George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller was an American psychologist, one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field. He contributed to the birth of psycholinguistics and cognitive science in general. Miller wrote several books and directed the development of WordNet, an online word-linkage database usable by computer programs, he authored the paper, "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two," in which he insightfully observed that many different experimental findings considered together reveal the presence of an average limit of seven for human short-term memory capacity. This paper is cited in both psychology and the wider culture, he won awards, such as the National Medal of Science. Miller started his education focusing on speech and language and published papers on these topics, focusing on mathematical and psychological aspects of the field, he started his career at a time when the reigning theory in psychology was behaviorism, which eschewed any attempt to study mental processes and focused only on observable behavior.
Working at Harvard University, MIT and Princeton University, Miller introduced experimental techniques to study the psychology of mental processes. He went on to be one of the founders of psycholinguistics and was one of the key figures in founding the broader new field of cognitive science, circa 1978, he collaborated and co-authored work with other figures in cognitive science and psycholinguistics, such as Noam Chomsky. For moving psychology into the realm of mental processes and for aligning that move with information theory, computation theory, linguistics, Miller is considered one of the great twentieth-century psychologists. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Miller as the 20th most cited psychologist of that era. Miller was born on February 3, 1920, in Charleston, West Virginia, the son of an executive at a steel company, George E. Miller, Florence Miller. Soon after, his parents divorced, he grew up with only his mother during the Great Depression, attended public school, graduated from Charleston High School in 1937.
He relocated with his mother and stepfather to Washington D. C. and was at George Washington University for a year. His family practiced Christian Science, which required turning to prayer, rather than medical science, for healing. After his stepfather was transferred to Birmingham, Miller transferred to the University of Alabama, he received his bachelor's degree in history and speech in 1940, a master's in speech in 1941 from the University of Alabama. He had taken courses in phonetics, voice science, speech pathology. Membership in the Drama club fostered his interest in courses in the Speech Department, he was influenced by Professor Donald Ramsdell, who introduced him both to psychology, indirectly through a seminar, to his future wife Katherine James. They married on November 29, 1939. Katherine died in January 1996, he married Margaret Ferguson Skutch Page in 2008. Miller taught the course "Introduction to Psychology" at Alabama for two years, he enrolled in the PhD program in psychology at Harvard University in 1943, after coming to the university in 1942.
He received his doctorate in 1946 from Harvard's Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, under the supervision of Stanley Smith Stevens, researching military voice communications for the Army Signal Corps during World War II. His doctorate thesis, "The Optimal Design of Jamming Signals," was classified top secret by the US Army. After receiving his doctorate, Miller stayed as a research fellow at Harvard, to continue his research on speech and hearing, he was appointed assistant professor of psychology in 1948. The course he developed on language and communication would lead to his first major book and communication, he took a sabbatical in 1950, spent a year as a visiting fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, to pursue his interest in mathematics. Miller befriended J. Robert Oppenheimer, with whom he played squash. In 1951, Miller joined MIT as an associate professor of psychology, he led the psychology group at MIT Lincoln Lab. He worked on voice communication and human engineering, whereupon he identified the minimal voice features of speech required for it to be intelligible.
Based on this work, in 1955, he was invited to a talk at the Eastern Psychological Association. That presentation, "The magical number seven, plus or minus two", was published as a paper which went on to be a legendary one in cognitive psychology. Miller moved back to Harvard as a tenured associate professor in 1955 and became a full professor in 1958, expanding his research into how language affects human cognition. At the university he met another of the founders of cognitive science, they spent a summer together at Stanford training the faculty, their two families shared a house. In 1958–59, Miller took leave to join the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Palo Alto, California. There he collaborated with Eugene Galanter and Karl Pribram on the book Plans and the Structure of Behavior. In 1960, along with Jerome S. Bruner, he co-founded the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard; the cognitive term was a break from the then-dominant school of behaviorism, which insisted cognition was not fit for scientific study.
The center attracted such notable visitors as Alexander Luria and Chomsky. Miller became the chair of the psychology department. Miller was instrumental at the time for recruiting Timothy Leary to teach at Harvard. Miller knew Leary from the University of Alabama, where Miller was teaching psychology and Leary graduated with an undergraduate degree from the department. In 1967, Miller taught at Rockefe
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Edwin Garrigues Boring was an American experimental psychologist, Professor of Psychology at Clark University and at Harvard University, who became one of the first historians of psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Boring as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, tied with John Dewey, Amos Tversky, Wilhelm Wundt. Boring was born on October 23, 1886 in Philadelphia and grew up in a Quaker family interested in science, his elder sister was Alice Middleton Boring. In 1904, Boring attended Cornell University, he earned a ME degree in electrical engineering in 1908 and took a job at Bethlehem Steel Company in Pennsylvania. Boring returned to Cornell for an AM in physics, but he was instead drawn to the world of psychology by I. Madison Bentley's animal psychology course. Boring notes that his interest in psychology had begun in 1905, when he took an elementary psychology class as an elective while pursuing his engineering degree. Bentley's course was under the professorship of Edward B.
Titchener and captured Boring's attention. On one test Boring received back, Titchener had written "You have the psychological point of view!". It was that remark that stuck with him and guided him toward psychology when he arrived at Cornell for the second time. Boring's minor research strayed too far from Titchener's definition of psychology, it was at Titchener's suggestion. He conducted the study by placing a stomach tube in his own stomach to learn more about the sensations of the alimentary tract; the results indicated that the stomach and esophagus were more sensitive to temperature and pressure than had been realized. The studies indicate his interest, from an early age, in the physical and experimental components of psychology. In 1914, Boring's efforts were rewarded when he received his PhD. While he was completing his studies and his wife, Lucy M. Day, joined Titchener's lab group and became part of Titchener's selective in-group. Most of their time at Cornell was spent working on Titchener's research projects.
During Boring's time at Cornell, he developed a close relationship with Titchener, one that continued until Titchener's death, in 1927. Boring admired his dedication to his work. In his autobiography, he remarked that he believed Titchener to be the closest to genius of anyone he knew. Titchener presented Boring with his first opportunity not only to teach but to practice writing about the history of experimental psychology. Titchener wanted to redesign a systematic psychology course and enlisted his graduate students to do the job, it was a large task. Boring and the rest of the team read through German literature on experimental psychology and many other primary sources of information to complete this project; the finished product was a 200-lecture course. The task sparked Boring's interest in the history; the work gave Boring experience in teaching psychology. He continued to teach psychology at Cornell for 4 years but was glad when the war forced him to leave this position, as he felt that Cornell did not need him.
During the First World War, Boring was not drafted because of the birth of his first son. Disappointment over not helping his country did not last for long. Robert M. Yerkes asked him to join in the development of intelligence testing. Boring was appointed chief psychological examiner at Camp Upton in Long Island. In 1918, Boring was asked to work on a massive report on the army intelligence program. Boring made his contribution during the war but was troubled afterward by the lack of scientific objectivity that resulted from intelligence testing, he found the use of probabilities to answer scientific questions to be frustrating. At the time, Boring felt; as a result, Boring remained cautious of intelligence testing throughout his life. When questions followed in years about the definition of intelligence, Boring adopted the phrase "Intelligence is what the tests test". In 1920, Boring was offered a position at Harvard and was offered a position to continue working with Yerkes in Minnesota, he chose Harvard.
Boring felt that the previous psychology professor, Hugo Münsterberg, had "vulgarized" the field by placing it in the philosophical realm. However, the summer before he was to start at Harvard, G. Stanley Hall, the president of Clark University, offered him a job as professor of experimental psychology for three years with the promise that if his work was satisfactory, his position would be made permanent; the appeal of stability led Boring to accept the position at Clark. Here, he enjoyed his work, but there were concerns regarding the status of psychology when the new president and geographer Wallace Walter Atwood was appointed, who wanted to replace newly-popular psychology with geography. Controversy was stirred during the Red Scare, when Atwood accused Boring of being a Bolshevik encouraging underground radicalism at Clark; such allegations had no evidence of support, while Boring waited for his reappointment to Clark, he received another offer from H
Ogden is a city and the county seat of Weber County, United States 10 miles east of the Great Salt Lake and 40 miles north of Salt Lake City. The population was 84,316 in 2014, according to the US Census Bureau, making it Utah's 7th largest city; the city served as a major railway hub through much of its history, still handles a great deal of freight rail traffic which makes it a convenient location for manufacturing and commerce. Ogden is known for its many historic buildings, proximity to the Wasatch Mountains, as the location of Weber State University. Ogden is a principal city of the Ogden–Clearfield, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Weber, Morgan and Box Elder counties; the 2010 Census placed the Metro population at 597,159. In 2010, Forbes rated the Ogden-Clearfield MSA as the 6th best place to raise a family. Ogden has had a sister city relationship to Hof since 1954. Named Fort Buenaventura, Ogden was the first permanent settlement by people of European descent in what is now Utah.
It was established by the trapper Miles Goodyear in 1846 about a mile west of where downtown Ogden sits today. In November 1847, Captain James Brown purchased all the land now comprising Weber County together with some livestock and Fort Buenaventura for $3,000; the land was conveyed to Captain Brown in a Mexican Land Grant, this area being at that time a part of Mexico. The settlement was called Brownsville, after Captain James Brown, but was named Ogden for a brigade leader of the Hudson's Bay Company, Peter Skene Ogden, who had trapped in the Weber Valley a generation earlier. There is some confusion. A Samuel Ogden traveled though the western United States on an exploration trip in 1818; the site of the original Fort Buenaventura is now a Weber County park. Ogden is the closest sizable city to the Golden Spike location at Promontory Summit, where the First Transcontinental Railroad was joined in 1869, it was known as a major passenger railroad junction owing to its location along major east–west and north–south routes, prompting the local chamber of commerce to adopt the motto, "You can't get anywhere without coming to Ogden."
Railroad passengers traveling west to San Francisco from the eastern United States passed through Ogden. However, the national passenger rail system, no longer serves Ogden. Passengers who want to travel to and from Ogden by rail must travel via FrontRunner commuter rail to Salt Lake City and Provo. In 1972, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints completed construction of and dedicated the Ogden Utah Temple in Ogden; the temple was built to serve the area's large LDS population. In 2010, the LDS Church announced they would renovate the adjacent Tabernacle; the work which began in 2011 includes an update to the exterior, the removal of the Tabernacle's steeple to make the Temple's steeple a main focus and a new underground parking garage and gardens. The Temple was rededicated in 2014; because Ogden has been Utah's second largest city, it is home to a large number of historic buildings. However, by the 1980s, several Salt Lake City suburbs and Provo had surpassed Ogden in population; the Defense Depot Ogden Utah operated in Ogden from 1941 to 1997.
Some of its 1,128 acres have been converted into a commercial and industrial park called the Business Depot Ogden. Ogden is located at 41°13′11″N 111°58′16″W, at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of all land. Elevations in the city range from about 4,300 to 5,200 feet above sea level; the Ogden and Weber Rivers, which originate in the mountains to the east, flow through the city and meet at a confluence just west of the city limits. Pineview Dam is in the Ogden River Canyon 7 miles east of Ogden; the reservoir behind the dam provides over 110,000 acre feet of water storage and water recreation for the area. Prominent mountain peaks near Ogden include Mount Ogden to the east and Ben Lomond to the north. Ogden experiences a dry summer continental climate. Summers are hot and dry, with highs reaching 95 °F, with a few days per year reaching 100 °F. Rain is provided in the form of infrequent thunderstorms during summer between mid-July and mid-September during the height of monsoon season.
The Pacific storm season lasts from about October through May, with precipitation reaching its peak in spring. Snow first occurs in late October or early November, with the last occurring sometime in April. Winters are snowy, with highs averaging 37 °F in January. Snowfall averages about 40 inches, with 21.98 inches of precipitation annually. Extremes range from −16 °F, set on January 26, 1949, to 106 °F, set on July 14, 2002; as of the census of 2000, there were 77,226 people, 27,384 households, 18,402 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,899.2 people per square mile. There were 29,763 housing units at an average density of 1,117.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 79.01% White, 2.31% African American, 1.20% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 12.95% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.64% of the population. There were 27,384 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present
SS Stevens, a 473-foot, 14,893-ton ship, served as a floating dormitory from 1968 to 1975 for about 150 students of Stevens Institute of Technology, a technological university, in Hoboken, NJ. Permanently moored on the scenic Hudson River at the foot of the campus across from New York City, this first collegiate floating dormitory became one of the best known college landmarks in the country. Twenty-four years prior to her duty as a floating dormitory, the ship served with distinction in World War II as USS Dauphin, a Windsor-class attack transport vessel. Launched in 1944, Dauphin was awarded one battle star and was present in Tokyo Bay for the Surrender Ceremony of World War II, September 2, 1945. Following the war, the vessel underwent significant modifications, emerged as cruise liner SS Exochorda — a member of the post-war quartet of ships named "4 Aces", operated by American Export Lines. During her eleven years of cruise liner service, from 1948 to 1959, Exochorda — along with her nearly identical sister ships in the "4 Aces" — sailed with passengers and cargo on a 12,000-mile route from New York Harbor to various Mediterranean ports.
Exochorda was retired to the US Navy reserve fleet in 1959. Exochorda's conversion to a dormitory ship, following her purchase by Stevens Institute of Technology in 1967, required only minor modifications such as the connection of land-based water and electric utilities. Accommodations enjoyed by many student residents aboard Stevens included private baths and in-room control of heating and air-conditioning. Featuring portholes, roll-up berths and nautically-themed artwork, Stevens became quite popular among her residents. Purchased by the institute to fill a shortfall in student housing, the ship's operating costs during the initial years of service were comparable to conventional land-based dormitory housing. In years, the ship's burgeoning operating and repair costs, combined with a more favorable housing outlook, forced the institute to sell Stevens in 1975. In tribute, one of her 6-ton anchors was prominently placed on the campus grounds by the graduating Class of 1975. In August 1975, the ship was towed to a shipyard in Chester and she was subsequently scrapped in 1979.
From the west bank of the Hudson River, opposite mid-town Manhattan, Stevens offered her residents a panoramic view of the New York skyline extending from the George Washington Bridge in the north, to the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in the south. Located at the foot of the Stevens Institute of Technology campus in Hoboken, her venue afforded viewing of the large variety of watercraft that frequented the river. Silently gliding past portholes, river vessels imparted the sensation of motion to residents aboard their stationary home. Notable among the ships witnessed by Stevens' residents was the great transatlantic ocean liner, RMS Queen Elizabeth, sailing from New York on her final voyage, October 30, 1968. For Stevens' residents, all vessels traveling the river were bestowed New York City's picturesque backdrop. Stevens was moored at the foot of a bluff. With her starboard side adjacent to the Eighth Street pier at River Road, she was secured at her bow and stern by a total of seven mooring lines.
With concurrence by the Coast Guard, four sets of pilings were driven into the river bed, wedging the ship in place and preventing her from drifting downriver in the event the lines were cut. Although she carried four anchors, two on chains at her bow, two more fastened in place on deck, none were used to anchor the ship; the robustness of her mooring system was demonstrated during major storms that swept through the New York area. Despite high winds and accompanying storm surge, the pilings and mooring lines held the ship in place without incident, except for minor damage in some rooms caused by toppling of unsecured personal items. In a separate incident unrelated to storm activity, a departing cruise ship — while maneuvering to avoid a collision with two other departing cruise ships — passed unusually close to Stevens; the resulting wake from the passing ship tossed Stevens and caused the mooring bollard securing the bow lines to break away from its footing on the pier. The pilings and remaining lines held the ship in place without further incident.
Access to Stevens from the campus-owned Eighth Street Pier was facilitated by two gangplanks. A double-ramped covered gangplank provided access from the main "A" deck foyer to a fixed, elevated platform on the pier. Two stairways connected the elevated platform to the pier surface. A second gangplank, an uncovered single ramp, provided access to the lower "B" deck directly from the pier surface. Rollers attached to the end of each gangplank accommodated the ship's motion on the water. Normal walking distance between "the Ship", as she was known by students, upper campus facilities such as the Student Center was 0.5 miles and included a lengthy flight of stairs south of the Gatehouse. An alternative route was improvised by students seeking to reduce walking time and distance; this route, dubbed "Ho Chi Minh trail", or "the trail", required scaling the treacherous 105-foot bluff directly below the Student Center building on the upper campus and was frequented by the ship's more intrepid residents.
Stevens comprised a lower "B" deck, main "A" deck, Promenade and Sun decks. Students' quarters and public spaces were distributed throughout all decks except for Sun deck, closed; the main "A" deck, the highest deck to extend the entire length of the ship, included a center section with students' rooms and the ship's main foyer with gangway. The lower "B" deck conta
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students