A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory; some historians are recognized by training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere. During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus"; this was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark to compare and contrast the scholarship of an objective historian against the illegitimate methods employed by David Irving, as before the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, there was no legal precedent for what constituted an objective historian.
Justice Gray leant on the research of one of the expert witnesses, Richard J. Evans, who compared illegitimate distortion of the historical record practice by holocaust deniers with established historical methodologies. By summarizing Gray's judgement, in an article published in the Yale Law Journal, Wendie E. Schneider distils these seven points for what he meant by an objective historian: The historian must treat sources with appropriate reservations. Schneider uses the concept of the "objective historian" to suggest that this could be an aid in assessing what makes an historian suitable as an expert witnesses under the Daubert standard in the United States. Schneider proposed this, because, in her opinion, Irving could have passed the standard Daubert tests unless a court was given "a great deal of assistance from historians". Schneider proposes that by testing an historian against the criteria of the "objective historian" even if an historian holds specific political views, providing the historian uses the "objective historian" standards, he or she is a "conscientious historian".
It was Irving's failure as an "objective historian" not his right wing views that caused him to lose his libel case, as a "conscientious historian" would not have "deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence" to support his political views. The process of historical analysis involves investigation and analysis of competing ideas and purported facts to create coherent narratives that explain "what happened" and "why or how it happened". Modern historical analysis draws upon other social sciences, including economics, politics, anthropology and linguistics. While ancient writers do not share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. An important part of the contribution of many modern historians is the verification or dismissal of earlier historical accounts through reviewing newly discovered sources and recent scholarship or through parallel disciplines like archaeology. Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the telling of history has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.
What constitutes history is a philosophical question. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region; the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who became known as the "father of history". Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element that set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings.
He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition. While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era. Livy (59 BCE
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Frank Tannenbaum was an Austrian-American historian and criminologist, who made significant contributions to modern Mexican history during his career at Columbia University. Tannenbaum was born in Austria on 4 March 1893, his Eastern European Jewish family immigrated to the United States in 1905. He never finished high school, he became involved in radical labor politics of the era. As a young man, he worked a busboy. During the economic crisis of 1913–1915, he became a leader of the Industrial Workers of the World. In January 1914, Tannenbaum 21 years old and a member of the IWW-affiliated Waiter's Industrial Union, proposed a campaign of demanding relief from New York City churches. Starting in February, he led masses of workers to churches, disrupted services, demanded that they be given food and shelter. Although most churches complied, the New York press, notably the New York Times, decried Tannenbaum and the Wobblies. On March 4, Tannenbaum led a group of unemployed workers from Rutgers Square to the Catholic St. Alphonsus Church on West Broadway.
There, they were met by a phalanx of the parish rector, who refused their demands. Tannenbaum and 190 other protesters were arrested. At trial one protester received 60 days in jail, four 30 days, three 15 days, the rest were let go, he spent the year on Blackwell's Island. When he got out of jail, Tannenbaum remained active in the IWW, he was arrested alongside Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and Alexander Berkman during the Bayonne refinery strikes of 1915–1916, in Bayonne, New Jersey. Emma Goldman described his arrest and imprisonment in her memoirs, Living My Life: We all had loved Frank for his wide-awakeness and his unassuming ways, he had spent much of his free time in our office and helping in the work connected with Mother Earth. His fine qualities held out the hope that Frank would some day play an important part in the labour struggle. None of us had expected however that our studious, quiet friend would so respond to the call of the hour. After Bayonne, Tannenbaum soon abandoned his youthful radicalism.
With the help of several philanthropists, he attended Columbia University, where classmates included Samuel Roth. In 1921, Tannenbaum received his bachelor's degree from Columbia, he received his Ph. D. in economics from the Brookings Institution. He served in the U. S. Army, stationed in the south, he moved to Mexico, where he conducted research on rural education and served as an adviser to President Lázaro Cárdenas. In 1931, he reported to the Wickersham Commission study on Penal Institutions and Parole. In 1932, he returned to the United States to teach criminology at Cornell University. In 1935 he joined the faculty at Columbia. A notable student at Columbia was Robert J. Alexander, who went on to become professor of history at Rutgers University, specializing in the trade union movement in Latin America and dissident communist political parties, he retired from Columbia University in 1965. He died in New York City in 1969. Tannenbaum helped formulate legislation, his conception of the "Dramatization Of Evil" led to the further development of the symbolic interactionist labeling theory used in both sociology and social psychology.
Summarizing this theory's impact, Kerry Townsend has stated, "Frank Tannenbaum’s theory, dramatization of evil, explains the making of a criminal and the lure of criminal behavior." Townsend places Tannenbaum's theoretical thought within the theory of "Symbolic Interactionism," whose perspective emphasizes "individual levels of interaction, began to emerge spearheaded by the writings of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley," which formed the basis of Societal Reaction theories of which Tannenbaum's form part. Tannenbaum's theory remains important in criminology studies at universities including Florida State University, the University of Maryland The Labor Movement: Its Conservative Functions and Social, Consequences. G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York, 1921 Wall Shadows: A Study in American Prisons. G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York, 1922 Darker Phases Of The South. G. P. Putnam's Sons & Archon Books: New York, 1924 The Mexican Agrarian Revolution; the Macmillan Company: New York, 1930 Place by Revolution: An Interpretation of México, drawings by Miguel Covarrubias.
Columbia University Press: New York, 1933 Osborne of Sing Sing. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1933 Whither Latin America?: An introduction to its economic and social problems. Thomas Y. Crowell Co...: New York, 1934 Crime and the Community. Columbia University Press: New York, 1938 Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas. Vintage Books: New York, 1947 The Balance of Power in Society: And Other Essays; the Macmillan Company: New York,1946 Mexico: The Struggle for Peace and Bread. Alfred A Knopf: New York, 1950 A Philosophy of Labor. Alfred A Knopf: New York, 1951 The American Tradition in Foreign Policy. University of Oklahoma Press: Oklahoma City,1955 Ten Keys to Latin America. Vintage Books: New York, 1962 Tannenbaum published a number of articles in Foreign Affairs: An American Commonwealth of Nations Argentina, the Recalcitrant American State Personal Government in Mexico – part of a chapter in "The United States and Mexico," a volume in a series edited by Sumner Welles The Future of Democracy in Latin America The American Tradition in Foreign Relations The P
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
John Jay was an American statesman, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, the first Chief Justice of the United States. He directed U. S. foreign policy for much of the 1780s and was an important leader of the Federalist Party after the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788. Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and New York City government officials of French and Dutch descent, he became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence, organizing opposition to British policies in the time preceding the American Revolution. Jay was elected to the Second Continental Congress, served as President of the Congress. From 1779 to 1782, Jay served as the ambassador to Spain, he served as a negotiator of the Treaty of Paris, in which Britain recognized American independence. Following the end of the war, Jay served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, directing United States foreign policy under the Articles of Confederation government.
He served as the first Secretary of State on an interim basis. A proponent of strong, centralized government, Jay worked to ratify the United States Constitution in New York in 1788, he was a co-author of The Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, wrote five of the 85 essays. After the establishment of the new federal government, Jay was appointed by President George Washington the first Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1789 to 1795; the Jay Court experienced a light workload. In 1794, while serving as Chief Justice, Jay negotiated the controversial Jay Treaty with Britain. Jay received a handful of electoral votes in three of the first four presidential elections, but never undertook a serious bid for the presidency. Jay served as the Governor of New York from 1795 to 1801. Long an opponent of slavery, he helped enact a law that provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves, the institution of slavery was abolished in New York in Jay's lifetime. In the waning days of President John Adams's administration, Jay was confirmed by the Senate for another term as Chief Justice, but he declined the position and retired to his farm in Westchester County, New York.
The Jays were a prominent merchant family in New York City, descended from Huguenots who had come to New York to escape religious persecution in France. In 1685 the Edict of Nantes had been revoked, thereby abolishing the rights of Protestants and confiscating their property. Among those affected was Jay's paternal grandfather, Augustus Jay, he moved from France with his sister Saint Jay to the Virginia Colonies and New York, where he built a successful merchant empire. Jay's father, Peter Jay, born in New York City in 1704, became a wealthy trader in furs, wheat and other commodities. Jay's mother was Mary Van Cortlandt, in the Dutch Church, they had ten children together. Mary's father, Jacobus Van Cortlandt, had been born in New Amsterdam in 1658. Cortlandt served on the New York Assembly, was twice mayor of New York City, held a variety of judicial and military offices. Two of his children married into the Jay family. Jay was born on December 1745, in New York City. Jay spent his childhood in Rye.
He was educated there by his mother until he was eight years old, when he was sent to New Rochelle to study under Anglican priest Pierre Stoupe. In 1756, after three years, he would return to homeschooling in Rye under the tutelage of his mother and George Murray. In 1760, Jay attended King's College, now known as Columbia University, as an undergraduate, he entered college at the age of 14. During this time, Jay made many influential friends, including his closest, Robert Livingston, the son of a prominent New York aristocrat and Supreme Court justice. Jay took the same political stand as a staunch Whig. In 1764 he graduated from King's College and became a law clerk for Benjamin Kissam, a prominent lawyer and sought-after instructor in the law. In addition to Jay, Kissam's students included Lindley Murray. In 1768, after reading law and being admitted to the bar of New York, with the money from the government, established a legal practice and worked there until he created his own law office in 1771.
He was a member of the New York Committee of Correspondence in 1774 and became its secretary, his first public role in the revolution. Jay represented the conservative faction, interested in protecting property rights and in preserving the rule of law, while resisting what it regarded as British violations of American rights; this faction feared the prospect of "mob rule". He believed the British tax measures were wrong and thought Americans were morally and justified in resisting them, but as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774, Jay sided with those who wanted conciliation with Parliament. Events such as the burning of Norfolk, Virginia, by British troops in January 1776 pushed Jay to support independence. With the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he worked tirelessly for the revolutionary cause and acted to suppress the Loyalists. Jay evolved into first a moderate, an ardent Patriot, because he had decided that all the colonies' efforts at reconciliation with Britain were fruitles
Stanley Lawrence Elkin was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist. His extravagant, satirical fiction revolves around American consumerism, popular culture, male–female relationships. Elkin was born to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York, grew up in Chicago from age three onwards, he did both his undergraduate and graduate work at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, receiving a bachelor's degree in English in 1952 and a Ph. D. in 1961 for his dissertation on William Faulkner. During this period he was drafted and served in the U. S. Army from 1955–57. In 1953 Elkin married Joan Marion Jacobson, he was a member of the English faculty at Washington University in St. Louis from 1960 until his death, battled multiple sclerosis for most of his adult life. In 1968, he signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. During his career, Elkin published ten novels, two volumes of novellas, two books of short stories, a collection of essays, one screenplay.
Elkin's work revolves about American pop culture, which it portrays in innumerable darkly comic variations. Characters and prose style take full precedence over plot, his language is extravagant and exuberant and flowery, taking fantastic flight from his characters' endless patter. "He was like a jazz artist who would go off on riffs," said critic William Gass. In a review of George Mills, Ralph B. Sipper wrote, "Elkin's trademark is to tightrope his way from comedy to tragedy with hardly a slip." About the influence of ethnicity on his work Elkin said he admired most "the writers who are stylists, Jewish or not. Bellow is a stylist, he is Jewish. William Gass is a stylist, he is not Jewish. What I go for in my work is language." Although living in the Midwest, Elkin spent his childhood and teenage summers in a bungalow colony called West Oakland, on the Ramapo River in northern New Jersey not far from Mahwah, the home of Joyce Kilmer. This was a refuge for a close-knit group of several score families Jewish, from the summer heat of New York City and urban New Jersey.
Elkin's writings placed. Elkin won the National Book Critics Circle Award on two occasions: for George Mills in 1982 and for Mrs. Ted Bliss, his last novel, in 1995; the MacGuffin was a finalist for the 1991 National Book Award for Fiction. However, although he enjoyed high critical praise, his books have never enjoyed popular success; the 1976 Jack Lemmon film Alex & the Gypsy was based on Elkin's novella "The Bailbondsman". Elkin died May 1995 of a heart attack, his manuscripts and correspondence are archived in Olin Library at Washington University in St. Louis. Elkin's literary legacy is represented by the literary agency headed by Georges Borchardt, he has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Boswell: A Modern Comedy A Bad Man The Dick Gibson Show The Franchiser The Living End ISBN 978-0525070207 George Mills The Magic Kingdom The Rabbi of Lud The MacGuffin ISBN 978-0671673246 Mrs. Ted Bliss Criers and Kibitzers and Criers Early Elkin Searches and Seizures Van Gogh's Room at Arles "A Prayer for Losers", from the Why Work Series Stanley Elkin's Greatest Hits The Six-Year-Old Man Pieces of Soap The First George Mills Why I Live Where I Live The Coffee Room "A Poetics for Bullies", read by Jackson Beck, with comments by Elkin, in New Sounds in American Fiction, Program 10.
Stories From the Sixties The Best American Short Stories 1980 1995 – National Book Critics Circle Award for Mrs. Ted Bliss 1994 – PEN Faulkner Award finalist for Van Gogh's Room at Arles 1991 – National Book Award finalist for Fiction for The MacGuffin 1982 – National Book Critics Circle Award for George Mills Works by Stanley Elkin at Open Library Works by or about Stanley Elkin in libraries The Stanley Elkin Papers at Washington University in St. Louis Thomas LeClair. "Stanley Elkin, The Art of Fiction No. 61". The Paris Review. Interview at the Dalkey Archive Full Bibliography via Loyola University Stanley Elkin interviewed by Stephen Banker, circa 1978