Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver. Chat messages are short in order to enable other participants to respond quickly. Thereby, a feeling similar to a spoken conversation is created, which distinguishes chatting from other text-based online communication forms such as Internet forums and email. Online chat may address point-to-point communications as well as multicast communications from one sender to many receivers and voice and video chat, or may be a feature of a web conferencing service. Online chat in a less stringent definition may be any direct text-based or video-based, one-on-one chat or one-to-many group chat, using tools such as instant messengers, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and MUDs; the expression online chat comes from the word chat which means "informal conversation". Online chat includes web-based applications that allow communication – directly addressed, but anonymous between users in a multi-user environment.
Web conferencing is a more specific online service, sold as a service, hosted on a web server controlled by the vendor. The first online chat system was called Talkomatic, created by Doug Brown and David R. Woolley in 1973 on the PLATO System at the University of Illinois, it offered several channels, each of which could accommodate up to five people, with messages appearing on all users' screens character-by-character as they were typed. Talkomatic was popular among PLATO users into the mid-1980s. In 2014, Brown and Woolley released a web-based version of Talkomatic; the first online system to use the actual command "chat" was created for The Source in 1979 by Tom Walker and Fritz Thane of Dialcom, Inc. The first transatlantic Internet chat took place between Oulu and Corvallis, Oregon in February 1989; the first dedicated online chat service, available to the public was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Ancestors include network chat software such as UNIX "talk" used in the 1970s.
The term chatiquette describes basic rules of online communication. These conventions or guidelines have been created to avoid misunderstandings and to simplify the communication between users. Chatiquette varies from community to community and describes basic courtesy; as an example, it is considered rude to write only in upper case, because it appears as if the user is shouting. The word "chatiquette" has been used in connection with various chat systems since 1995. Chatrooms can produce a strong sense of online identity leading to impression of subculture. Chats are valuable sources of various types of information, the automatic processing of, the object of chat/text mining technologies. Criticism of online chatting and text messaging include concern that they replace proper English with shorthand or with an completely new hybrid language. Writing is changing as it takes on some of the features of speech. Internet chat rooms and rapid real-time teleconferencing allow users to interact with whoever happens to coexist in cyberspace.
These virtual interactions involve us in'talking' more and more than before. With chatrooms replacing many face-to-face conversations, it is necessary to be able to have quick conversation as if the person were present, so many people learn to type as as they would speak; some critics are wary that this casual form of speech is being used so much that it will take over common grammar. With the increasing population of online chatrooms there has been a massive growth of new words created or slang words, many of them documented on the website Urban Dictionary. Sven Birkerts wrote: "as new electronic modes of communication provoke similar anxieties amongst critics who express concern that young people are at risk, endangered by a rising tide of information over which the traditional controls of print media and the guardians of knowledge have no control on it". In Guy Merchant's journal article Teenagers in Cyberspace: An Investigation of Language Use and Language Change in Internet Chatrooms; this new literacy develops skills that may well be important to the labor market but are viewed with suspicion in the media and by educationalists.
Merchant says "Younger people tend to be more adaptable than other sectors of society and, in general, quicker to adapt to new technology. To some extent they are the innovators, the forces of change in the new communication landscape." In this article he is saying that young people are adapting to what they were given. The following are common chat programs and protocols: Chat programs supporting multiple protocols: Web sites with browser-based chat services: Chat room Collaborative software Instant messaging Internet forum List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users Online dating service Real-time text Videotelephony Voice chat
Rupert Psmith is a recurring fictional character in several novels by British comic writer P. G. Wodehouse, being one of Wodehouse's best-loved characters; the P in his surname is silent and was added by himself, in order to distinguish him from other Smiths. A member of the Drones Club, this monocle-sporting Old Etonian is something of a dandy, a fluent and witty speaker, has a remarkable ability to pass through the most amazing adventures unruffled. Wodehouse said that he based Psmith on Rupert D'Oyly Carte, the son of the Gilbert and Sullivan impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte, as he put it "the only thing in my literary career, handed to me on a silver plate with watercress around it". Carte was a school acquaintance of a cousin of Wodehouse at Winchester College, according to an introduction to Leave It to Psmith. Rupert's daughter, Bridget D'Oyly Carte, believed that the Wykehamist schoolboy described to Wodehouse was not her father but his elder brother Lucas, at Winchester. Psmith appears in four novel-length works, all of which appeared as magazine serials before being published in book form.
All these works feature Mike Jackson, Psmith's solid, cricket-playing friend and sidekick, the original hero and central character of Mike and Psmith in the City, until eclipsed by Psmith's wit and force of personality. In his first appearance Psmith introduces himself as Rupert, he is referred to as Rupert twice in Psmith in the City. In Leave it to Psmith, however, he introduces himself as Ronald Eustace; this is because Leave it to Psmith contains another character named Rupert, the efficient Baxter. In the United States version of The Prince and Betty a reworking of Psmith, relocated to New York City and merged with some elements of the United Kingdom version The Prince and Betty, the Psmith character is replaced with one Rupert Smith, an American and alumnus of Harvard, who retains many of Psmith's characteristics, including the monocle. A Prince For Hire is another blending of these stories. Leave it to Psmith differs somewhat in style from its predecessors. While Mike is a school story along the lines of much of Wodehouse's early output, Psmith in the City and Psmith, Journalist are youthful adventures, Psmith's final appearance fits the pattern of Wodehouse's more mature period, a romantic comedy set in the idyllic, invariably imposter-ridden Blandings Castle, where Psmith fulfils the role of ingenious, unflappable fixer, a part taken elsewhere by the likes of Gally, Uncle Fred, or indeed the mighty Jeeves, shows a romantic streak of his own.
Though predating both Jeeves and Uncle Fred by some years, Psmith seems to be a combination of both characters, on the one hand imbued with Jeeves' precision of speech and concern for being well turned out, on the other hand replete with Uncle Fred's humorous self-expression and insouciant attitude, in which Jeeves would never indulge. We first meet Psmith shortly after he has been expelled from Eton, sent to Sedleigh, where he meets Mike, their long friendship begins; as tall and thin a boy as he will be a man, he is then immaculately dressed, sports his trademark monocle. The Psmith name, he admits from the start, is one he has adopted that morning, as there are "too many Smiths”, his father, Mr Smith, is a wealthy man, although a little eccentric, who lives at Corfby Hall, Lower Benford, in Shropshire, not far from Crofton where his friend Mike grew up. Not the most active of youths, Psmith spends much of his time at Sedleigh lounging in deck chairs, his most notable talent at this age, is a remarkable verbal dexterity, which he uses to confound and confuse boys and masters alike.
This skill comes in handy, to get himself and his friends out of difficulty. In such circumstances, he is known to move quickly too. While at Eton, he was a competent cricketer, on the verge of the first team - a slow left-arm bowler with a swerve, his enormous reach makes him handy with a bat when some fast hitting is required, such as in the match between Sedleigh and Wrykyn at the climax of Mike and Psmith. After Sedleigh, Psmith goes to work at the New Asiatic Bank, having annoyed his father's schoolfriend John Bickersdyke. After a time there, he persuades his father he should study to become a lawyer, goes to Cambridge, accompanied as by his friend and companion Mike. During the summer after their first year, Psmith travels to New York, accompanying Mike, on a cricketing tour with the M. C. C. There, he gets involved with the magazine Cosy Moments, befriending its temporary editor Billy Windsor and helping in its crusade against slum housing, which involves clashes with violent gangsters.
We discover in the last chapter, when the head editor returns, that Psmith has persuaded his father to let him invest some money he has inherited from an uncle and now, in fact, owns the magazine. After university, his father dies; as a result, Psmith must work for a time for an uncle in the fish business, something which repels him. He leaves the job shortly before meeting and falling for Eve Halliday, whom he follows
Stephen John Fry is an English comedian and writer. He and Hugh Laurie are the comic double act Fry and Laurie, who starred in A Bit of Fry & Laurie and Jeeves and Wooster. Fry's acting roles include a Golden Globe Award–nominated lead performance in the film Wilde, Melchett in the BBC television series Blackadder, the title character in the television series Kingdom, a recurring guest role as Dr Gordon Wyatt on the crime series Bones, as Gordon Deitrich in the dystopian thriller V for Vendetta, he has written and presented several documentary series, including the Emmy Award–winning Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive, which saw him explore his bipolar disorder, the travel series Stephen Fry in America. He was the long-time host of the BBC television quiz show QI, with his tenure lasting from 2003 to 2016. Besides working in television, Fry has contributed columns and articles for newspapers and magazines and written four novels and three volumes of autobiography, Moab Is My Washpot, The Fry Chronicles, More Fool Me.
He appears on BBC Radio 4, starring in the comedy series Absolute Power, being a frequent guest on panel games such as Just a Minute, acting as chairman during one series of I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue, where he was one of a trio of possible hosts who were tried out to succeed the late Humphrey Lyttelton, Jack Dee getting the post permanently. Fry is known for his voice-overs, reading all seven of the Harry Potter novels for the UK audiobook recordings, narrating the LittleBigPlanet and Birds of Steel series of video games, as well as an animated series of explanations of the laws of cricket, a series of animations about Humanism for Humanists UK, he has filmed commercials, including an advertisement where he explains the essence of British culture to foreigners arriving at London's Heathrow Airport. Fry was born in Hampstead, London on 24 August 1957 to Marianne Eve Fry and Alan John Fry, a British physicist and inventor. Fry's father is English, his paternal grandmother had roots in Kent and Cheshire.
The Fry family originates at Shillingstone and Blandford. Fry's mother is Jewish, his maternal grandparents and Rosa Neumann, were Hungarian Jews, who emigrated from Šurany to Britain in 1927. Rosa Neumann's parents, who lived in Vienna, were sent to a concentration camp in Riga, where they were murdered by the Nazis, his mother's aunt and cousins were sent to Stutthof and never seen again. Fry grew up in the village of Booton near Reepham, having moved from Chesham, Buckinghamshire, at an early age, he has an elder brother, a younger sister, Joanna. Fry attended Cawston Primary School in Cawston, before going on to Stouts Hill Preparatory School in Uley, Gloucestershire, at the age of seven, to Uppingham School, where he joined Fircroft house, was described as a "near-asthmatic genius", he took and passed his O-Levels in the summer of 1972 at the age of 14 except Physics but expelled from Uppingham half a term into the sixth form, dismissed from Paston School, a grant-maintained grammar school who refused to let him progress to study A-Levels.
Fry moved to Norfolk College of Arts and Technology where, after 2 years in the sixth form studying English and History of Art failed his A-Levels, not turning up for his English and French papers. Over the summer, Fry absconded with a credit card stolen from a family friend, he had taken a coat when leaving a pub, planning to spend the night sleeping rough, but had discovered the card in a pocket. He, as a result, spent three months in Pucklechurch Prison on remand. While Fry was in Pucklechurch, his mother had cut out the crossword from every copy of The Times since he had been away, something which Fry said was "a wonderful act of kindness". Fry stated that these crosswords were the only thing that got him through the ordeal. Following his release, he resumed his education at City College Norwich, promising administrators that he would study rigorously and sit the Cambridge entrance exams. In the summer of 1977, he passed 2 A-Levels in English and French with grades of A and B, he received a grade A in an alternative O-Level in the Study of Art and scored a distinction in a S-Level paper in English.
Having passed the entrance exams in autumn 1977, Fry was offered a scholarship to Queens' College, Cambridge for matriculation in the autumn of 1978 teaching at Cundall Manor, a North Yorkshire preparatory school before taking his place. At Cambridge, Fry joined the Footlights, appeared on University Challenge, read for a degree in English graduating with upper second-class honours. Fry met his future comedy collaborator Hugh Laurie at Cambridge and starred alongside him in the Footlights. Fry's career in television began with the 1982 broadcasting of The Cellar Tapes, the 1981 Cambridge Footlights Revue, written by Fry, Hugh Laurie, Emma Thompson and Tony Slattery; the revue caught the attention of Granada Television, keen to replicate the success of the BBC's Not the Nine O'Clock News, hired Fry and Thompson to star alongside Ben Elton in There's Nothing to Worry About!. A second series, retitled Alfresco, was broadcast in 1983, a third in 1984. In 1983, the BBC offered Fry and Thompson their own show, which became The Crystal Cube, a mixture of science fiction and mockumentary, canc
P. G. Wodehouse
Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse was an English author and one of the most read humorists of the 20th century. Born in Guildford, the third son of a British magistrate based in Hong Kong, Wodehouse spent happy teenage years at Dulwich College, to which he remained devoted all his life. After leaving school, he was employed by a bank but disliked the work and turned to writing in his spare time, his early novels were school stories, but he switched to comic fiction, creating several regular characters who became familiar to the public over the years. They include the jolly gentleman of his sagacious valet Jeeves. Most of Wodehouse's fiction is set in England, although he spent much of his life in the US and used New York and Hollywood as settings for some of his novels and short stories, he wrote a series of Broadway musical comedies during and after the First World War, together with Guy Bolton and Jerome Kern, that played an important part in the development of the American musical. He began the 1930s writing for MGM in Hollywood.
In a 1931 interview, his naïve revelations of incompetence and extravagance in the studios caused a furore. In the same decade, his literary career reached a new peak. In 1934 Wodehouse moved to France for tax reasons. After his release he made six broadcasts from German radio in Berlin to the US, which had not yet entered the war; the talks were comic and apolitical, but his broadcasting over enemy radio prompted anger and strident controversy in Britain, a threat of prosecution. Wodehouse never returned to England. From 1947 until his death he lived in the US, taking dual British-American citizenship in 1955, he was a prolific writer throughout his life, publishing more than ninety books, forty plays, two hundred short stories and other writings between 1902 and 1974. He died at the age of 93, in Southampton, New York. Wodehouse worked extensively on his books, sometimes having two or more in preparation simultaneously, he would take up to two years to write a scenario of about thirty thousand words.
After the scenario was complete he would write the story. Early in his career he would produce a novel in about three months, but he slowed in old age to around six months, he used a mixture of Edwardian slang, quotations from and allusions to numerous poets, several literary techniques to produce a prose style, compared to comic poetry and musical comedy. Some critics of Wodehouse have considered his work flippant, but among his fans are former British prime ministers and many of his fellow writers. Wodehouse was born in Guildford, the third son of Henry Ernest Wodehouse, a magistrate resident in the British colony of Hong Kong, his wife, daughter of the Rev John Bathurst Deane; the Wodehouses, who traced their ancestry back to the 13th century, belonged to a cadet branch of the family of the earls of Kimberley. Eleanor Wodehouse was of ancient aristocratic ancestry, she was visiting her sister in Guildford. The boy was baptised at the Church of St Nicolas and was named after his godfather, Pelham von Donop.
Wodehouse wrote in 1957, "If you ask me to tell you frankly if I like the name Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, I must confess that I do not.... I was named after a godfather, not a thing to show for it but a small silver mug which I lost in 1897." The first name was elided to "Plum", the name by which Wodehouse became known to family and friends. Mother and son sailed for Hong Kong, where for his first two years Wodehouse was raised by a Chinese amah, alongside his elder brothers Peveril and Armine; when he was two, the brothers were brought to England, where they were placed under the care of an English nanny in a house adjoining that of Eleanor's father and mother. The boys' parents became virtual strangers to their sons; such an arrangement was normal for middle-class families based in the colonies. The lack of parental contact, the harsh regime of some of those in loco parentis, left permanent emotional scars on many children from similar backgrounds, including the writers Thackeray, Saki and Walpole.
Wodehouse was more fortunate. His recollection was that "it went like a breeze from start to finish, with everybody I met understanding me perfectly"; the biographer Robert McCrum suggests that nonetheless Wodehouse's isolation from his parents left a psychological mark, causing him to avoid emotional engagement both in life and in his works. Another biographer, Frances Donaldson, writes, "Deprived so early, not of maternal love, but of home life and a stable background, Wodehouse consoled himself from the youngest age in an imaginary world of his own."In 1886 the brothers were sent to a dame-school in Croydon, where they spent three years. Peveril was found to have a "weak chest". In 1891 Wodehouse went on to Malvern House Preparatory School in Kent, which concentrated on preparing its pupils for entry to the Royal Navy, his father had planned a naval career for him, but the boy's eyesight was found to be too poor for it. He was unimpressed by the school's
American and British English spelling differences
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once used in Britain and some spellings seen as "British" were once used in the United States. A "British standard" began to emerge following the 1755 publication of Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, an "American standard" started following the work of Noah Webster and in particular his An American Dictionary of the English Language, first published in 1828. Webster's efforts at spelling reform were somewhat effective in his native country, resulting in certain well-known patterns of spelling differences between the American and British varieties of English. However, English-language spelling reform has been adopted otherwise, so modern English orthography varies somewhat between countries and is far from phonemic in any country. In the early 18th century, English spelling was inconsistent.
These differences became noticeable after the publishing of influential dictionaries. Today's British English spellings follow Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, while many American English spellings follow Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language. Webster was a proponent of English spelling reform for reasons both nationalistic. In A Companion to the American Revolution, John Algeo notes: "it is assumed that characteristically American spellings were invented by Noah Webster, he was influential in popularizing certain spellings in America, but he did not originate them. Rather he chose existing options such as center and check for the simplicity, analogy or etymology". William Shakespeare's first folios, for example, used spellings like center and color as much as centre and colour. Webster did attempt to introduce some reformed spellings, as did the Simplified Spelling Board in the early 20th century, but most were not adopted. In Britain, the influence of those who preferred the Norman spellings of words proved to be decisive.
Spelling adjustments in the United Kingdom had little effect on today's American spellings and vice versa. For the most part, the spelling systems of most Commonwealth countries and Ireland resemble the British system. In Canada, the spelling system can be said to follow both British and American forms, Canadians are somewhat more tolerant of foreign spellings when compared with other English-speaking nationalities. Australian spelling has strayed from British spelling, with some American spellings incorporated as standard. New Zealand spelling is identical to British spelling, except in the word fiord. There is an increasing use of macrons in words that originated in Māori and an unambiguous preference for -ise endings. Most words ending in an unstressed -our in British English end in -or in American English. Wherever the vowel is unreduced in pronunciation, e.g. contour, velour and troubadour the spelling is consistent everywhere. Most words of this kind came from Latin, they were first adopted into English from early Old French, the ending was spelled -or or -ur.
After the Norman conquest of England, the ending became -our to match the Old French spelling. The -our ending was not only used in new English borrowings, but was applied to the earlier borrowings that had used -or. However, -or was still sometimes found, the first three folios of Shakespeare's plays used both spellings before they were standardised to -our in the Fourth Folio of 1685. After the Renaissance, new borrowings from Latin were taken up with their original -or ending and many words once ending in -our went back to -or. Many words of the -our/or group do not have a Latin counterpart; some 16th- and early 17th-century British scholars indeed insisted that -or be used for words from Latin and -our for French loans. Webster's 1828 dictionary had only -or and is given much of the credit for the adoption of this form in the United States. By contrast, Johnson's 1755 dictionary used -our for all words still so spelled in Britain, but for words where the u has since been dropped: ambassadour, governour, inferiour, superiour.
Johnson, unlike Webster, was not an advocate of spelling reform, but chose the spelling best derived, as he saw it, from among the variations in his sources. He preferred French over Latin spellings because, as he put it, "the French supplied us". English speakers who moved to America took these preferences with them, H. L. Mencken notes that "honor appears in the 1776 Declaration of Independence, but it seems to have got there rather by accident than by design. In Jefferson's original draft it is spelled "honour". In Britain, examples of color, behavior and neighbor appear in Old Bailey court records from the 17th and 18th centuries, whereas there are thousands of examples of their -our counterparts. One notable exception is honor. Honor and honour were frequent in Br
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining preferred or "correct" use of language. These rules may address such linguistic aspects as spelling, vocabulary and semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism, such normative practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, lack communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value, they may include judgments on proper and politically correct language use. Linguistic prescriptivism may aim to establish a standard language, teach what a particular society perceives as a correct form, or advise on effective and stylistically felicitous communication. If usage preferences are conservative, prescription might appear resistant to language change. Prescriptive approaches to language are contrasted with the descriptive approach, employed in academic linguistics, which observes and records how language is used; the basis of linguistic research is text analysis and field study, both of which are descriptive activities.
Description, may include researchers' observations of their own language usage. In the Eastern European linguistic tradition, the discipline dealing with standard language cultivation and prescription is known as "language culture" or "speech culture". Despite being apparent opposites and description are considered complementary, as comprehensive descriptive accounts must take existing speaker preferences into account, an understanding of how language is used is necessary for prescription to be effective. Since the mid-20th century some dictionaries and style guides, which are prescriptive works by nature, have integrated descriptive material and approaches. Examples of guides updated to add more descriptive and evidence-based material include Webster's Third New International Dictionary and the third edition Garner's Modern English Usage in English, or the Nouveau Petit Robert in French. A descriptive approach can be useful when approaching topics of ongoing conflict between authorities, or in different dialects, styles, or registers.
Other guides, such as The Chicago Manual of Style, are designed to impose a single style and thus remain prescriptive. Some authors define "prescriptivism" as the concept where a certain language variety is promoted as linguistically superior to others, thus recognizing the standard language ideology as a constitutive element of prescriptivism or identifying prescriptivism with this system of views. Others, use this term in relation to any attempts to recommend or mandate a particular way of language usage, however, implying that these practices must involve propagating the standard language ideology. According to another understanding, the prescriptive attitude is an approach to norm-formulating and codification that involves imposing arbitrary rulings upon a speech community, as opposed to more liberal approaches that draw from descriptive surveys. Mate Kapović makes a distinction between "prescription" and "prescriptivism", defining the former as "process of codification of a certain variety of language for some sort of official use", the latter as "an unscientific tendency to mystify linguistic prescription".
Linguistic prescription is categorized as the final stage in a language standardization process. It is politically motivated, it can be included in the cultivation of a culture. As culture is seen to be a major force in the development of standard language, multilingual countries promote standardization and advocate adherence to prescriptive norms; the chief aim of linguistic prescription is to specify preferred language forms in a way, taught and learned. Prescription may apply to most aspects of language, including spelling, vocabulary and semantics. Prescription is useful for facilitating inter-regional communication, allowing speakers of divergent dialects to understand a standardized idiom used in broadcasting, for example, more than each other's dialects. While such a lingua franca may evolve by itself, the desire to formally codify and promote it is widespread in most parts of the world. Writers or communicators adhere to prescriptive rules to make their communication clearer and more understood.
Stability of a language over time helps one to understand writings from the past. Foreign language instruction is considered a form of prescription, since it involves instructing learners how to speak, based on usage documentation laid down by others. Linguistic prescription may be used to advance a social or political ideology. During the second half of the 20th century, efforts driven by various advocacy groups had considerable influence on language use under the broad banner of "political correctness", to promote special rules for anti-sexist, anti-racist, or generically anti-discriminatory language. George Orwell criticized the use of euphemisms and convoluted phrasing as a means of hiding insincerity in Politics and the English Language, his fictional "Newspeak" is a parody of ideologically motivated linguistic prescriptivism. Prescription presupposes authorities whose judgments may come to be followed by many other speakers and writers. For English, these authorities tend to be books. H. W. Fowler's Mo