National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Cairo Rail Bridge
Cairo Rail Bridge is the name of two bridges crossing the Ohio River near Cairo, Illinois. The original was an 1889 George S. Morison through truss and deck truss bridge replaced by the current bridge in 1952; the second and current bridge is a through truss bridge that reused many of the original bridge piers. As of 2018, trains like the City of New Orleans travel over the Ohio River supported by the same piers whose construction began in 1887. On July 1, 1887, construction began on the first caisson for the foundations of the bridge piers; the first caisson descended into the riverbed at a rate of around 4 inches per day. Two men died and several more were injured sealing the first caisson at a depth of 77 feet. Despite increased precautions following the deaths, a total of five men died of decompression sickness during construction. February 19, 1889, the last pier was completed; the first train crossed the bridge from Illinois to Kentucky on October 29, 1889. Work continued until it was turned over to the railroad on March 1, 1890.
Total cost of the structure exceeded $2.6 million, with nearly $1.2 million for the substructure alone. In order to comply with regulations meant to allow steam boat travel on the Ohio, the bridge was required to be 53 feet above the river's high-water mark; this resulted in the structure extending nearly 250 feet from the bottom of the deepest foundation to the top of the highest iron work. The bridge and superstructure weighed 194.6 million pounds, excluding the approaches. On October 31, 1895, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake on the New Madrid Seismic Zone with an epicenter at Charleston, cracked a pier on the bridge. The quake is the biggest quake since the 1812 New Madrid earthquake which at 8.3 was the biggest recorded quake in the contiguous United States. Cairo bridge's two 518.5 ft main spans were the longest pin-connected Whipple truss spans built. Pier IX, the largest, alone weighed 11,000 short tons. At the time, the bridge was the largest and most expensive undertaken in the United States.
At 10,580 feet, it was the longest metallic structure in the world. Its total length was 20,461 ft including wooden approach trestles, its construction completed the first rail link between Chicago and New Orleans and revolutionized north-south rail travel along the Mississippi River. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Illinois Cook, Richard J.. The Beauty of Railroad Bridges in North America -- Now. San Marino, California: Golden West Books. ISBN 0-87095-097-5. Cairo Ohio River Bridge at Bridges & Tunnels Historic American Engineering Record No. IL-36, "Cairo Bridge" HAER No. NE-2, "Nebraska City Bridge" includes information about the Cairo Rail Bridge Illinois Central Railroad Bridge at Illinois Historic Sites Inventory Historic Bridges of the United States Historic Bridges of the United States
Newport Southbank Bridge
The Newport Southbank Bridge, popularly known as the Purple People Bridge, stretches 2,670 feet over the Ohio River, connecting Newport, Kentucky to downtown Cincinnati, Ohio. The original bridge first opened on April 1, 1872, under the name Newport and Cincinnati Bridge, was Cincinnati's first railroad bridge spanning the Ohio River; the bridge piers were built with stone from Ohio. The present bridge, built on the original piers, opened in 1897 to streetcar and automobile traffic. In 1904, the bridge was renamed the L&N Railroad Bridge, this name remained until the bridge was rehabilitated and re-opened as a pedestrian-only bridge in May 2003; the bridge was closed to railroad traffic in 1987, closed to automobile traffic in October 2001 after years of neglect and deterioration. On April 17, 2001, the L&N Railroad Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In late 2001, the city of Newport and Southbank Partners, an economic development group, used $4 million in state funds to restore the bridge.
When it was time to decide on what color to paint it, a variety of options were explored. Computer-generated images of the bridge were shown to participants in more than a dozen focus groups, all of whom picked the color purple as a top choice, it was soon coined the "Purple People Bridge" by area residents. The bridge provides convenient access to the "Newport on the Levee" development in Newport, Kentucky, as well as Downtown Cincinnati. In 2006, it became possible for the public to cross the bridge via its superstructure wearing appropriate safety gear. There are similar bridge climb experiences in New Zealand. Citing lack of funds and low attendance, the Purple People Bridge Climb closed on May 23, 2007; the bridge remains open to bicycle traffic. List of crossings of the Ohio River Official website Early bridge photograph circa 1910 from the Cincinnati Memory project Louisville & Nashville RR Bridge at Cincinnati Transit Meet the Purple People Bridge at the Cincinnati Enquirer Newport Southbank Bridge at Bridges & Tunnels Purple People Bridge at Nikibone L&N Cincinnati-Newport Railroad Bridge at BridgeHunter
Louisville, Henderson, and St. Louis Railroad Depot
The Louisville, St. Louis Railroad Depot in Fordsville, Kentucky was built in 1916, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. It is located on the southeastern side of Walnut St. 200 feet north of its junction with Kentucky Route 54. It "is a long, concrete-block, tile-roofed building which relates most in style to the Prairie School."
Big Four Bridge
The Big Four Bridge is a six-span former railroad truss bridge that crosses the Ohio River, connecting Louisville and Jeffersonville, Indiana. It was completed in 1895, updated in 1929; the largest single span is 547 feet, with the entire bridge spanning 2,525 feet. It took its name from the defunct Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, nicknamed the "Big Four Railroad", it is now a converted bicycle bridge from Louisville into Jeffersonville, Indiana. Access to the Big Four Bridge is limited to bicycle use. A pedestrian ramp on the Kentucky side was opened on February 7, 2013; the original approaches that carried rail traffic onto the main spans were first removed in 1969, earning the Big Four Bridge the nickname "Bridge That Goes Nowhere". The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge downstream, which carries U. S. 31 across the river, was the only bridge allowing bicyclists and pedestrians to travel between Louisville and the neighboring Indiana cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville. In February 2011, Kentucky and Indiana announced that the two states, along with the City of Jeffersonville, would allocate $22 million in funding to complete the Big Four Bridge project, creating a pedestrian and bicycle path to link Louisville and Jeffersonville.
Indiana would spend up to $8 million and the City of Jeffersonville would provide $2 million in matching dollars to pay for construction of a ramp to the Big Four Bridge. Kentucky pledged $12 million to replace the deck on the bridge and connect it to the spiral ramp, completed in Waterfront Park. On February 7, 2013, the Louisville ramp was opened for bicycle traffic. Planned for August 2013, the Jeffersonville ramp opened on May 20, 2014; the Big Four Bridge is a six-span bridge, totaling 2,525 ft long, with a clearance of 53 ft. The northernmost span is a riveted, 8-panel Parker through truss; the next three spans are 547 ft long, are riveted, 16-panel Pennsylvania through trusses. The two southern spans are riveted, 10-panel Parker through trusses, it carried a single track of railway. The Big Four Bridge was first conceived in Jeffersonville in 1885 by various city interests; the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was formed in 1887 to construct the Big Four Bridge, after a charter by the state of Indiana.
The riverboat industry, a big economic factor in Jeffersonville, had requested that the bridge be built further upstream from the Falls of the Ohio, but the United States Army Corps of Engineers approved the building site after the vocal protestations. Construction began on October 10, 1888; the Big Four Bridge would be the only Louisville bridge with serious accidents during its building. The first twelve died while working on a pier foundation when a caisson, supposed to hold back the river water flooded, drowning the workers. Another four men died a few months after that when a wooden beam broke while working on a different pier caisson; the Big Four Bridge had one of the biggest bridge disasters in the United States, occurring on December 15, 1893 when a construction crane was dislodged by a severe wind, causing the falsework support of a truss to be damaged and the truss—with forty-one workers on it—to fall into the Ohio River. Twenty of the workers survived, but twenty-one died; the accident cost more lives, as a ferry crossing the Ohio River just missed being hit by the truss.
Hours a span next to the damaged span fell into the river, but was unoccupied at the time, causing no injuries. As a result, falsework was longitudely reinforced to prevent further occurrences, to prevent strong winds from causing similar damage by using special bracing on the bottom frame of the truss. A new rule was enforced: "never trust a bolted joint any longer than is necessary to put a riveted one in place"; the Big Four Bridge was completed in September 1895. Due to the various accidents, the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was financially strapped after building the bridge, in 1895 sold it to the Indianapolis-based Cleveland, Chicago and St. Louis Railway known as the Big Four Railroad; this gave the railway its first entry into the Louisville market, although the railroad would have used the bridge if they had not bought it, as they desired access to Louisville. One effect of the opening of the Big Four Bridge was increased transportation of freight by rail decreasing the number of packet boats that at one time crossed the Ohio River by the dozens.
On February 19, 1904, a Baltimore and Ohio train accidentally crossed the Big Four Bridge, due to engineer Dick Foreman falling asleep and going the wrong way at Otisco, Indiana. The fireman did not pay attention, it was the conductor that noticed the error midway across the Big Four Bridge. The wayward train had to back up all the way back to Otisco. On September 12, 1905, the first interurban crossed the Big Four Bridge. In January 1918, two interurbans collided on the Big Four Bridge, killing three and injuring twenty aboard. Due to the increasing weight of the rail traffic, contracts were finalized in June 1928 to build a bigger Big Four Bridge, which opened on June 25, 1929; the new Big Four Bridge was built on the piers of the old bridge, a "novel building process", as it sped up the time necessary to build the new bridge. The old piers would still be used, but the falsework was removed. During construction, the Big Four Bridge's usual rail traffic was routed over the Kentucky & Indiana Terminal
Louisville and Nashville Combine Car Number 665
The Louisville and Nashville Combine Car Number 665 known as the "Jim Crow Car", is a historic railcar on the National Register of Historic Places at the Kentucky Railway Museum at New Haven, Kentucky, in southernmost Nelson County, Kentucky. The Combine car was built at the American Car and Foundry Company located in Jeffersonville, Indiana in 1913, it was number 865 numbered 665. It served at least three different branches of the L&N: Maysville Branch, Glasgow Branch, Springfield Branch, its nickname, the "Jim Crow Car", relates to the Jim Crow laws of pre-1965 United States, which allowed for separate facilities for blacks under the policy of separate but equal. A law passed on May 24, 1892, called the Separate Coach Law declared that railroad passenger cars must be segregated, it is the only preserved two wood side steel car. The car weighs 104,300 pounds, it has a central baggage section separating two passenger sections. Each passenger section has a bathroom. Waste from the bathrooms was deposited directly on the rails.
In 1919 the L&N was forced by law to have a separate coach for blacks. In 1958 the car was given to the Kentucky Railway Museum by the Nashville Railroad; when The General of Great Locomotive Chase fame was undergoing restoration in 1962 by the L&N, the Combine Car was hooked up to The General to test how well the engine was repaired. During the trips the Combine Car held several different artifacts related to the Chase for its passengers to admire. Herr, Kincaid A.. The Louisville & Nashville Railroad, 1850-1963. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2184-1. Parrent, Jonathan V.. Louisville and Nashville Combine Car Number 665 NRHP Nomination Form. Murray State University
Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad
The Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad is a defunct shortline railroad based in Kentucky. Despite its name, it had no connections with Ohio; the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad ran between Frankfort and Paris, with a major stop in Georgetown, Kentucky. It was at Georgetown; the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad was known as the Kentucky Midland Railway. Construction of the route began at Frankfort in the early months of 1888, reached Georgetown in June 1889, Paris in January 1890; some of the route laid upon the Buffalo Trace. The total cost of the construction was over $500,000, its name changed to the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad in 1899. There were efforts to extend the route to Mount Sterling and Alton, but it never happened; the total length of the railroad was 40.8 miles. When it started, the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad had "serious financial reverses" before it laid its first piece of rail, it went into receivership in 1894. But by 1899 it was touted as a major factor in the stimulation of Frankfort's 1890s growth.
The route between Georgetown and Paris helped distribute the local fine Bourbon whiskey to markets. On October 28, 1909, the F&C was purchased by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, but the Kentucky Railroad Commission objected and the sale was annulled on April 22, 1912. In January 1927 the railroad was sold in public auction, with its owners a collection of citizens of Frankfort and Lexington, Kentucky. On December 31, 1952, the Frankfort and Cincinnati Railroad abandoned passenger service, as the advent of wide-scale automobile usage made passenger trains unprofitable; the Cardinal broke an axle on Christmas Eve, for the last week of passenger service the F&C Superintendent A. E. Parker used his own sedan to transport what few passengers the F&C still had from Frankfort to Paris. In 1961 the company was purchased by Pinsly Railroad Company group of shortlines; the line between Georgetown and Paris was abandoned by the F&C in 1967. The Interstate Commerce Commission allowed the F&C to abandon more of the line, reducing the line to Frankfort to Elsinore, Kentucky.
The railroad had shrunk so much that by 1984, it did not own any freight cars, maintained only one interchange at Frankfort with the L&N. A trestle bridge was damaged by a derailment in 1985, the F&C could not afford to fix the bridge, leaving the F&C to close. By 1987 all the rails of the F&C were removed; the Cardinal was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. It is at the Kentucky Railway Museum in New Haven, Kentucky. Kleber, John E. ed.. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1772-0. Parrent, Jonathan V.. Frankfort and Cincinnati Model 55 Rail Car NRHP Nomination Form. Murray State University. Sulzer, Elmer Griffith. Ghost Railroads of Kentucky. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33484-5