Thorney Rural District
Thorney was a rural district in England from 1894 to 1974, situated to the east of Peterborough. It was created under the Local Government Act 1894, covering the parishes of Stanground, it was considered part of the administrative county of the Isle of Ely. In 1904 Stanground was split, with the new parish Stanground North remaining in the district, while the remainder, Stanground South, became part of the Old Fletton urban district in Huntingdonshire. In 1965, when Isle of Ely was merged with Cambridge to form Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely, Thorney RD was instead transferred to the administrative county of Huntingdon and Peterborough. In 1974, the district was abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, its area going to form part of the Peterborough district, in the new non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire. Https://web.archive.org/web/20071001021144/http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10108378
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
River Great Ouse
The River Great Ouse is a river in the United Kingdom, the longest of several British rivers called "Ouse". From Syresham in central England, the Great Ouse flows into East Anglia before entering the Wash, a bay of the North Sea. With a course of 143 miles flowing north and east, it is the one of the longest rivers in the United Kingdom; the Great Ouse has been important for commercial navigation, for draining the low-lying region through which it flows. Its lower course passes through drained wetlands and fens and has been extensively modified, or channelised, to relieve flooding and provide a better route for barge traffic. Though the unmodified river changed course after floods, it now enters the Wash after passing through the port of King's Lynn, south of its earliest-recorded route to the sea; the name Ouse is from the Celtic or pre-Celtic *Udso-s, means "water" or slow flowing river. Thus the name is a pleonasm; the lower reaches of the Great Ouse are known as "Old West River" and "the Ely Ouse", but all the river is referred to as the Ouse in informal usage.
The river has several sources close to the village of Syresham in Northamptonshire. It flows through Brackley through Oxfordshire and into Buckinghamshire, through Buckingham, Milton Keynes at Stony Stratford, Newport Pagnell and Kempston in Bedfordshire, the current head of navigation. Passing through Bedford, into Cambridgeshire through St Neots, Huntingdon, Hemingford Grey and St Ives, it reaches Earith. Here, the river enters a short tidal section before branching in two; the artificial straight Old Bedford River and New Bedford River, which remain tidal, provide a direct link north-east towards the lower river at Denver in Norfolk. The old course of the river passes through Hermitage Lock into the Old West River. After joining the Cam near Little Thetford, north of Cambridge, the course passes the cathedral city of Ely and Littleport, to reach the Denver sluice. Below Denver the river passes Downham Market to enter The Wash at King's Lynn; the river is navigable from the Wash to Kempston Mill, just beyond Bedford, a distance of 72 miles.
This section includes 17 locks which are maintained by the Environment Agency, the navigation authority and who attempt to attract more boaters to the river. It has a catchment area of 3,240 square miles and a mean flow of 15.7 m3/s as measured at Denver Sluice. Its course has been modified several times, with the first recorded being in 1236, as a result of flooding. During the 1600s, the Old Bedford and New Bedford Rivers were built to provide a quicker route for the water to reach the sea. In the 20th century, construction of the Cut-Off Channel and the Great Ouse Relief Channel have further altered water flows in the region, helped to reduce flooding. Improvements to assist navigation began with the construction of sluices and locks. Bedford could be reached by river from 1689. A major feature was the sluice at Denver, which failed in 1713, but was rebuilt by 1750 after the problem of flooding returned. Kings Lynn, at the mouth of the river, developed as a port, with civil engineering input from many of the great engineers of the time.
With the coming of the railways the state of the river declined so that it was unsuitable either for navigation or for drainage. The navigation was declared to be derelict in the 1870s. A repeated problem was the number of authorities responsible for different aspects of the river; the Drainage Board created in 1918 had no powers to address navigation issues, there were six bodies responsible for the river below Denver in 1913. When the Great Ouse Catchment Board was created under the powers of the Land Drainage Act in 1930, effective action could at last be taken. There was significant sugar beet traffic on the river between 1925 and 1959, with the last known commercial traffic occurring in 1974. Leisure boating had been popular since 1904, the post-war period saw the creation of the Great Ouse Restoration Society in 1951, who campaigned for complete renovation of the river, it was re-opened to Bedford in 1978, is now managed by the Environment Agency. The Ouse Washes are an internationally important area for wildlife.
Sandwiched between the Old Bedford and New Bedford rivers, they consist of washland, used as pasture during the summer but which floods in the winter, are the largest area of such land in the United Kingdom. They act as breeding grounds for lapwings and snipe in spring, are home to varieties of ducks and swans during the winter months; the river has been important both for drainage and for navigation for centuries, these dual roles have not always been complementary. The course of the river has changed significantly. In prehistory, it flowed from Huntingdon straight to Wisbech and into the sea. In several sequences, the lower reaches of the river silted, in times of inland flood, the waters would breach neighbouring watersheds and new courses would develop – in a progressively eastwards fashion. In the Dark Ages, it turned to the west at Littleport, between its present junctions with the River Little Ouse and the River Lark, made its way via Welney and Outwell, to flow into The Wash near Wisbech.
At that time it was known as the Wellstream or Old Wellenhee, parts of that course are marked by the Old Croft River and the border between Cambridgeshire and Norfolk. After major inland flood events in the early 13th century it breached anot
Thorney is a village about 8 miles east of Peterborough city centre, on the A47 in England. In the Isle of Ely, considered part of Cambridgeshire, Thorney was transferred to the short-lived county of Huntingdon and Peterborough in 1965 and became part of the Peterborough district in 1974, on the merger into Cambridgeshire. Thorney began as a Saxon settlement in about 500 AD; the existence of Thorney Abbey made the settlement an important ecclesiastical centre, until 2014 was the most northerly point of the Anglican Diocese of Ely. By 2007 the previous Thorney Abbey church, now the Church of St Mary and St Botolph, was part of the Deanery and Diocese of Peterborough. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries the estate became crown property and it was granted to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford in 1550. At this time only a few hundred acres of the land was cultivatable. In the 1630s Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford spent a reputed £100,000 draining the fens, bringing all of the estate and parish of nearly 18,000 acres into agricultural use.
A community of Walloon Protestant refugees from areas of Flanders that are now northern France, was settled here in the 17th century with their own church and minister, employing the ruins of the abbey for services in their own language. The Walloons had expertise in fenland drainage; the Russell family's rents from the Thorney estate increased from £300 in 1629 to £10,000 by the early 19th century. The family, whose main seat was at Woburn Abbey in Bedfordshire resided at the manor house in Thorney village, known as Abbey House; the estate was sold to the tenants in 1910. Much of the village was built at the command of the Dukes of Bedford, who wished to have a healthy place in which their estate workers could live. In the mid-19th century many buildings were added to the designs of the architect S. S. Teulon, himself a descendant of Huguenots; the 7th Duke of Bedford's model agricultural village included a modern water supply and sewerage scheme. The neo-Jacobean Tankyard building, now known as Bedford Hall, included a 96 ft high water tower, erected in 1855, that supplied fresh water to the village.
The building houses part of the Greater Fens Museum Partnership. The windmill on the outskirts contains six floors. During the war four German prisoners of war used it as a base during the day while working the land. Thorney railway station was on the old Peterborough to Wisbech line, with an additional station in the parish at Wryde; the station and the line were closed in the early 1960s. Little evidence to suggest a rail link now remains, apart from level crossing gates at the side of Station Road; the A47 bypass opened in Winter 2005. On 28 August 1976, a United States Air Force Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, 67-0006, on a flight from McGuire Air Force Base to RAF Mildenhall crashed near the village; the accident killed all crew on board. A memorial is maintained for the lost aircrew. In 2010, planning permission was given for two wind turbines on land at French Farm, near French Drove in Thorney parish. In 2011 REG WindPower announced plans to install a further four wind turbines at the French Farm site.
As of 2013, other windfarms are proposed at Willow Hall, Nuts Grove and Wryde Croft. The village's local school is the Duke of Bedford Primary School, next to Wisbech Road. There is a specialist school at Park House for children with special educational needs; the village has a magazine called the Thorney Post, printed three times a year. The magazine has its own website. Alec Goodman – Grand National winning jockey 1852 on Miss Mowbray & 1866 on Salamander, lived here, farming at Bar Pasture Farm, English Drove Farm and Willow Hall Farm, although born in Upwell on 30 July 1822. First farmer on Thorney Estate to introduce steam ploughing in 1865. Moved to Nottinghamshire in 1879. Retired to Leamington Spa in 1884. Ron Jacobs – Rugby Union – played for England and Northampton. President of the RFU 1984 who took England on tour to South Africa farmed in Thorney. Thorney RUFC play at Ron Jacobs Field. Pam Sly – 1,000 Guineas winning trainer in 2006 with Speciosa, the first British female trainer to win a Classic race.
Vernon Watson aka "Nosmo King" – buried in Thorney Cemetery, father of Jack Watson. Jack Watson – actor who starred in Coronation Street, This Sporting Life and The Wild Geese was born in Thorney in 1915. Thorney Abbey Thorney Rural District Thorney railway station Media related to Thorney, Cambridgeshire at Wikimedia Commons Parish history at British History Online Thorney Parish Council Thorney Heritage Museum Thorney Abbey Fields Community dig
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Isle of Ely
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England. Between 1889 and 1965, it formed an administrative county, its name is said to mean "island of eels", a reference to the creatures that were caught in the local rivers for food. This etymology was first recorded by the Venerable Bede; until the 17th century, the area was an island surrounded by a large area of fenland, a type of swamp. It was coveted as an area difficult to penetrate, was controlled in the early medieval period by the Gyrwas, an Anglo-Saxon tribe. Upon their marriage in 652, Tondbert, a prince of the Gyrwas, presented Æthelthryth, the daughter of King Anna of the East Angles, with the Isle of Ely, she afterwards founded a monastery at Ely, destroyed by Viking raiders in 870, but was rebuilt and became a famous Abbey and Shrine. The Fens were drained; this began in 1626 using a network of canals designed by Dutch experts. Many Fenlanders were opposed to the draining as it deprived some of them of their traditional livelihood.
The area's natural defences led to it playing a role in the military history of England. Following the Norman Conquest, the Isle became a refuge for Anglo-Saxon forces under Earl Morcar, Bishop Aethelwine of Durham and Hereward the Wake in 1071; the area was taken by William the Conqueror only after a prolonged struggle. In 1139 civil war broke out between the forces of the Empress Matilda. Bishop Nigel of Ely, a supporter of Matilda, unsuccessfully tried to hold the Isle. In 1143 Geoffrey de Mandeville rebelled against Stephen, made his base in the Isle. Geoffrey was mortally wounded at Burwell in 1144. In 1216, during the First Barons' War, the Isle was unsuccessfully defended against the army of King John. Ely took part in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. During the English Civil War the Isle of Ely was held for the parliamentarians. Troops from the garrison at Wisbech Castle were used in the siege of Crowland and parts of the Fens were flooded to prevent Royalist forces entering Norfolk from Lincolnshire.
The Horseshoe sluice on the river at Wisbech and the nearby castle and town defences were upgraded and cannon brought from Ely. From 1109 until 1837, the Isle was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Ely who appointed a Chief Justice of Ely and exercised temporal powers within the Liberty of Ely; this temporal jurisdiction originated in a charter granted by King Edgar in 970, confirmed by Edward the Confessor and Henry I to the abbot of Ely. The latter monarch established Ely as the seat of a bishop in 1109, creating the Isle of Ely a county palatine under the bishop. An act of parliament in 1535/6 ended the palatine status of the Isle, with all justices of the peace to be appointed by letters patent issued under the great seal and warrants to be issued in the king's name. However, the bishop retained exclusive jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters, was custos rotulorum. A chief bailiff was appointed for life by the bishop, performed the functions of high sheriff within the liberty, who headed the government of the city of Ely.
In July 1643 Oliver Cromwell was made governor of the isle. The Liberty of Ely Act 1837 ended the bishop's secular powers in the Isle; the area was declared a division of Cambridgeshire, with the right to appoint justices revested in the crown. Following the 1837 Act the Isle maintained separate Quarter Sessions, formed its own constabulary. Under the Local Government Bill of 1888, which proposed the introduction of elected county councils, the Isle was to form part of Cambridgeshire. Following the intervention of the local member of parliament, Charles Selwyn, the Isle of Ely was constituted a separate administrative county in 1889; the county was small in terms of both area and population, its abolition was proposed by the Local Government Boundary Commission in 1947. The report of the LGBC was not acted upon, the administrative county survived until 1965. Following the recommendations of the Local Government Commission for England, on 1 April 1965 the bulk of the area was merged to form Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, with the Thorney Rural District going to Huntingdon and Peterborough.
In 1894 the county was divided into county districts, with the rural districts being Ely Rural District, Thorney Rural District, Whittlesey Rural District, Wisbech Rural District, North Witchford Rural District, the urban districts were Ely, March and Wisbech. Whittlesey Rural district consisted of only one parish, added to Whittlesey urban district, in 1926; the Isle of Ely parliamentary constituency was created as a two-member seat in the First and Second Protectorate Parliaments from 1654 to 1659. The constituency was re-created with a single seat in 1918. In the boundary changes of 1983 it was replaced by the new constituency of North East Cambridgeshire. Original historical documents relating to the Isle of Ely are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office in Cambridge; the Isle of Ely County Council was granted a coat of arms on 1 May 1931. Previous to the grant the council had been using the arms of Diocese of Ely: Gules, three ducal coronets and one or.
In the 1931 grant and blue waves were added to the episcopal arms, to suggest that the county was an "isle". The crest above the shield was a human hand grasping a trident around which an eel was entwined, referring to the popular derivation of "Ely". On the wrist of the hand was a "Wake knot", representing Hereward the Wake. Fairweather, Janet. "introduction". Liber Eliensis. Translated by Fairweather, Janet. Woodbridge, UK: Boyd
Stanground is a residential area in the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. For electoral purposes it comprises Stanground South and Fletton & Stanground wards in North West Cambridgeshire constituency. Situated south of the River Nene, on high ground overlooking The Fens, the area was part of the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire and of Huntingdonshire, rather than the Soke of Peterborough in Northamptonshire. By 1901 Stanground was the only civil parish in England contained in two administrative counties. In 1905 the part in the county of Huntingdon was created a separate parish, Stanground South, within Old Fletton Urban District and the anomaly removed. In 1965 Huntingdonshire and the Soke amalgamated as Huntingdon and Peterborough and the Isle of Ely and historic Cambridgeshire amalgamated as Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. In 1974 Thorney Rural District and Old Fletton Urban District became part of the current district in the new non-metropolitan county; as part of a Rural District prior to the passing of the Act, Stanground North remained parished.
This redundant parish which contained no dwellings or residents was abolished in 2003. The ecclesiastical parish of Saint John the Baptist in the Diocese of Ely covers the whole area. However, it has now been placed under the pastoral care of the Bishop of Peterborough, acting as Assistant Bishop in the Diocese of Ely. Lampass Cross, a 12th-century scheduled monument, stands in the churchyard; the parish, along with its church, appears as Stoneground in the ghost stories of E. G. Swain, vicar there from 1905–1916. Situated adjacent to the fire station, Stanground cemetery, which opened in 1890, has limited grave availability for those residents who have family buried there. Stanground St. Johns Church of England Primary School, Oakdale County Primary School and Southfields County Infant and Junior schools are located in the area. Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service maintain a fire station, crewed day and night and equipped with Water Tender and Multistar, off Whittlesey Road. Counties Act 1844 Stanground Newt Ponds Stanground Wash Stanground College now Stanground Academy Stanground St. Johns School Oakdale School Southfields School Believe in Stanground!
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