Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore
Harry T. Moore and his wife Harriette V. S. Moore were pioneer activists and leaders of the early civil rights movement in the United States, becoming the first martyrs of the movement. On the night of Christmas, December 25, 1951, a bomb, planted under the Moores' bedroom floor exploded, they had celebrated their 25th wedding anniversary earlier that day. Harry died in the ambulance in transit from the attack, his wife Harriette died from her injuries nine days on January 3, 1952, their murder was the first assassination of any activist to occur during the civil rights movement, the only time that a husband and wife were murdered during the history of the movement. Harry Moore and Harriette Simms married in December 25, 1926 and moved into the Simms' family home the following fall. Harry was an educator, Harriette was a former teacher turned insurance broker. In 1927, Harry was promoted to the position of principal at the local Titusville Colored School; the city's school system was racially segregated, like many in the country at the time.
While Harry taught the school's ninth grade, he supervised the team of teachers at the school. The school was closed early his first year by the local school board just 6 months into the year, as part of the local school system's systemic discrimination against black children; the Moores had their first daughter in 1928, moved into their own home with an acre of land given to them by Harriette's parents. They gave birth to their second daughter in 1930. Harriette returned to her career in education the following year, began working as a teacher for the same school as Harry. In 1934, Harry founded the Brevard County, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People chapter, he served as the NAACP's first Executive Secretary in the state of Florida. The NAACP chapter worked towards achieving equal pay for equal work for teachers of any race, fought to get lynchings prosecuted, attempted to register black voters in the region; the activism of Moore was controversial in the local white-dominated county.
In 1946 this resulted in the firings of Harry and Harriette from their teaching jobs by state authorities. Afterwards, Harry became a full-time employee of the NAACP. On the night of December 25, 1951, the Moores finished celebrating Christmas and their 25th wedding anniversary; when they retired to their bedroom for the evening, a bomb exploded, injuring Harry and Harriette but leaving their daughter unharmed. The improvised explosive device, made from dynamite, had been placed directly under the Moores' bedroom floor; the Moores were rushed to the nearest hospital that would treat African-Americans in Sanford, Florida, a 29.8 miles drive by car. Harry died in the ambulance. Over the years, a number of motives have been suggested for the Moores' murders. All of them share a common theme — retribution against Harry Moore for his civil rights activities. — Charlie Crist, 35th Attorney General of the State of Florida Since the night of the explosion in 1951, five separate criminal investigations have been initiated and completed.
The first investigation was headed by the FBI beginning on the night of the explosion and concluding in 1955. The second investigation was a joint investigation by the Brevard County Sheriff's Office and Brevard County State Attorney's Office in 1978; the third investigation took place in 1991 by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. In 2004, a fourth investigation was commenced by the Florida Attorney General's Office of Civil Rights. In 2008, the FBI again investigated the Moore homicides as part of the Department of Justice's "Cold Case Initiative". In total, the five criminal investigations revealed evidence implicating four subjects in the bombing; the four subjects were known to be high ranking members within the Ku Klux Klan in the central region of Florida. The first of the four, Earl J. Brooklyn, was a Klansman with a reputation for being exceedingly violent and described as "a renegade" after being expelled from a Klavern of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia for engaging in unsanctioned acts of violence.
Brooklyn was in possession of floor plans of the Moore home, was said to be recruiting volunteers to assist in the bombing. The second subject, Tillman H. "Curley" Belvin, was reported to be a violent member of the Klan and a close friend of Brooklyn. Joseph Cox, another Klansman, was implicated in the bombing by Edward L. Spivey. Spivey implicated Cox in a deathbed confession while suffering in the late stages of cancer in 1978. Cox committed suicide in 1952, one day after being confronted by the FBI; the investigation revealed. No arrests were made in the case. All four of the subjects are now deceased; the Department of Justice Civil Rights Division closed the file on the federal investigation in 2011. During the early morning hours of the following day, December 26, 1951, angry men in Titusville's black neighborhoods were in the streets spreading word of the bombing. Within the following hours men and women, from Brevard County, still in their nightclothes walked and rode towards Mims to protest in the streets.
Most of the people knew Moore some via his job in education, some via the NAACP, others through his registration drives. The assassination triggered nationwide protests, with rallies and other events held following the news of the bombing; the 33rd President of the United States Harry S Truman, Governor Fuller Warren both received a high v
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
William Moses Kunstler was an American radical lawyer and civil rights activist, known for his politically unpopular clients. Kunstler was an active member of the National Lawyers Guild, a board member of the American Civil Liberties Union and the co-founder of the Law Center for Constitutional Rights, the "leading gathering place for radical lawyers in the country". Kunstler's defense of the Chicago Seven from 1969–1970 led The New York Times to label him "the country's most controversial and its best-known lawyer". Kunstler is well known for defending members of the Catonsville Nine, Black Panther Party, Weather Underground Organization, the Attica Prison rioters, the American Indian Movement, he won a de facto segregation case regarding the District of Columbia's public schools and "disinterred, singlehandedly" the concept of federal criminal removal jurisdiction in the 1960s. Kunstler refused to defend right-wing groups such as the Minutemen, on the grounds that: "I only defend those whose goals I share.
I'm not a lawyer for hire. I only defend those I love."He was a polarizing figure. Some other civil rights lawyers regarded Kunstler as a "publicity hound and a hit-and-run lawyer" who "brings cases on Page 1 and wins them on Page 68." Legal writer Sidney Zion quipped that Kunstler was "one of the few lawyers in town who knows how to talk to the press. His stories always check out and he's not afraid to talk to you, he's got credibility—although you've got to ask sometimes,'Bill, is it true?'" Kunstler was born in the son of Frances and Monroe Bradford Kunstler, a physician. He attended DeWitt Clinton High School, he was educated at Yale College, graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1941, Columbia University Law School from which he graduated in 1948. While in school, Kunstler was an avid poet and represented Yale in the Glascock Prize competition at Mount Holyoke College. Kunstler served in the U. S. Army during World War II in the Pacific theater, attaining the rank of Major, received the Bronze Star.
While in the army, he was noted for his theatric portrayals in the Fort Monmouth Dramatic Association. After his discharge from the Army he attended law school, was admitted to the bar in New York in 1948 and began practicing law. Kunstler went through R. H. Macy's executive training program in the late 1940s and practiced family and small business law in the 1950s, before entering civil rights litigation in the 1960s, he was an associate professor of law at New York Law School. Kunstler won honorable mention for the National Legal Aid Association's press award in 1957 for his series of radio broadcasts on WNEW, "The Law on Trial." At WNEW, Kunstler conducted interviews on controversial topics, such as the Alger Hiss case, on a program called Counterpoint. Kunstler first made headlines in 1957 when he defended William Worthy, a correspondent for the Baltimore Afro-American, one of forty-two Americans who had their passports seized after violating the State Department's travel ban on Communist China.
Kunstler refused a State Department compromise which would have returned Worthy's passport if he agreed to cease visiting Communist countries, a condition Worthy considered unconstitutional. Kunstler played an important role as a civil rights lawyer in the 1960s, traveling to many of the segregated battlegrounds to work to free those, jailed. Working on behalf of the ACLU, Kunstler defended the Freedom Riders in Mississippi in 1961. Kunstler filed for a writ of habeas corpus with Sidney Mize, a federal judge in Biloxi, appealed to the Fifth Circuit. Judge Leon Hendrick in Hinds County refused Kunstler's motion to cancel the mass appearance of all 187 convicted riders; the riders were convicted in a bench trial in Jackson and appealed to a county jury trial, where Kunstler argued that the county systematically discriminated against African-American jurors. In 1962, Kunstler took part in efforts to integrate public libraries in Albany, Georgia; that year, he published The Case for Courage highlighting the efforts of other lawyers who risked their careers for controversial clients as well as similar acts by public servants.
At the time of the publication, Kunstler was well known for his work with the Freedom Riders, his book on the Caryl Chessman case, his radio coverage of trials. Kunstler joined a group of lawyers criticizing the application of Alabama's civil libel laws and spoke at a rally against HUAC. In 1963, for the Gandhi Society of New York, Kunstler filed to remove the cases of more than 100 arrested African-American demonstrators from the Danville Corporation Court to the Charlottesville District Court, under a Reconstruction Era statute. Although the district judge remanded the cases to city court, he dissolved the city's injunction against demonstrations. In doing so, Judge Thomas J. Michie rejected a Justice Department amicus curiae brief urging the removal to create a test case for the statute. Kunstler appealed to the Fourth Circuit; that year Kunstler sued public housing authorities in Westchester County. In 1964, Kunstler defended a group of four accused of kidnapping a white couple, succeeded in getting the alleged weapons thrown out as evidence, as they could not be positively identified as those used.
That year he challenged Mississippi's unpledged elector law as well as racial segregation in primary elections.
Emmett Louis Till was a young African-American, lynched in Mississippi in 1955 at the age of 14, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement. Till was raised in Chicago. During summer vacation in August 1955, he was visiting relatives near Money, in the Mississippi Delta region, he spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant, the white married proprietor of a small grocery store there. Although what happened at the store is a matter of dispute, Till was accused of flirting with or whistling at Bryant. In 1955, Carolyn Bryant had testified Till made verbal advances; the jury did not hear Bryant's testimony, due to the judge ruling it inadmissible. Decades Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated part of the testimony regarding her interaction with Till the portion where she accused Till of grabbing her waist and uttering obscenities.
Till's interaction with Bryant unwittingly, violated the strictures of conduct for an African-American male interacting with a white woman in the Jim Crow-era South. Several nights after the store incident, Bryant's husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam went abducted the boy, they took him away and beat and mutilated him before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Three days Till's body was discovered and retrieved from the river. Till's body was returned to Chicago where his mother insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket. "The open-coffin funeral held by Mamie Till Bradley exposed the world to more than her son Emmett Till's bloated, mutilated body. Her decision focused attention not only on U. S. racism and the barbarism of lynching but on the limitations and vulnerabilities of American democracy". Tens of thousands attended his funeral or viewed his open casket, images of his mutilated body were published in black-oriented magazines and newspapers, rallying popular black support and white sympathy across the U.
S. Intense scrutiny was brought to bear on the lack of black civil rights in Mississippi, with newspapers around the U. S. critical of the state. Although local newspapers and law enforcement officials decried the violence against Till and called for justice, they responded to national criticism by defending Mississippians, temporarily giving support to the killers. In September 1955, Bryant and Milam were acquitted by an all-white jury of Till's kidnapping and murder. Protected against double jeopardy, the two men publicly admitted in a 1956 interview with Look magazine that they had killed Till. Till's murder was seen as a catalyst for the next phase of the Civil Rights Movement. In December 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott began in Alabama and lasted more than a year, resulting in a US Supreme Court ruling that segregated buses were unconstitutional. According to historians, events surrounding Emmett Till's life and death continue to resonate; some writers have suggested that every story about Mississippi returns to Till, or the Delta region in which he died, in "some spiritual, homing way."
An Emmett Till Memorial Commission was established in the early 21st century. The Sumner County Courthouse includes the Emmett Till Interpretive Center. Fifty-one sites in the Mississippi Delta are memorialized as associated with Till. Emmett Till was born in 1941 in Chicago. Emmett's mother Mamie was born in the small Delta town of Mississippi; the Delta region encompasses the large, multi-county area of northwestern Mississippi in the watershed of the Yazoo and Mississippi rivers. When Carthan was two years old, her family moved to Argo, Illinois, as part of the Great Migration of rural black families out of the South to the North to escape violence, lack of opportunity and unequal treatment under the law. Argo received so many Southern migrants that it was named "Little Mississippi". Mississippi was the poorest state in the U. S. in the 1950s, the Delta counties were some of the poorest in Mississippi. Mamie Carthan was born in Tallahatchie County, where the average income per white household in 1949 was $690.
For black families, the figure was $462. In the rural areas, economic opportunities for blacks were nonexistent, they were sharecroppers who lived on land owned by whites. Blacks had been disenfranchised and excluded from voting and the political system since 1890, when the white-dominated legislature passed a new constitution that raised barriers to voter registration. Whites had passed ordinances establishing racial segregation and Jim Crow laws. Mamie raised Emmett with her mother. Louis abused her, choking her to unconsciousness, to which she responded by throwing scalding water at him. For violating court orders to stay away from Mamie, Louis Till was forced by a judge in 1943 to choose between jail or enlisting in the U. S. Army. In 1945, a few weeks before his son's fourth birthday, he was executed for the rape and murder of an Italian woman. At the age of six, Emmett contracted polio. Mamie and Emmett moved to Detroit, where she
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Steven Hill was an American actor. His two better-known roles are district attorney Adam Schiff on the NBC television drama series Law & Order, whom he portrayed for 10 seasons, Dan Briggs, the original team leader of the Impossible Missions Force on the CBS television series Mission: Impossible, whom he portrayed in the initial season of the show. Hill was born Solomon Krakovsky or Solomon Berg in Seattle, Washington, to Russian Jewish immigrants. After graduating from West Seattle High School in 1940, Hill served four years in the United States Naval Reserve. In the 1950s, Hill moved to New York City to pursue an acting career. Hill made his first Broadway stage appearance in Ben Hecht's A Flag Is Born in 1946, which featured a young Marlon Brando. Hill said that his big break came when he landed a small part in the hit Broadway show Mister Roberts. "The director, Joshua Logan, thought I had some ability, he let me create one of the scenes," said Hill. "So, I improvised dialog and it went in the show.
That was my first endorsement. It gave me tremendous encouragement to stay in the business." Hill said this was a thrilling time in his life when, fresh out of the Navy, he played the hapless sailor Stefanowski. "You could smell it from the first reading that took place. "We all felt it and experienced it and were convinced of it, we were riding the crest of a wave from the first day of rehearsals." In 1947, Hill joined Brando, Montgomery Clift, Julie Harris, among others, as one of the 50 fortunate applicants to be accepted by the newly created Actors Studio. Hill made his film debut in 1950 in A Lady Without Passport, he re-enlisted in the Navy in 1952 for two years and, when he completed his service, resumed his acting in earnest. Strasberg said, "Steven Hill is considered one of the finest actors America has produced." When he was starting out as an actor, Hill sought out roles. "Later, I learned that show business is about entertaining," he said. "So, I've had to reconcile my idealistic feelings with reality."
Hill was busy in the so-called "Golden Age" of live TV drama, appearing in such offerings as The Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in 1960, where he portrayed Bartolomeo Vanzetti. "When I first became an actor, there were two young actors in New York: Marlon Brando and Steven Hill," said Martin Landau, who became Hill's castmate in the first season of Mission: Impossible. Landau went on to admit, "A lot of people said, he was legendary. Nuts, volatile and his work was exciting."In 1961, Hill had an unusual experience when he was cast as Sigmund Freud on Broadway in Henry Denker's A Far Country, portraying Freud at the age of 35. For on April 12, 1961, the night of a sold-out performance for the Masters Children's Center of Dobbs Ferry, Hill was stricken with a virus which incapacitated him so that as a direct result, just as the curtain was about to rise, the producers decided to cancel the performance. Among the notables in the audience were Joseph P. Kennedy, Jack Benny, Richard Rodgers; the audience was invited to exchange their ticket stubs for other performances.
The understudy was not ready to replace Hill, so Alfred Ryder, the play's director, stepped into the role of Freud for one performance. In 1961, he was cast as B. E. Langard in the episode "Act of Piracy" of the ABC series, Adventures in Paradise, which starred Gardner McKay, he appeared in the original Robert Stack ABC/Desilu crime drama, The Untouchables episode "Jack'Legs' Diamond," giving a compelling, evil performance as the eponymous character, a similar sinister role as a bedridden, ruthlessly manipulative millionaire in "The White Knight," a 1966 black-and-white, third-season episode of The Fugitive, which starred David Janssen. Hill's early screen credits include A Child Is Waiting. Hill was the original leader of the Impossible Missions Force, Dan Briggs, in the series Mission: Impossible beginning in 1966; the phrase "Good morning, Mr. Briggs..." was a fixture early in each episode, where a tape recording he retrieved detailed the task he must accomplish. However, he was replaced in the show in 1967 after the end of the first season.
As one of the few Orthodox Jewish actors working in Hollywood, he made it clear in advance of production that he was not able to work on the Sabbath, that he would leave the set every Friday before sundown. However, despite Hill's advance warnings, the show's producers were unprepared for his rigid adherence to the Sabbath, on at least one occasion, Hill left the set while an episode was still in the midst of filming; the producers used a number of ways of reducing the role of Hill's character, Dan Briggs, whereby he would only obtain and hand out the mission details at the start of certain episodes, being unable to take further part in the mission as he was known to people they would encounter, or Briggs would need to don a disguise and another actor would play his role incognito until the conclusion of the mission when Briggs would peel off a face mask. On other occasions, Briggs was waiting to pick up the team at the end. Martin Landau's character took over as the team leader for missions in Briggs's absence, Landau being a "special guest star" for the first season, not included in the show's original opening credits.
According to Desilu executive Herb Solow, William Shatner once burst into his office, claiming "Steve asked me how many Jews worked on Star Trek. He was