The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches, although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Modern vernacular usage has extended the term stained glass to include domestic leadlight. As a material stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together by strips of lead. Painted details and yellow stain are used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass. Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and the engineering skills to assemble the piece.
A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light. For this reason stained glass windows have been described as illuminated wall decorations, Stained glass is still popular today, but often referred to as art glass. It is prevalent in luxury homes, commercial buildings, and places of worship and companies are contracted to create beautiful art glass ranging from domes, backsplashes, etc. During the late Medieval period, glass factories were set up there was a ready supply of silica. Silica requires very high heat to become molten, something not all glass factories were able to achieve, such materials as potash and lead can be added to lower the melting temperature.
Other substances, such as lime, are added to rebuild the weakened network, Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, much modern red glass is produced using copper, which is less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was a precursor of the modern state of Switzerland. It was a confederation of independent small states which formed during the 14th century. From a nucleus in what is now Central Switzerland, the confederacy expanded to include the cities of Zurich and this formed a rare union of rural and urban communes, all of which enjoyed imperial immediacy in the Holy Roman Empire. Its success resulted in the addition of more confederates, increasing the number of cantons to thirteen by 1513, the confederacy pledged neutrality in 1515 and 1647, although many Swiss served privately as mercenaries in the Italian Wars and during the Early Modern period. After the Swabian War of 1499 the confederacy was a de facto independent state throughout the modern period. The Swiss Confederacy fell to invasion by the French Revolutionary Army in 1798, the adjective “old” was introduced after the Napoleonic era with Ancien Régime, retronyms distinguishing the pre-Napoleonic from the restored confederation.
During its existence the confederacy was known as Eidgenossenschaft or Eydtgnoschafft, in reference to treaties among cantons, territories of the confederacy came to be known collectively as Schweiz or Schweizerland, with the English Switzerland beginning during the mid-16th century. From that time the Confederacy was seen as a single state, the foundation of the Confederacy is marked by the Rütlischwur or the 1315 Pact of Brunnen. Since 1889, the Federal Charter of 1291 among the communes of Uri, Schwyz. The initial pact was augmented by pacts with the cities of Lucerne, Zürich, in several battles with Habsburg armies, the Swiss were victorious, they conquered the rural areas of Glarus and Zug, which became members of the confederacy. From 1353 to 1481, the federation of eight cantons—known in German as the Acht Orte —consolidated its position, the members enlarged their territory at the expense of local counts—primarily by buying judicial rights, but sometimes by force. The Eidgenossenschaft, as a whole, expanded through military conquest, the Aargau was conquered in 1415, in both cases, the Swiss profited from weakness in the Habsburg dukes.
In the south, Uri led a military territorial expansion that would by 1515 lead to the conquest of the Ticino, none of these territories became members of the confederacy, they had the status of condominiums. At this time, the eight cantons gradually increased their influence on neighbouring cities, individual cantons concluded pacts with Fribourg, Schaffhausen, the abbot and the city of St. Gallen, Rottweil and others. These allies became closely associated with the confederacy, but were not accepted as full members, the Burgundy Wars prompted a further enlargement of the confederacy and Solothurn were accepted in 1481. In the Swabian War against Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, the Swiss were victorious, the associated cities of Basel and Schaffhausen joined the confederacy as a result of that conflict, and Appenzell followed suit in 1513 as the thirteenth member. The federation of thirteen cantons constituted the Old Swiss Confederacy until its demise in 1798, the expansion of the confederacy was stopped by the Swiss defeat in the 1515 Battle of Marignano.
Only Berne and Fribourg were still able to conquer the Vaud in 1536, the Reformation in Switzerland led to doctrinal division amongst the cantons
The Burgundian Wars were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the years the Duke of Burgundy. The dukes of Burgundy had succeeded, over a period of about 100 years and their possessions included, besides their original territories of the Franche-Comté and the Duchy of Burgundy, the economically strong regions of Flanders and Brabant as well as Luxembourg. The dukes of Burgundy generally pursued an aggressive expansionist politics, especially in Alsace and Lorraine, having already been in conflict with the French king, Charles advances along the Rhine brought him in conflict with the Habsburgs and especially emperor Frederick III. Charles expansionist strategy suffered a first setback in his politics when his attack on the Archbishopric of Cologne failed after the unsuccessful Siege of Neuss, in a second phase, Sigismund sought to achieve a peace agreement with the Swiss confederates, which eventually was concluded in Konstanz in 1474.
He wanted to buy back his Alsace possessions from Charles, which the latter refused, the next year, Bernese forces conquered and ravaged Vaud, which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, who was allied with Charles the Bold. Having rallied his army, he was dealt a blow by the confederates in the Battle of Morat. Charles the Bold raised a new army, but fell in the Battle of Nancy in 1477, with the death of Charles the Bold, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. The duchy proper reverted to the crown of France under king Louis XI, the country cantons resented this and the Dreizehn Orte disputes almost led to war. They were settled by the Stanser Verkommnis of 1481, battles of the Burgundian Wars Cologne Diocesan Feud Vaughan, Charles the Bold, The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy, Longman Group, ISBN 0-582-50251-9. Franche-Comté in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Baden, sometimes unofficially, to distinguish it from other Badens, called Baden bei Zürich or Baden im Aargau, is a municipality in Switzerland. It is the seat of the district of Baden in the canton of Aargau, located 25 km northwest of Zürich in the Limmat Valley mainly on the western side of the Limmat, its mineral hot springs have been famed since at least the Roman era. Its official language is German, but the spoken language is the local Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Its population in 2010 was over 18,000, downtown Baden is located on the left bank of the river Limmat in its eponymous valley. Its area is divided into the Kappelerhof, Meierhof, in 1962, Baden absorbed the adjacent village of Dättwil. On the right bank of the river is the village of Ennetbaden and these communities, as of 2006, had an area of 13.2 km2. Of that,9. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, the hot sulfur springs, which given Baden its name, lie north of downtown and number about 20. They vary in temperature from 98 to 126 °F.
Baden is first attested in Roman sources as Aquae Helveticae. Hippocrates had counseled against the use of water from springs, but by the time of Vitruvius, Pliny. In addition to their use, the Romans revered natural springs for recreational. Tacitus mentions the town obliquely, describing it as a built up into a semblance of a town. Much used for its healthful waters and this Roman vicus was to the north of the Baden gorge on the Haselfeld, founded to support the legionary camp at Vindonissa. There was a complex on the left bank of the Limmat fed by a system of springs with 47 °C water. The main axis of the vicus was the Vindonissa road, which ran parallel to the slope and it was flanked by porticos, beyond which lay commercial and residential buildings. The center of the settlement had some wealthy villa-like structures, the resort and commercial districts all grew to a respectable size over the first half of the 1st century. In AD69, the 21st Legion burned the town amid the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors and its wooden buildings destroyed, the town was rebuilt in stone.
The town shrank some after the closing of the Vinonissa camp in AD101, reginuss pottery workshop and Gemellianuss bronze works flourished during the second half of the 2nd century. Around the middle of the 3rd century, the settlement was threatened by multiple Alemanni invasions, the baths were frequented again by the time of Charlemagne
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
The Diet was a meeting of delegates from the individual cantons. Though it was the most wide-reaching political institution of the Old Swiss Confederacy, its power was very limited, organised as a Diet since 1500, the seat of the Swiss legislature was called the Federal Diet. This was not the source of authority in the loosely joined country. Though a representative body, it differed from modern constitutional assemblies as its member were drawn almost exclusively from the picked interest of the landed, the presiding canton of the Federal Diet was known as the Vorort and was usually the canton which had called the Diet. The Diet was held in varying locations, with Zurich becoming increasingly important following the 16th century, the last three presiding cantons before the French invasion were Bern, and Zürich. Following the invasion and victory of the French Republican forces, the Old Swiss Confederation was disbanded and replaced by the Helvetic Republic and this was a more centralized form of government than the previous and it was widely opposed as revoking the traditional liberties of local powers.
Opposition was particularly fierce among the Catholic population, for whom the French imposed government was associated with the radical anti-clericalism of the French Revolution and this opposition eventually lead to the Stecklikrieg, which pitted a Swiss rebellion against the forces of the Helvetic Republic. The opposition was successful in forcing the Helvetic Republic to accepting the French negotiated Acts of Mediation in 1803 and these acts secured the federal, decentralized nature of Switzerland. Switzerland was organized according to the terms of the Acts of Mediation under the defeat of the French Empire in 1815. The Long Diet had been in session for over a year until 1815, the Swiss government maintained it federal structure, though no longer under the forms of the Acts of Mediation and coordinated by a re-named Federal Assembly. This is the system which would govern the Swiss for over three decades, seeing the addition of new, French-speaking cantons, the system showed its weaknesses in 1845, when a league of Catholic cantons joined together in opposition to Federal authority and formed the Sonderbund League in 1845.
This was the beginnings of a war, which lasted through 1848. Following their victory, a new constitution was adopted and the Federal Assembly of Switzerland was created in its modern form, Bern was chosen as the federal city, or Bundesstadt, in a deliberate avoidance of the term capital city, or Hauptstadt. In its modern form, the Federal Assembly is a representative body which elects its members according to the votes of the citizens of each canton. List of Presidents of the Swiss Diet Landammann Landsgemeinde Tagsatzung in German, Vorort in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Flags and arms of cantons of Switzerland
Each of the 26 modern cantons of Switzerland has an official flag and a coat of arms. The history of development of these designs spans the 13th to the 20th centuries and Obwalden form traditional subdivisions of Unterwalden. Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, as well as Appenzell Inner- and Ausserrhoden, are half cantons, resulting from the division of Basel and Appenzell, with the exception of Lucerne and Ticino, the cantonal flags are simply transposed versions of the cantonal coats of arms. In case of Lucerne and Ticino, whose flags consist of fields of different colours divided per fess, the coat of arms of Schwyz has the cross moved from the canton to the sinister canton with respect to the flag. Of the 22 cantonal coats of arms as they stood with the creation of Switzerland as a state in 1848. Vaud has a bicolor, but an added inscription, gallen stars for Valais and Aargau, the latter with additional wavy lines representing rivers Distinctively, Swiss cantons use square flags. See the List below for the histories of the individual designs, the coats of arms of the Thirteen Cantons are based on medieval signs, originating as war flags and as emblems used on seals.
For war flags, a distinction was made between Banner and Fähnlein, the former was the war flag used only in the case of a full levy of cantonal troops for a major operation. The latter was a flag used for minor military expeditions. The Banner was considered a sacred possession, usually kept in a church, losing the banner to an enemy force was a great shame and invited mockery from other cantons. Papal legate Matthias Schiner in addition gave to the Swiss cantons and their associates a total of 42 costly silk banners with augmentations, some of these banners survive, of the cantonal ones notably those of Zürich and Solothurn. The fashion of arranging cantonal insignia in shields as coats of arms arises in the late 15th century, the Tagsatzung in Baden was presented with stained glass representations of all cantons in ca. In these designs, two cantonal escutcheons were shown side by side, below a shield bearing the Imperial Eagle, based on these, there arose a tradition of representing cantonal arms in stained glass, alive throughout the early modern period and continued in the modern state.
Flag of Switzerland Cantons of Switzerland Walter Angst, A Panoply of Colours, The Cantonal Banners of Switzerland and the Swiss National Flag,1992
Switzerland as a federal state
The constitution represents the first time that the Swiss were governed by a strong central government instead of being simply a collection of independent cantons bound by treaties. In 1847, the period of Swiss history known as Restoration ended with the out of a war between the conservative Roman Catholic and the liberal Protestant cantons. The conflict between the Catholic and Protestant cantons had existed since the Reformation, and in the 19th century the Protestant population now had a majority, when Lucerne, in retaliation, recalled the Jesuits the same year, groups of armed radicals invaded the canton. This caused a revolt, mostly because rural cantons were strongholds of ultramontanism, the confederate army was raised against the members of the Sonderbund. The army was composed of soldiers of all the states except Neuchâtel. Ticino, while a Catholic canton, did not join the Sonderbund, the war lasted for less than a month, causing fewer than 100 casualties. Apart from small riots, this was the last armed conflict on Swiss territory, at the end of the Sonderbund War, the Diet began to debate a new federal constitution drawn up by Johann Conrad Kern of Thurgau and Henri Druey of Vaud.
In the summer of 1848 this constitution was accepted by fifteen, the new constitution was declared on 12 September 1848. The new constitution created, for the first time, Swiss citizenship in addition to cantonal citizenship, a federal central government was set up to which the cantons gave up certain parts of their sovereign rights, retaining the rest. The Federal Council or executive consisted of seven elected by the Federal Assembly. In the 1848 Constitution, the entire Federal Council was granted the supreme executive, each member of the Federal Council heads one of seven executive departments. The chairman of the Council holds the title of President of the Swiss Confederation for a one-year term, the judiciary was made up of eleven members elected for three years by the Federal Assembly. The Bundesgericht was chiefly confined to cases in which the Confederation was a party. All constitutional questions are however reserved for the Federal Assembly, a Federal university and a polytechnic school were to be founded.
All military capitulations were forbidden in the future, all cantons were required to treat Swiss citizens who belonged to one of the Christian confessions like their own citizens. Previously, citizens of one canton regarded citizens of the others as the citizens of foreign countries, all Christians were guaranteed the exercise of their religion but the Jesuits and similar religious orders were not to be received in any canton. German and Italian were recognized as national languages, although there was now a fully organized central government, Switzerland was a very decentralized federation. Most authority remained with the cantons, including all powers not explicitly granted to the federal government, one of the first acts of the Federal Assembly was to exercise the power given them of determining the home of the Federal authorities, and on 28 November 1848 Bern was chosen
Swiss illustrated chronicles
Several illustrated chronicles were created in the Old Swiss Confederacy in the 15th and 16th centuries. 1423 Konrad Justingers chronicle the original was lost, but a copy of the text survives in Jena, 1480s Spiezer Schilling, a shorter one-volume edition 1484 Zürcher Schilling 1515 Luzerner Schilling by Diebold Schilling the Younger, nephew of Diebold the Elders. 1515 Chronicle of Wernher Schodeler of Bremgarten,1529 -1546 Berner Chronik of Valerius Anshelm. 1587 Wickiana by Johann Jakob Wick, a compilation of various manuscripts and prints, 1626/1631 Schweitzer-Chronic by Michael Stettler of Bern. Baumann, Carl G. Über die Entstehung der ältesten Schweizer Bilderchroniken,1971