Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
Auckland War Memorial Museum
The Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira is one of New Zealand's most important museums and war memorials. Its collections concentrate on New Zealand history, natural history, military history; the museum is one of the most iconic Auckland buildings, constructed in the neo-classicist style, sitting on a grassed plinth in the Auckland Domain, a large public park close to the Auckland CBD. Auckland Museum's collections and exhibits began in 1852. In 1867 Aucklanders formed a learned society – the Auckland Philosophical Society the Auckland Institute. Within a few years the society merged with the museum and Auckland Institute and Museum was the organisation's name until 1996. Auckland War Memorial Museum was the name of the new building opened in 1929, but since 1996 was more used for the institution as well. From 1991 to 2003 the museum's Maori name was Te Papa Whakahiku; the Auckland Museum traces its lineage back to 1852 when it was established in a farm workers' cottage where the University of Auckland is now located.
With an initial call for the donation of specimens of wool for display it attracted 708 visitors in its first year. Interest in the museum dwindled over the following decade as its collection grew, in 1869 the somewhat neglected and forlorn museum was transferred to the care of The Auckland Institute, a learned society formed two years earlier. An Italianate-style building was constructed for the museum in Princes Street, near Government House and across the road from the Northern Club, it was opened on 5 June 1876 by the Governor of New Zealand the Marquis of Normanby. These new premises included a large gallery top-lit by a metal framed skylight; this room proved problematic as it was impossible to heat during the winter but overheated during the summer. Canvas awnings used to shield the roof from harsh sunlight made the exhibits difficult to view in the resulting gloom. Several exhibition halls were added to the side of the original building. One of the visitors during the 1890s was the French artist Gauguin, who sketched several Maori items and incorporated them into his Tahitian period paintings.
In the early years of the 20th century the museum and its collections flourished under visionary curator Thomas Cheeseman, who tried to establish a sense of order and separated the natural history, classical sculpture and anthropological collections, displayed in a rather unsystematic way. The need for better display conditions and extra space necessitated a move from the Princes St site and the project for a purpose-built museum merged with that of the war memorial to commemorate soldiers lost in World War I; the site was a hill in the Government Domain commanding an impressive view of the Waitemata Harbour. Permission was granted by the Auckland City Council in 1918, the Council in its liberality being given three seats on the Museum Council; as well as an initial gift of £10,000 the Council agreed to an annual subsidy from the rates towards maintenance of the facility and coaxed several of the other local bodies to the principle of an annual statutory levy of £6,000 to support the museum's upkeep.
The worldwide architectural competition was funded by the Institute of British Architects, a £1,000 sterling prize drew over 70 entries, with Auckland firm Grierson and Draffin winning the competition with their neo-classical building reminiscent of Greco-Roman temples. In 1920 the present Domain site was settled on as a home for the museum and in the 1920s after successful fund-raising led by Auckland Mayor Sir James Gunson, building of the Auckland War Memorial Museum began, with construction completed in 1929, it was opened by the Governor-General General Sir Charles Fergusson. The museum architects commissioned Kohns Jewellers of Queen Street to create a finely detailed silver model of the museum; this was presented to Sir James Gunson on completion of the museum, in recognition of his leading the project. The building is considered one of the finest Greco-Roman buildings in the Southern Hemisphere, it has an'A' classification from the New Zealand Historic Places Trust, designating it as a building whose preservation is of the utmost importance.
Of particular interest is the interior plasterwork which incorporates Maori details in an amalgamation of Neo-Greek and art-deco styles. The exterior bas-reliefs depicting 20th-century armed forces and personnel are in a style which mixes Neo-Greek with Art-Deco; the bulk of the building is English Portland Stone with detailing in New Zealand granite from the Coromandel. Two additions were made to the 1929 building, the first in the late 1950s to commemorate the Second World War when an administration annexe with a large semi-circular courtyard was added to the southern rear; this extension is of concrete block construction rendered in cement stucco to harmonise with the Portland Stone of the earlier building. In 2006 the inner courtyard was enclosed by the grand atrium at the southern entrance; the quotation'The Whole Earth is the Sepulchre of Famous Men' over the front porch is attributed to the Greek general Pericles, in keeping with its commemorative status to affairs of a martial nature.
RenovationIn the last two decades, the museum was extended in two stages. The first stage saw the existing building restored and the exhibits replaced during the 1990s for $NZ 43 million; the second stage of this restoration has seen a great dome – atrium constructed within the central courtyard, increasing the building's floor area by 60% for a price of $NZ 64.5 million. $NZ 27 million of, provided by the government, with the ASB Trust ($NZ 12.9 mill
North Shore, New Zealand
The North Shore is part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, located to the north of the Waitematā Harbour. The North Shore was North Shore City, a distinct territorial authority district, governed by the North Shore City Council from 1989 until 2010, when it was incorporated into Auckland Council; the city had an estimated population of 229,000 at 30 June 2010, making it the fourth most populous city in New Zealand prior to the November 2010 reorganisation. The former city was the country's fourth largest city in land, with an area of 129.81 square kilometres and a coastline of 141 kilometres. It was the most densely populated city in the country because, unlike other New Zealand cities, most of the city's area was urban or suburban in character; the North Shore comprises a large suburban area to the north of downtown Auckland. The North Shore has been administered by various councils over the years, in the most recent past the North Shore City Council. On 1 November 2010, North Shore City Council and the six other local councils and Auckland Regional Council merged to create Auckland Council.
Today, the entire area has been divided among four local boards of the amalgamated Auckland Council: Devonport-Takapuna, Upper Harbour and Hibiscus and Bays. The administrative area of North Shore City Council was bounded by Rodney District to the north, Waitematā Harbour to the south and the Rangitoto Channel of the Hauraki Gulf to the east; the seat of the council was in Takapuna. North Shore City was divided into the following wards, which each ward was further divided into two community boards. Albany Community Board: Albany2, Albany Heights, Fairview Heights, Greenhithe2, Lucas Heights, Paremoremo, Rosedale, Schnapper Rock, Unsworth Heights, Windsor Park; the European history of the North Shore was dominated by rural settlement, with people from the "main" Auckland venturing there only during weekends, when the beaches and many coastal settlements were favourite daytripper goals reached by the ferries connecting the North Shore to Auckland. By the 1950s, only about 50,000 people lived on the Shore, its growth rate was still about half that of the areas south of the Waitemata because few jobs were on offer.
This changed with the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959, which opened up the Shore for Auckland expansion – vehicle volumes on the bridge became three times the forecast volume within the first decade – and began turning parts of it into a dormitory town for people working in the Auckland CBD or further south. The growth became significant enough for the North Shore to be considered a city in its own right, though densities remained still below what is typical south of the Harbour. On 1 November 2010 the North Shore boundaries were amalgamated with the rest of the entire Auckland Region, the North Shore City Council was abolished and replaced by a single unitary city authority. All council services and facilities are now under authority of the Auckland Council. Commuting within the North Shore itself can be done easily, but those who commute to Auckland City and need to cross the Auckland Harbour Bridge face severe traffic congestion; the alternative route through western suburbs is prone to nose-to-tail traffic at peak times.
As with the greater Auckland area, there has been much discussion regarding the problem at both national and local government levels, but little concrete action related to the high cost and difficulty of providing additional crossings over the Waitematā Harbour. Several options for new bridges and tunnels have been studied in depth, but at the moment, the official position is to mitigate congestion effects instead of providing new infrastructure; the Northern Busway running alongside the Northern Motorway, together with park and ride or drop-off areas at most of its stations, serves as the spine of a bus-based rapid transit system for North Shore and Hibiscus Coast citizens. The busway was operational between Constellation and Akoranga in February 2008. A number of North Shore suburbs have a regular ferry service to Auckland City, including Devonport, Stanley Bay, Birkenhead. Others are planned for Takapuna and Browns Bay. A plan in the mid-2000s to turn North Shore streets into a venue for a three-day V8 supercar race generated controversy.
The city was run by a 15-member council and mayor, democratically elected every three years using the First Past The Post voting system. The
New Zealand census
The New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings is a national population and housing census conducted by government department Statistics New Zealand every five years. There have been thirty-three censuses since 1851. In addition to providing detailed information about national demographics, the results of the census play an important part in the calculation of resource allocation to local service providers; the 2018 census took place on Tuesday, 6 March 2018. The next census is expected in March 2023. Since 1926, the census has always been held on a Tuesday. Since 1966, the census occurs at midnight on a Tuesday in March; these are statistically the month and weekday on which New Zealanders are least to be travelling. Until 2018, census forms were hand-delivered by census workers during the lead-in to the census, with one form per person and a special form with questions about the dwelling. In addition, teams of census workers attempt to cover all hospitals, camp grounds and transport systems where people might be found at midnight.
In 2018, the process was different. The majority of households received an access code in the post and were encouraged to complete their census online. If preferred, households could request paper census forms; the smallest geographic unit used in the census for population data is the mesh block, which there are 39,300 of, with an average of 110 people in each. The 2018 Census collected data on the following topics: * Required to be included under the Statistics Act 1975 or the Electoral Act 1993 The first full census in New Zealand was conducted in 1851, the census was triennial until 1881, at which time it became five-yearly; the 1931 census was cancelled due to the effects of the Great Depression, as was the 1941 census due to World War II. The 1946 census was brought forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for an electoral redistribution before the 1946 election. 1951 was the first year in which Māori and European New Zealanders were treated with European New Zealanders having had a different census form in previous years and separate censuses in the nineteenth century.
Results for those censuses before 1966 have been destroyed with a few exceptions and those since will not be available before 2066. The 2006 census was held on 7 March. For the first time, respondents had the option of completing their census form via the Internet rather than by a printed form; the 2011 census was scheduled for 8 March. However, due to the Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, it was cancelled. For the first time all 2011 census forms would have been digitally archived. On 27 May 2011 Statistics New Zealand announced that a census would take place in March 2013; the legislation required to change the census date was introduced to Parliament in August 2011. The 2013 census was held on Tuesday 5 March 2013 and the 2018 census was held on Tuesday 6 March 2018. A few people object to the attempt to evade it; the most famous of these is the Wizard of New Zealand, Ian Brackenbury Channell, who has avoided the census on numerous occasions. He spent the night of the 1981 census in a boat beyond New Zealand's 20 km territorial limit in order to avoid enumeration in the country.
He has publicly burnt census forms. Following the 2006 census, Statistics New Zealand prosecuted 72 people for failing to return their forms, with 41 convictions. After the 2013 census, they wrote to 450 people in July 2013 who had failed to return the forms, of whom 99 were prosecuted, resulting in 46 convictions. Most of those convicted were fined $50 to $500 per charge. Results of the 2013 census were released over an 18-month period, beginning 15 October 2013, it recorded 4,242,048 people who were resident in New Zealand on 5 March 2013. This represents an increase of 214,101 people since the 2006 census. McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Statistics New Zealand - census page New Zealand 2013 Census
The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o
The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area. The region encompasses the Auckland metropolitan area, smaller towns, rural areas, the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Containing 35 percent of the nation's residents, it has by far the largest population and economy of any region of New Zealand, but the second-smallest land area. On 1 November 2010, the Auckland Region became a unitary authority controlled by the Auckland Council, replacing the previous regional council and seven local councils. In the process, an area in its southeastern corner was transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region; the name "Auckland Region" remains present in casual usage. On the mainland, the region extends from the mouth of the Kaipara Harbour in the north across the southern stretches of the Northland Peninsula, past the Waitakere Ranges and the isthmus of Auckland and across the low-lying land surrounding the Manukau Harbour; the region ends within a few kilometres of the mouth of the Waikato River.
It is bordered in the north by the Northland Region, in the south by the Waikato Region. It includes the islands of the Hauraki Gulf; the Hunua Ranges and the adjacent coastline along the Firth of Thames were part of the region until the Auckland Council was formed in late 2010, when they were transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region. In land area it is smaller than unitary authorities except Nelson, its highest point is the summit of at 722 metres. Auckland Province Media related to Auckland Region at Wikimedia Commons Auckland Region travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Auckland Region at OpenStreetMap
Devonport, New Zealand
Devonport is a harbourside suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It is located on the North Shore, at the southern end of a peninsula that runs southeast from near Lake Pupuke in Takapuna, forming the northern side of the Waitematā Harbour. East of Devonport lies the northern promontory guarding the mouth of the harbour; the population of Devonport and the adjoining suburb of Cheltenham was 5,337 in the 2006 census, an increase of 126 since 2001. With the additional suburbs of Stanley Bay and Narrow Neck, the 2006 population was 11,142; the suburb hosts the Devonport Naval Base of the Royal New Zealand Navy, the main facility for the country's naval vessels, but is best known for its harbourside dining and drinking establishments and its heritage charm. Devonport has been compared to California due to its setting and scenery; the Devonport shops contain a variety of antique and book shops, a number of cafes and restaurants, making it a popular destination for tourists and Aucklanders. Day trips combining a meal in Devonport with a trip up Mt Victoria or an exploration of the military emplacements on nearby North Head are popular.
Of note is the Devonport Museum, located near Mt. Cambria. In April 2017 the museum was given a complete makeover by local volunteers and a TV production company; the navy base at Devonport features in the local character, with the North Shore City Council having signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Navy which recognises the developing partnership between them. The Torpedo Bay Navy Museum is located in Devonport. Around 40,000 years ago Devonport consisted of three islands of volcanic origin, Mount Victoria, North Head and between them Mount Cambria; the earliest evidence for settlement dates from the mid-14th century. The last remaining significant Māori settlement in the area, on North Head, was wiped out by rival tribes in the 1790s. Jules Dumont d'Urville, a French explorer, is thought to have gone ashore in the area in 1827 as the first European; the first permanent European inhabitant was a pilot and harbour master stationed on North Head in 1836. The suburb of Devonport itself was first settled by colonists in 1840 and is one of the oldest colonial settlements in Auckland, the first on the North Shore.
It was called Flagstaff because of the flagstaff raised on nearby Mount Victoria. For the first half century or so of its existence Devonport was geographically isolated from the rest of the North Shore, was sometimes called "the island" by the local inhabitants. Only a thin strip of land beside the beach at Narrow Neck connected Devonport to Belmont and the rest of the North Shore peninsula. In the late 19th century the mangrove swamp that stretched from Narrow Neck to Ngataringa Bay was filled in to form a racecourse, now a golf course. A new road was built along the western edge of the racecourse allowing more direct travel to the north. On the southern shore, to the west of the centre of Devonport, a nearby deep water anchorage suitable for Royal Navy vessels, the Devonport Naval Base was established. William Hobson the Governor of New Zealand, considered the sandspit-protected area a better choice for a naval installation than the shallower Tamaki waters on the southern side of the harbour.
While some facilities have expanded and shifted in location over time, the area is still the primary base for the Royal New Zealand Navy. The Calliope Dock at Stanley Bay, part of the base, was opened on 16 February 1888 and at the time was the largest dock in the Southern hemisphere; the suburb had one of the oldest New Zealand shipyards, now part of the Devonport Yacht Club area. The main centre of the suburb shifted west from Church Street and the original wharf at Torpedo Bay, to its current location around the ferry wharf; the settlement itself was renamed Devonport by 1859 after the English naval town of Devonport. Devonport achieved Borough status in 1886 and was incorporated into North Shore City in 1989. Devonport played a special role in the nuclear free movement. In 1981 the Devonport Borough Council voted to declare Devonport a nuclear-free zone, the first local council in New Zealand to do so. In July 2007, Devonport was given permission to be excluded from a list of local Auckland growth node centres.
The Auckland Regional Council accepted that while it was encouraging intensified growth around transport nodes such as Devonport, the character and historical nature of the Devonport Wharf area would make such a designation inappropriate in this case. In 2011 the Devonport community, led by parents and local publication the Devonport Flagstaff, launched a grassroots movement protesting the sale of the synthetic cannabis Kronic in local dairies; the battle was a success, Kronic was banned from the area. The first ferry services to Auckland city began in the 1840s; these were open sailing cutters operated by local seamen running passengers to the foot of Queen Street, Auckland's main road. In 1860 the first paddlesteamer ferries began operation; these were in turn replaced by double-ended, screw-driven ferries in 1904. Both passenger and vehicle ferries operated on the Devonport run until the opening of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959. After the opening of the bridge, passenger ferry services to other North Shore destinations were cancelled, as were all vehicular ferries.
The Devonport passenger ferry was retained on a much reduced timetable. The majority of the ferries were scrapped, only a handful being retained until being replaced by more modern vessels; the last of the old-style double-end