Standby power called vampire power, vampire draw, phantom load, ghost load or leaking electricity, refers to the way electric power is consumed by electronic and electrical appliances while they are switched off or in standby mode. This only occurs because some devices claimed to be "switched off" on the electronic interface, but are in a different state from switching off at the plug, or disconnecting from the power point, which can solve the problem of standby power completely. In fact, switching off at the power point is effective enough, there is no need to disconnect all devices from the power point; some such devices offer remote controls and digital clock features to the user, while other devices, such as power adapters for disconnected electronic devices, consume power without offering any features. All of the above examples, such as the remote control, digital clock functions and—in the case of adapters, no-load power—are switched off just by switching off at the power point. However, for some devices with built-in internal battery, such as a phone, the standby functions can be stopped by removing the battery instead.
In the past, standby power was a non-issue for users, electricity providers and government regulators. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, awareness of the issue grew and it became an important consideration for all parties. Up to the middle of the decade, standby power was several watts or tens of watts per appliance. By 2010, regulations were in place in most developed countries restricting standby power of devices sold to one watt. Standby power is electrical power used by appliances and equipment while switched off or not performing their primary function waiting to be activated by a remote controller; that power is consumed by internal or external power supplies, remote control receivers, text or light displays, circuits energized when the device is plugged in when switched off. While this definition is inadequate for technical purposes, there is as yet no formal definition; the term is used more loosely for any device that continuously must use a small amount of power when not active.
Timers, powered thermostats, the like are other examples. An uninterruptible power supply could be considered to be wasting standby power only when the computer it protects is off. Disconnecting standby power proper is at worst inconvenient. Standby power is consumed for a purpose, although in the past there was little effort to minimize power used, it may enable a device to switch on quickly without delays that might otherwise occur. This was used, for example, with CRT television receivers, where a small current was passed through the tube heater, avoiding a delay of many seconds in starting up, it may be used to power a remote control receiver, so that when infrared or radio-frequency signals are sent by a remote control device, the equipment is able to respond by changing from standby to on mode. Standby power may be used to power a display, operate a clock, etc. without switching on the equipment to full power. Battery-powered equipment connected to mains electricity can be kept charged although switched on.
The disadvantages of standby power relate to the energy used. As standby power is reduced, the disadvantages become less. Older devices used ten watts or more. Devices on standby consume electricity; the total energy consumed may be of the order of 10% of the electrical energy used by a typical household, as discussed below. The cost of standby energy is estimated—each watt of continuous standby consumes about 9 kWh of electricity per year, the price per kWh is shown on electricity bills. Electricity is often generated by combustion of hydrocarbons or other substances, which releases substantial amounts of carbon dioxide, implicated in global warming, other pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, which produces acid rain. Standby power is a significant contributor to electricity usage; as electricity consumption increases, more power stations are needed, with associated capital and running costs. Standby devices mean that heat is generated, which can mean extra cooling is needed, in the wrong circumstances can be a fire risk.
Standby devices are not always silent. Standby means electric power is present in the device, increasing electrical interference, making the risks associated with electricity a 24-hour issue. Standby devices can be remotely controlled, sometimes by unauthorised or irresponsible agents, or by accident. Standby power makes up a portion of homes' miscellaneous electric load, which includes small appliances, security systems, other small power draws; the U. S. Department of Energy said in 2008: "Many appliances continue to draw a small amount of power when they are switched off; these "phantom" loads occur in most appliances that use electricity, such as VCRs, stereos and kitchen appliances. This can be avoided
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la