Standard American is a bidding system for the game of bridge used in North America and elsewhere. Owing to the popularization of the game by Charles Goren in the 1940s and 1950s, its early versions were sometimes referred to as'Goren'. With the addition and evolution of various treatments and conventions, it is now more referred to as Standard American, it is a bidding system based on a strong notrump. One standardised version, SAYC, is used by casual partnerships and in online bridge; the purpose of bidding during the auction phase of each deal is to disclose information which one's partner may employ in order to arrive at an optimal contract while concurrently contending with the opponents' attempts to do likewise. A bidding system is a set of agreements about the meanings of the different bids that the players use; each bid provides information about the hand's high-card strength and suit distribution based on hand evaluation techniques. "Standard American" was the label given to the bridge bidding system developed by Charles Goren and his contemporaries in the 1940s.
This system employed the 1915 point-count method to evaluate the strength of a bridge hand. Most bids had specific requirements regarding hand strength and suit distribution. Tis point-count system became so popular that most bridge players and tournament players alike, used it. American bridge teams in the late 1930s and 1940s won world championships using Standard American. Modifications began to appear from the 1950s forward. Before the year 2000, new bidding systems evolved, including "2/1 Game Forcing" which are otherwise substantial departures from early Standard American methods. Most tournament pairs now assemble their own system from a variety of new treatments and conventions that have evolved; the nearest thing to a common system in tournament play is the "Standard American Yellow Card" promulgated by the American Contract Bridge League. SAYC is used in internet bridge play, but only in on-site tournament play; the essential common elements of modern Standard American systems are: A hand-strength requirement of at least 12-13 points to open 1-of-a-suit.
Five-card majors: opening a major suit promises at least a five-card holding in that suit. Weak two bids: Two diamond, heart or spade openers are made with a sound six-card suit in a hand without enough overall strength to open 1 of the suit. Strong two clubs: All unbalanced hands too strong to open at the one-level are opened with an artificial 2♣ call, as well as balanced hands stronger than 21 HCP. Pre-emptive opening bids: Suit openings above the two level are pre-emptive, promising a long and strong suit. Limit Raises: A jump-raise of the opener's suit by responder, in the absence of opponent interference, is invitational to game. In Goren's system, this was a strong game-forcing raise. Notrump openers show a balanced hand, with the following common point ranges: 1NT = 15-17 HCP 2NT = 20-21 HCP 3NT = 25-27 HCP Common notrump follow-up conventions include Stayman, Jacoby transfers and Gerber. Standard American as a base; some of the specific agreements in Standard American Yellow Card that elaborate on basic Standard American are: A 2♣ response to a 1 NT opening is specified as the "non-forcing" version of the Stayman convention.
A 2♠ response to a 1 NT opening forces the opener to bid 3♣, so that the responder may play there or bid 3♦, which the opener is expected to pass. Straight Blackwood is used, not the "Roman Key-Card" or other variation. In response to a 2♣ opening, the 2♦ response is the "waiting" version of that response. In response to a weak-two opening, RONF is used; the Jacoby 2NT is used to show a game-forcing raise of a major suit with four-card support. Negative doubles are used through the level of 2♠. Fourth suit forcing is used. Michaels cuebid and Unusual notrump are used. Conventions are specified as being "off" in response to a 1NT overcall, except that 2♣ is still Stayman. Glossary of contract bridge terms List of bridge books Standard American 21 by John Sheridan Thomas, ISBN 1-4120-2063-8 Standard Bidding with SAYC by Ned Downey & Ellen Pomer, ISBN 1-897106-03-3, eBook version Standard American Yellow Card by the American Contract Bridge League
Lennart "Lill-Järven" Larsson is a retired Swedish cross-country skier and coach. He competed in the 4 × 10 km relay at the 1956 and 1960 Olympics and won a bronze medal in 1956, finishing fourth in 1960. Larsson won the 4 × 10 km relay at the 1958 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Lahti. Larsson got his nickname Lill-Järven from his club SK Järven. Between 1949 and 1966 he won 74 races out of 394. During his last competitive season of 1965/66 he studied at Bosön Sport Folkhögskola, in 1971–73 received a diploma of physical education teacher from the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences in Stockholm, he coached skiers in Älvsbyn in 1973–78 and in the 1980s at Lycksele Ski School. He prepared the Swedish national skiing team for all Winter Olympics from 1968 to 1980 and for the World Championships of 1970, 1978, 1982. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 1 medal – 1 medal – Lennart Larsson at the International Ski Federation World Championship results
The 183rd Volksgrenadier Division was a German unit during World War II. In September 1944 the 183 Volksgrenadier Division was formed of what was left of the 183rd Infantry Division, complemented by non-fighting military personnel and civilians; the 183rd Infantry Division had come into existence on 15 September 1944, having been formed from the so-called Schatten-Division Döllersheim. At the end of November Grenadier-Regiment 330 was destroyed at Geilenkirchen during a massive allied offensive against the German positions between the rivers Wurm and Ruhr, between Geilenkirchen and Linnich. Aim of the Ninth US Army was the Rur crossing at Linnich; the offensive was launched on 16 November. The 330th Infantry Regiment of the 183rd Volksgrenadier Division was holding the front line at Floverich and Setterich, where the Americans attacked with the 2nd Armored Division. During the afternoon 330th Regiment was wiped out, more than five hundred "grenadiers" being captured from the regiment’s possible strength of one thousand men.
The total killed and wounded could not be estimated but it is believed that not over 250 men remained in the unit. The offensive would last until mid-December, which the Germans called "the third battle of Aachen". In this period the German units in the area counterattacked continuously. By 21 November, after five days of serious combat, the number of casualties within 183 Volksgrenadier Division had risen beyond an acceptable level, the division was unable to continue fighting as an independent unit. Remaining troops of the 183rd were divided among the other German divisions, the 9th Panzer Division and 15th Panzergrenadier Division that were present in the area east of Geilenkirchen; the 183rd Division included Grenadier Regiments 330, 343 and 351, each of two battalions, as well as Artillery Regiment 219, consisting of four battalions. The composition of the division was enhanced on 19 October 1944 by the absorption of the XVI Landwehr-Festungs-Battalion and Festungs-MG-Battalion 42. Part of the division was made up of ill-trained Austrians.
The 183 Volksgrenadier Division was under command of Generalmajor Wolfgang Lange since 15 September 1944. Lange commanded the 49 Infanterie Division during their actions in the battle of Aachen, he received the Knight's Cross on 14 May 1944. On 25 February 1945 command of the 183 Volksgrenadier Division was taken over by Generalmajor Hinrich Warrelmann. Tessin, Georg. Die Landstreitkräfte 131—200. Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen SS im Zweiten Weltkrieg 1939—1945. 7. Frankfurt/Main: E. S. Mittler. Pp. 219–220. New Plans To Drive to the Rhine
İzmir Adnan Menderes Airport is an international airport serving İzmir and most of the surrounding province in Turkey. It is named after former Turkish prime minister Adnan Menderes. İzmir's main airport is located 18 km southwest of the city center in the Gaziemir district on the way to Selçuk, Ephesus and Pamukkale. The new international terminal, designed by Yakup Hazan Architecture, opened in September 2006, with the new domestic terminal opening at around March 2014, it replaced Çiğli Air Base, now used only as a military base. In 2017, ADB served 12.8 million passengers. It has ranked 5th in terms of total passenger traffic, 4th in terms of domestic passenger traffic within the country. ADB has two runways, 16R/34L and 16L/34R; this has led to the use of runway 16L/34R as the sole runway, while runway 16R/34L is used as a parallel taxiway for the time being, although it is to be used if the main runway is undergoing maintenance or is unavailable for whatever reason. In efforts to expand the airport's facilities, existing entrance taxiways are in the process of being refurbished, along with the construction of a new parallel taxiway, entrance taxiways, aprons for passenger and cargo aircraft, as well as for de-icing.
These projects are expected to be completed by July 2019. The airport can be reached from Izmir via the 200, 202 or 204 ESHOT buses or by Havaş airport shuttle buses from the Turkish Airlines office. Izban commuter rail trains stop at the Airport Station about every 10 mins at peak hours and 20 mins off peak. Intercity trains operated by the Turkish State Railways stop at the Airport Station. There are about 14 daily trains in both directions. Northbound trains all go to Basmane Terminal in the city center, while southbound trains serve Ödemiş, Tire, Söke, Aydın, Nazilli Torbalı and stations in between. Media related to Adnan Menderes Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Accident history for ADB at Aviation Safety Network Current weather for LTBJ at NOAA/NWS
Lynn Wyatt is a Houston socialite and third-generation Texan. Her grandfather and great-uncle started the Sakowitz Department Store chain, her husband, Oscar Wyatt, is an energy executive, the founder of Houston's Coastal Corporation—now owned by El Paso Corporation —and current CEO of NuCoastal LLC. Lynn and Oscar Wyatt have four sons. During the height of the oil boom in the 1970s/early 1980s, the family mansion in Houston was known as the "Wyatt Hyatt" becoming a "home away from home" for people including Princess Margaret, Princess Grace of Monaco, Bill Blass, Joan Collins, Mick Jagger, King Hussein and Queen Noor of Jordan. Wyatt is the daughter of Bernard and Ann Baum Sakowitz, a prominent couple in Houston's Jewish circles, they were married in July 1933. Ann was once in negotiations with Louis B. Meyer for a movie acting contract, but abandoned it on Bernard's objection, they had a son, Robert T. Sakowitz, known as the merchant prince of Houston; the Sakowitz family owned the Sakowitz fashion specialty stores.
Oscar Wyatt and Robert Sakowitz did not get along. Wyatt married oil magnate Oscar Wyatt in 1963, they have four sons, Steven Bradford Wyatt, Douglas Bryan Wyatt, Oscar Sherman "Trey" Wyatt III, Bradford Allington Wyatt. Russian immigrants Tobias Sakowitz and brother Simon founded Sakowitz Bros. specialty department store in 1902, in Galveston, Texas. The business expanded in the first half of the twentieth century, their first Houston start started in 1908. The Sakowitz brothers became leaders in Houston's Jewish community, chairing the building campaign of Congregation Beth Israel, in 1922 and 1923. Both served terms as president of the congregation. In the early 1950s, Tobias was still at the helm, opened a number of major stores, including a 254,000 square foot, Alfred Charles Flynn-designed flagship store at the northeast corner of Main and Dallas Streets in downtown Houston. Nine other stores followed in Texas, eight others in Oklahoma and Arizona. In 1957, Tobias' son Bernard took over the chain.
Eighteen years Bernard's son Robert took over and Robert nominally ran the business together upon the death of their father in 1981, but Lynn claimed to be a passive partner. Robert's reign was short-lived. In 1985, the company filed for bankruptcy protection, it took on an Australian construction company, L. J. Hooker as a partner. After the 1987 stock market crash, sales plummeted at the stores, an Australian interest rate jump pushed Hooker into bankruptcy, too. Sakowitz, Inc. closed in 1990. In 1991, a family rift between the Wyatts and Sakowitzes over its disposition went to court. Lynn's children claimed Robert had pilfered the company assets, driving it out of business, but Robert countered that Lynn had been part of the business investment approval process, their mother, sided with Robert, was forced to give up a stipend provided by the business due to the lawsuit. The Sakowitzes won the suit. After a federal injunction blocking the retrial, the families settled out of court. Robert Sakowitz continued as a business magnate, starting consultants Hazak Corp. in 1991, specializing in business strategies and marketing.
He is the CEO In 1998, the downtown location was sold, turned into The Main Garage, a 490-space parking garage. Lynn Wyatt has appeared in American Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, Town & Country and W through the years, she is a friend and patron of couturiers Valentino, Karl Lagerfeld, Emanuel Ungaro, Bill Blass, Jean Paul Gaultier and others. She was inducted into the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1977. In 1982 the Government of France honored her with admission to the prestigious Order of Arts and Letters, rank of Chevalier, for her significant contribution to the enrichment of the French cultural inheritance. In 2007, the French government promoted her to the Order's rank of Officier, she received the Woodson Medal from the Houston Forum. Twice she was named Houston's Most Fascinating by the Texas Medical Center Library. In May 1980 Texas Governor William P. Clements commissioned her as Ambassador of Goodwill for the state. In 2000 she was recognized as "Socialite of the Century" by Texas Monthly magazine.
She was declared a Cadillac Texas Legend by KHOU/Channel 11, the CBS affiliate in Houston. To benefit the Red Cross and the American Hospital of Paris, she chaired the annual Bal de la Rose in Monaco, turning it into an entire weekend of festivities. Prince Rainier asked her to be a Founding Trustee of the Princess Grace Foundation U. S. A. and to chair the inaugural Gala in Washington, D. C. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, she was appointed to the Board of the U. S. Naval Academy by President Reagan, serving for eight years. An advisor for the Academy when it first considered accepting women, her duties included inspecting a number of the Navy's ships, she helped raise funds for the Naval Academy. Other charitable commitments include Houston Grand Opera (Recipient of the Masterson Award. A Special Advisor to Professor Luc Montagnier, Nobel laureate in Medicine and Physiology and President of the World Foundation for Medical Research and Prevention, Wyatt contributes to such charities, among others, as the Elton John AIDS Foundation, The Brilliant Lecture Seri
Tver Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Tver. From 1935 to 1990, it was known as Kalinin Oblast, named after Mikhail Kalinin. Population: 1,353,392. Tver Oblast is a region such as Seliger and Brosno. Much of the remaining area is occupied by the Valdai Hills, where the Volga, the Western Dvina, the Dnieper have their source. Tver Oblast is one of the tourist regions of Russia with a modern tourist infrastructure. There are many historic towns: Torzhok, Zubtsov, Vyshny Volochyok, Kalyazin; the oldest of these is Rzhev known for the Battles of Rzhev in World War II. Staritsa was the seat of the last appanage principality in Russia. Ostashkov is a major tourist center. Tver Oblast is located in the west of the middle part of the East European Plain, it stretches for 260 km from north to 450 km from west to east. The area borders Yaroslavl Oblast in the east, Vologda Oblast in the northeast, Novgorod Oblast in the northwest and north, Moscow in the southeast, Smolensk Oblast in the southwest, Pskov Oblast in the west.
The area of Tver Oblast is the 38th of 85 subjects. This is 0.49% of the territory of Russia. The largest area the size of the territory of the Central Federal District. Tver Oblast as a whole is characterized by flat terrain with alternating highlands. In the western part of the province, occupying about one-third of its area is Valdai Hills, with elevations of 200–300 m above sea level, it is surrounded by depressions, lowlands have a height of 100–150 m highest point of the area has a height of 347 m, is located on a hill Tsninsky. The low point - the extreme north-west area of the river's edge Kunya on the border with the Novgorod Oblast. Minerals discovered and developed in the Tver Oblast are deposits of ancient seas and swamps, a consequence of glaciers. Minerals of industrial importance are the seams of brown coal Moscow coal basin; the largest deposit is Bolshoy Nelidovskiy, which gave between 1996 about 21 million tons. Widespread powerful peat deposits totaling 15.4 billion m³. The estimated reserves of peat are 2,051 million tonnes, representing 7% of the stock of European Russia.
On an industrial scale mastered 43 peat deposits with a total area of about 300 hectares, the main exploited stocks are concentrated in five fields located in the central and southern parts of the oblast. From 1971 to 1999, has developed more than 44 million tons of peat. Distributed limestones. Dolomitic limestones are common along rivers Vazuza, Tsna, there are deposits of tile and pottery of clay and quartz sand, sapropel are numerous underground fresh water and mineral formations, open sources; the region is a watershed of the Caspian Baltic Sea. In the south, Belsky district has several tributaries of the upper reaches of the river Vop, the right tributary of the Dnieper River. Go to the Caspian Sea basin owns 70% of the region, the Baltic Sea - 29.7%. In the region of more than 800 rivers longer than 10 km total length of about 17,000 km; the main river - Volga. Its source is in Ostashkov area; the most important tributaries of the Volga: Mologa, Tvertsa. Other important rivers: the Western Dvina and its tributary Meza and Cna.
The climate is humid continental, transitional from continental Russia to the more humid north-western regions. The area lies in a zone of comfort for living and recreation climatic conditions. Average January temperatures range from −8 °C in west to −13 °C in northeast, July from +17 °C to +19 °C °C; the average annual rainfall ranges from 560 to 720 mm, the greatest amount of precipitation falls on the western slopes of the Valdai Hills. The snow cover starts at the mid-November, the period with snow cover lasts 130–150 days, snow depth is about 40–60 cm, with a maximum of 80 cm. There was a settlement on the point of land at the confluence of the Tmaka River and Volga rivers in the 9th and 10th centuries. A fortress was built on the site much during the fighting between the Rostov-Suzdal princes and Novgorod Republic. On 13 June 1996 Tver Oblast, alongside Leningrad Oblast and Saint Petersburg, signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy; this agreement would be abolished on 19 February 2002.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tver CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Tver Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Administration, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run