Standing army

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army. It is composed of full-time soldiers (who may be either career soldiers or conscripts) and is not disbanded during times of peace. It differs from army reserves, who are enrolled for the long term, but activated only during wars or natural disasters, and temporary armies, which are raised from the civilian population only during a war or threat of war and disbanded once the war or threat is over. The term dates from approximately 1600, although the phenomenon it describes is much older.[1]

History[edit]

Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria (ruled 745–727 BC) created Assyria's first standing army.[2][3]

The first known standing armies in Europe were in ancient Greece. The male citizen body of ancient Sparta functioned as a standing army, unlike all other city-states (Poleis), whose armies were citizen militias. The existence of an enslaved population of Helots liberated the Spartiates from the need to work for a living, enabling them to focus their time and energy on martial training. Philip II of Macedon instituted the first professional army, with soldiers and cavalrymen paid for their service year-round, rather than a militia of men who mostly farmed the land for subsistence and occasionally mustered for campaigns.[4]

The first modern standing armies in Europe were the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, formed in the fourteenth century.[5][6]

Great Britain[edit]

Prior to Oliver Cromwell, England didn’t have a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. Oliver Cromwell changed all that with his New Model Army of 50,000 men, that proved vastly more effective than untrained militia, and enable him to exert a powerful control at the local level over all of England. At the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Parliament paid off Cromwell's army and disbanded it. For many decades the Cromwellian model was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.[7] The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. However, King Charles II managed to pull together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his regular budget. This became the foundation of the permanent British Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7500 soldiers and marching regiments, and 1400 men permanently stationed in garrisons. A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to increase the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678, when England played a role in the closing stage of the Franco-Dutch War. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, and then to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was very nervous, and reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. The Bill of Rights 1689 reserved authority over a standing army to Parliament, not the king[8][9]

In his influential work The Wealth of Nations (1776), economist Adam Smith comments that standing armies are a sign of modernizing society as modern warfare requires the increased skill and discipline of regularly trained standing armies.[10]

United States[edit]

In the British Thirteen Colonies in America, there was the same Whiggish distrust of a standing army not under civilian control.[11] The U.S. Constitution of 1787 in (Article 1, Section 8) reserves financial control to Congress, instead of to the President. The President, however, retains command of the armed forces when they are raised, as commander-in-chief.[12] In the course of this constitutional debate, Elbridge Gerry arguing against a large standing army, compared it, mischievously, to a standing penis: "An excellent assurance of domestic tranquility, but a dangerous temptation to foreign adventure."[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Standing army, Dictionary.com; accessed 2012.03.22.
  2. ^ Howard, Michael (2002). Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel. McFarland. p. 36. ISBN 978-0786468034. Retrieved 21 March 2016. 
  3. ^ Schwartzwald, Jack (2014). The Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome: A Brief History. McFarland. p. 24. ISBN 978-0786478064. 
  4. ^ Roy, Kaushik (2015-06-03). Warfare in Pre-British India – 1500BCE to 1740CE. Routledge. ISBN 9781317586913. 
  5. ^ Lord Kinross (1977). Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 52. ISBN 0-688-08093-6.
  6. ^ Goodwin, Jason (1998). Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. New York: H. Holt, 59,179-181. ISBN 0-8050-4081-1.
  7. ^ Lord Macaulay The History of England from the accession of James the Second (C.H. Firth ed. 1913), 1:136-38.
  8. ^ David G. Chandler, ed., The Oxford history of the British army (2003), pp. 46-57.
  9. ^ Correlli Barnett, Britain and her army, 1509-1970: a military, political and social survey (1970) pp 90-98, 110–25.
  10. ^ Smith, Adam. (1776) An Inquiry into the Nature And Causes of the Wealth of Nations Book 5. Chapter 1. Part 1.[1]
  11. ^ Hamner, Christopher. "American Resistance to a Standing Army". Teachinghistory.org. Accessed 30 June 2011.
  12. ^ Wills, Garry (1999). A Necessary Evil, A History of American Distrust of Government New York, N.Y.; Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84489-3
  13. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 456. ISBN 0-684-80761-0.