. It would be the final season for head coach Gene McDowell. McDowell's 1997 team finished with a 5–6 overall record, matching the record from the previous season. McDowell would resign at season's end in the wake of a cell phone fraud scandal, his tenure as head coach came to a close after compiling a 86–61 record. To-date, McDowell still has the most wins as head coach in program history. UCF started to gain notoriety in 1997, playing a higher-profile schedule, including several SEC teams; the Golden Knights lost in overtime to Ole Miss narrowly lost to South Carolina. In week three, UCF gained national attention by leading #6 Nebraska 17–14 at halftime. UCF, could not hold off the powerful Cornhuskers in the second half, fell by a final score of 38–24. Lauded by media as the "best 0–3 team in the nation," the Golden Knights won five of their last eight games, including a perfect 4–0 record at home.

At the conclusion of the season, quarterback Daunte Culpepper set fifteen school records, was named a finalist for the Davey O'Brien Award. He was named a semi-finalist for the Football News Offensive Player of the Year; the 1997 season was a break-out year for the junior quarterback, towards the end of the season, speculation began to swirl if Culpepper would forgo his senior year and enter the 1998 NFL draft. Culpepper elected to return to UCF for one final season. Hearing impaired tailback Dwight Collins received the Disney's Wide World of Sports Spirit Award, running backs coach Alan Gooch who worked with him, was named the AFCA Assistant Coach of the Year. After only two seasons in Division I-A, UCF was beginning to earn a reputation as a "scary" team on the road, their near-misses against high-profile teams was in contrast to their predicted status as a mid-major, non-conference school. It started prompting some reluctance among larger schools of scheduling the Knights in future seasons.

On October 28, 1997, Secret Service agents raided the UCF football team's locker room, as part of a federal cell phone fraud investigation. Former UCF player Patrick Brinson, a former AT&T employee, was arrested for rigging as many as 17 cell phones with non-billing numbers, subsequently selling them to fellow players, it was revealed that head coach Gene McDowell had been tipped off on the pending raid by David Smith of the Seminole County Sheriff's Office. McDowell was accused of lying to federal agents and warning the players of the upcoming raid, as well as encouraging players to lie and further engaging in a cover-up. McDowell resigned as head coach on January 20, 1998. McDowell would be sentenced to house arrest, community service, two years probation. Two players involved received probation, three others were sentenced to community service. Brinson, an accomplice were separately sentenced to probation and community service. Smith received a fine. In only their second season in Division I-A, the Golden Knights nearly pulled off a huge upset at Ole Miss.

Quarterback Daunte Culpepper threw two touchdowns passes in regulation, the game went into overtime tied 17–17. Ole Miss got the ball first in the overtime period. Stewart Patridge threw a 19-yard touchdown pass to Rufus French to take a 24–17 lead. UCF took over, Culpepper completed a 21-yard touchdown pass to Charles Lee; the Golden Knights took a timeout, contemplated whether to kick the extra point or go for the win. The team elected to try a two-point conversion. Culpepper was stopped just inches short of the goal line. Reaching forward to break the plane of the goal line, the ball came loose and the attempt failed. UCF lost by the score of the first of several near-misses against high-profile schools. Source: The Orlando Sentinel For the second time in two weeks, the Golden Knights nearly pulled off an upset of an SEC team. South Carolina took a 14–10 lead into halftime, but UCF exploded into the lead early in the third quarter. Quarterback Daunte Culpepper threw touchdown passes of 71 and 41 yards to Siaha Burley to take a 24–14 lead.

The Gamecocks rallied and took a 33–24 lead midway through the fourth quarter. Penalties and seven sacks haunted the Knights. Darryl Latimore blocked a South Carolina punt - his second punt block of the game - to give UCF good field position, which led to a Mike Huff touchdown with 2:39 remaining. With the score 33–31, UCF attempted an onside kick, but failed, South Carolina held on to win. Source: The Orlando Sentinel UCF traveled to Nebraska for what would become one of the most memorable games in the program's history; the Golden Knights entered the game as 43​1⁄2 point underdogs, were not expected to compete with the powerful Cornhuskers. Led by Hall of Fame head coach Tom Osborne, Nebraska had won two national championships and were contenders once again. Led by starting quarterback Scott Frost, the Cornhuskers were ranked #6 in both polls. Both teams punted on their first two possessions, with the Golden Knights defense holding the Cornhuskers at bay. Late in the first quarter, quarterback Daunte Culpepper completed a 44-yard pass to Mark Nonsant to the Nebraska 25 yard line.

Four plays Culpepper scored on a 10-yard touchdown run for a surprising 7–0 Knights lead. Nebraska tied the score at 7–7 early in the second quarter, but Fred Waczewski kicked a career-best 51-yard field goal to give UCF the lead again at 10–7. At one point in the second quarter, Frost was benched in favor of backup quarterback Frankie London. London c