Bargo, New South Wales
Bargo is a small town of the Macarthur Region, New South Wales, Australia in the Wollondilly Shire. It is approximately 100 km south west of Sydney and it is situated between the township of Tahmoor and the village of Yanderra, and accessible via the Hume Highway that links Sydney and Melbourne. It was previously known as West Bargo and Cobargo, Bargo railway station was first opened on 19 July 1919 as West Bargo and renamed in 1921 as Bargo. The station is part of the Main South Line and is served by NSW TrainLinks Southern Highlands Line, the original Bargo railway station building on the eastern side of the platform was destroyed by arson. Currently in use is a permanent demountable building, bargos community facilities include a racetrack, tennis courts, sporting fields and skate park. The name Bargo may be derived from the local Aboriginal language name Barago, meaning cripple, thick scrub, the earliest reference to Barago was noted as by George Caley in a letter to Sir Joseph Banks on 25 September 1807.
The aborigines called the Bargo area Narregarang, meaning that the soil was not firm - a shaky place, early explorers and convicts found getting through the Bargo area a difficult experience due to the thick scrub, explorers dubbing the tricky bush the Bargo Brush. In early Colonial times, Bargo Brush became notorious among travelers for harboring bolters, convicts who had escaped from captivity, Bayley quotes William Riley, who passed through Bargo Brush on horseback in 1830. A miserable, barren scrub, thickly wooded for eight miles, soon the Brush, with its thickets for hideouts, became the lurking place for robbers and caused travel to become fraught with peril. The Sydney Gazette of 17 March 1832 reported the road as, J. H. Heaton, under the heading Crimes and Criminals, Remarkable lists Desperate conflict between four police and eleven prisoners at Bargo Brush, N. S. W. Constable Raymond shot dead by a prisoner named James Crookwell, April 15,1866, Bargo is noted as being where the first recorded sightings of the lyrebird and wombat took place by European settlers.
Bargo is the site of a massacre in 1816. Bargo Police Station, now abandoned, is used as a doctors surgery. The lock-ups remain behind the building, the patrol area of the Bargo Police Station included Pheasants Nest, parts of Tahmoor and Yanderra. Nepean and Avon Dams Natural attractions like the Avon and Nepean Dams are an attraction for family picnics and for viewing local and Illawarra water catchments. Mermaid Pools and the Potholes Mermaid Pools and the Potholes are located on the Wollondilly River and are open to the public for swimming, Mermaid Pools was a local sacred aboriginal site for women. It is believed to be protected by spirits, Wollondilly AFL Club Australian Football was established in Bargo in 1982 at the Bargo Sportsground. Firstly with the Wollondilly Junior Australian Football Club - The Cygnets with teams from U9s - U15s competing in the Greater West Sydney Competition, followed in 1989 Wollondilly Senior Australian Football Club - The Knights fielding First Grade and Reserve teams in the South Coast AFL Competition
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure. The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing comprising a number of interconnected baffled cells. Wing shape is maintained by the lines, the pressure of air entering vents in the front of the wing. Despite not using an engine, paragliders flight can last many hours and cover many hundreds of kilometers, by skillful exploitation of sources of lift, the pilot may gain height, often climbing to altitudes of a few thousand meters. Jalbert advanced governable gliding parachutes with multi-cells and controls for lateral glide, in 1954, Walter Neumark predicted a time when a glider pilot would be able to launch himself by running over the edge of a cliff or down a slope. Whether on a holiday in Skye or ski-ing in the Alps. In 1961, the French engineer Pierre Lemoigne produced improved parachute designs that led to the Para-Commander, the PC had cutouts at the rear and sides that enabled it to be towed into the air and steered – leading to parasailing/parascending.
He filed US Patent 3131894 on January 10,1963, about that same time, David Barish was developing the sail wing for recovery of NASA space capsules – slope soaring was a way of testing out. After tests on Hunter Mountain, New York, in September 1965, authors Patrick Gilligan and Bertrand Dubuis wrote the first flight manual, The Paragliding Manual in 1985, officially coining the word paragliding. These developments were combined in June 1978 by three friends, Jean-Claude Bétemps, André Bohn and Gérard Bosson, from Mieussy, Haute-Savoie, Bohn followed him and glided down to the football pitch in the valley 1000 metres below. From the 1980s, equipment has continued to improve, and the number of paragliding pilots, the first Paragliding World Championship was held in Verbier, Switzerland, in 1987, though the first officially sanctioned FAI World Championship was held in Kössen, Austria, in 1989. Europe has seen the greatest growth in paragliding, with France alone currently registering over 25,000 active pilots, the paraglider wing or canopy is usually what is known in aeronautical engineering as a ram-air airfoil.
Such wings comprise two layers of fabric that are connected to supporting material in such a way as to form a row of cells. By leaving most of the open only at the leading edge, incoming air keeps the wing inflated. When inflated, the wings cross-section has the typical teardrop aerofoil shape, modern paraglider wings are made of high-performance non-porous materials such as ripstop polyester or nylon fabric. In some modern paragliders, especially wings, some of the cells of the leading edge are closed to form a cleaner aerodynamic profile. Holes in the internal ribs allow a flow of air from the open cells to these closed cells to inflate them, and to the wingtips. The pilot is supported underneath the wing by a network of suspension lines and these start with two sets of risers made of short lengths of strong webbing
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the postal system. All postcodes in Australia have four digits and are placed at the end of the Australian address, Australian postcodes are managed by Australia Post. Postcodes are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website, Australian envelopes and postcards often have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode. These are used when addressing mail by hand, use of the Australian postcode system commenced in 1967, implemented by the Postmaster-Generals Department, now called Australia Post. It replaced earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbournes letter and number codes, if addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before Australia. They are often linked with one area, due to post code rationalization, But are now sometimes they can be quite complex, especially in country areas. The south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with very few people and this means that mail for these places is not fully sorted until it gets to Geelong.
Some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations, Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for deliveries and one for post office boxes. g. The Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200, more postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006, Australian National Universitys postcode 0200 was the last LVR to be closed in September 2014. For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, and postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW. It is just south of the towns of Vincentia and Huskisson, Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT.
The numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e. g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years, australias external territories are included in Australia Posts postcode system. Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other. As an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales
By the 1820s, the term bushranger had evolved to refer to those who abandoned social rights and privileges to take up robbery under arms as a way of life, using the bush as their base. Bushranging thrived during the rush years of the 1850s and 1860s when the likes of Ben Hall, Frank Gardiner. In other infamous cases, such as that of Dan Morgan, the Clarke brothers, the number of bushrangers declined due to better policing and improvements in rail transport and communication technology, such as telegraphy. Kellys capture and execution in 1880 effectively represented the end of the bushranging era, bushranging exerted a powerful influence in Australia, lasting for almost a century and covering much of the continent. Its origins in a convict system bred a kind of desperado. Native-born bushrangers expressed nascent Australian nationalist views and are recognised as the first distinctively Australian characters to gain general recognition, as such, many bushrangers became folk heroes and symbols of rebellion against the authorities, admired for their bravery, rough chivalry and colourful personalities.
For these and other reasons, attitudes to bushrangers in Australia are at times complex, from this time onwards, the term was used to denote criminals who attacked people on the roads or in the bush. John Bigge described bushranging in 1821 as absconding in the woods and living upon plunder, charles Darwin likewise recorded in 1835 that a bushranger was an open villain who subsists by highway robbery, and will sooner be killed than taken alive. Over 2,000 bushrangers are estimated to have roamed the Australian countryside, beginning with the convict bolters, bushranging began soon after British colonisation with the establishment of Sydney, New South Wales as a penal colony in 1788. The majority of early bushrangers were convicts who had escaped prison and these bushrangers, known as bolters, preferred the hazards of wild, unexplored bushland surrounding Sydney to the deprivation and brutality of convict life. The first bushranger gang, led by African convict John Caesar, robbed settlers for food, Aboriginal trackers would play a significant role in the hunt for bushrangers.
Colonel Godfrey Mundy described convict bushrangers as desperate, fearless, rendered so, perhaps, by the tyranny of a gaoler, of an overseer, or of a master to whom he has been assigned. Liberty or Death. was the cry of convict bushrangers, and in numbers they roamed beyond Sydney, some hoping to reach China. Bolters such as the Norfolk Island mutineers seized boats and set sail for foreign lands, others attempted to inspire an overhaul of the convict system, or simply sought revenge on their captors. This latter desire found expression in the convict ballad Jim Jones at Botany Bay, in which Jones, Donahue was the most notorious bushranger of the 1820s, terrorising settlements outside Sydney from 1827 until he was fatally shot by a trooper in 1830. That same year, west of the Blue Mountains, brutalised convict Ralph Entwistle sparked a bushranging insurgency known as the Bathurst Rebellion and he and his gang raided farms, liberating assigned convicts by force in the process, and within a month, his personal army numbered 130 bushrangers.
Following battles with vigilante posses, mounted policemen and soldiers of the 39th Regiment of Foot, he, convict bushrangers were particularly prevalent in the penal colony of Van Diemens Land, established in 1803. He was killed by soldiers in 1818, other notorious Vandemonian bolters include the cannibal serial killers Thomas Jeffries and Alexander Pearce
Liverpool, New South Wales
Liverpool is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located in Greater Western Sydney 32 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, Liverpool is the administrative seat of the local government area of the City of Liverpool. Liverpool is one of the oldest urban settlements in Australia, founded on 7 November 1810 as a centre by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Until the 1950s, Liverpool was still a town with an agricultural economy based on poultry farming. The city centre has a Hoddle Grid layout with many little laneways and arcades, the main strip is Macquarie Street which contains numerous small cafes. In recent times the extension of the Westfield shopping centre has many new fashion stores come in. The main shopping area is centred on Macquarie Street, with Westfield Liverpool, Liverpool Plaza is located between Macquarie Mall & Northumberland Street. The northern end of the city has been zoned for high density residential apartments, the southern end of the city is zoned for high density commercial developments.
Liverpool has a teaching hospital, two technical colleges and many shopping centres and office buildings. The private hospital operator Healthscope owns the Sydney Southwest Private Hospital in Liverpool, Liverpool is well served by roads such as the Hume Highway, the M5 motorway, the Westlink M7 motorway. Liverpool railway station has services to Sydney CBD and Campbelltown as well as two morning services to Parramatta on most weekdays. The Liverpool to Parramatta transitway provides a route for buses. Liverpool Boys and Liverpool Girls are the two secondary schools. The Mainsbridge School caters to children with disabilities and Liverpool Hospital School for children hospitalised for lengthy periods. Private schools include All Saints Primary School, All Saints Catholic College, St Lukes Anglican Church, located in the city centre across the road from Westfield Liverpool, is the oldest Anglican church in Australia. All Saints Catholic Church in George St is located with the All Saints schools, St Raphael and Irene Greek Orthodox Church is in Forbes Street and the Serbian Orthodox Church of the Apostle Luke is on Flowerdale Rd.
There are many open spaces within the city centre, including botanical parks, bigge Park on the east side of the city features a War Memorial while Pioneer Memorial Park to the north has a historical cemetery. Woodward Park to the west is the main sporting precinct containing a number of playing fields and the Whitlam Leisure Centre, hosting a swimming pool
Bulli, New South Wales
Bulli is a northern suburb of Wollongong situated on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia. Bulli is derived from an Aboriginal word signifying double or two mountains, originally inhabited by Wodi Wodi Aborigines, European wood cutters worked in the area from about 1815. The area was abundant in Red Cedars, these are now still seen. The first permanent European settler was Cornelius OBrien, who established a farm in 1823, Bulli soil is the primary source of soil and foundation of Sydney Cricket Ground. The Bulli Coal Company opened a mine in 1862 on the escarpment and built cottages to house miners, Coal was transported by rail from the mine to Bulli Jetty at Sandon Point where it was loaded onto ships. The miners were paid in accordance with production, they were not paid a set wage, the first trade union in the Illawarra region was formed by miners at Bulli in 1879. Management retaliated by firing and evicting union miners and hiring non-union labour, on 23 March 1887 a gas explosion in the mine killed 81 men and boys, leaving 50 women widows and 150 children without fathers.
There was one survivor, a 17-year-old boy who became known as Boy Cope, a memorial obelisk listing the names of those who perished is situated in Park Road, adjacent to the railway line. The mine reopened in the year, the Bulli Mine Disaster was one of the worst in the regions history, see Mount Kembla. The mine has long been leveled, with only concrete foundations revealing the location of the old office area. Hidden along the cliff behind said foundations can be found the old mine entrances and these have been sealed with up to 12 feet of concrete, with a drainage line set in the concrete. To the east is the remnants of the site, a few scattered foundations. This bridge now features a sign for the historic black diamond district. Bulli Beach is a surfing spot. The northern tip is a venue for surfing competitions. Bullis main historical feature is the station, situated between the escarpment and the surf beaches. The station was the first on the south coast and contains a museum which is open every Sunday, another historic feature is the Bulli Heritage Hotel, which was opened in 1889.
This is in the heart of the Black Diamond district, the Illawarra Grevillea Park is an arboretum and botanic garden which opened in 1993
Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast region. It encompasses the cities of Wollongong, the town of Kiama, the region consists of a coastal plain, narrow in the north and wider in the south, bounded by the Tasman Sea on the east and the mountainous, almost impassable Illawarra escarpment to the west. In the middle of the region is Lake Illawarra, a lake formed when sediment built up at the entrance to a bay. North of Wollongong the plain narrows to a strip of land between the coast and the escarpment. At Coalcliff and Stanwell Park small valleys are formed allowing further settlement, to the south it widens, and becomes increasingly hillier before reaching Stockyard Mountain, a long divide between the main plain and the Jamberoo Valley, which stretches until it reaches Kiama. South of Kiama is Saddleback Mountain and south of that the Shoalhaven plains, the main industries in the area have traditionally been farming, coal mining and steel making.
Australias largest steel-works, BlueScope Steel, operates at Port Kembla, the Illawarra region is linked to Sydney by several passes and a motorway and electric railway, to the west by the Illawarra Highway and Picton Road, and to the south by the Princes Highway. At Albion Park Rail the Illawarra Regional Airport serves the region, the word illawarra is derived from the Aboriginal Tharawal word allowrie, sometimes spelled as elouera or eloura. According to A. W. Reed, the word is translated as pleasant place near the sea or high place near the sea. The prefix of illa is known to white clay, with the suffix warra, sometimes spelled as wurra. George Bass and Matthew Flinders were the first Europeans to visit the area, for the period around 1806, the region was called Five Islands, referring to the group of five islands off Red Point. In 1817 Governor Macquarie, referring to region, part of the coast known generally by the name of the Five Islands, but called by the natives Illawarra. For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the Municipality of Kiama is south of Shellharbour City, and ranges from the Minnamurra River, west to Bald Hill, and south to about 4 kilometres south of Gerroa.
The City of Shoalhaven is south of Kiama Municipality, and covers the southernmost reaches of the Illawarra to Ulladulla, the Wingecarribee Shire covers the western most reaches of the Illawarrra, and further on becomes part of the Southern Highlands region. Illawarra cattle were bred in Illawarra and are now Australias 3rd largest breed in population. They are large Dark red cows sometimes with white patches and they produce large amounts of high butter fat and high protein milk and are really durable and suited to the Australian climate. Coal mining has been a key part to the Illawarras economy for over 200 years, the Illawarra Steelers still field teams in the lower rugby league divisions
Stanwell Park railway station
Stanwell Park railway station is located on the Illawarra line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the village of Stanwell Park opening on 23 December 1901. The original rail line followed what is now Lawrence Hargrave Drive, curving around the southern headland, the station opened on 14 March 1890 at its original site opposite Station Street under the footbridge. To the north the line followed Chellow Dene Avenue to the Otford Tunnel through Bald Hill, a platform was provided on the eastern side on 24 April 1890, and was moved to the western side to make room for a crossing loop which opened on 23 December 1901. Station buildings were added on 4 June 1903 and a box on 17 May 1909. A second platform was provided on 13 July 1909, and the footbridge over the station installed on 9 October 1911, to the north a steep grade of 1 in 40 faced northbound trains almost all the way to Otford. This combined with the 1, 550-metre long Otford Tunnel meant that trains were divided at Stanwell Park. Refuge sidings were provided for trains at Stanwell Park from 17 December 1912 so that the rear portion of divided trains no longer had to be left on the main line.
In 1920, the single line was replaced with a double track deviation. The deviation avoided the Otford Tunnel and steep grades by tracing around the Stanwell Park amphitheatre at a level. The new line featured an eight span, 145-metre long, 42-metre high curved viaduct over Stanwell Creek south of the station which required over three million bricks in its construction. Stanwell Park has two platforms and is serviced by NSW TrainLink South Coast line services travelling between Waterfall and Port Kembla. Some peak hour and late night services operate to Sydney Central, Bondi Junction and Kiama
Sea Cliff Bridge
The Sea Cliff Bridge is a balanced cantilever bridge located in the northern Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The $52 million bridge links the villages of Coalcliff and Clifton. Featuring two lanes of traffic, a cycleway and a walkway, the Sea Cliff Bridge boasts spectacular views and is a feature of the scenic Lawrence Hargrave Drive. The Sea Cliff Bridge replaced a section of Lawrence Hargrave Drive that was closed in August 2003 due to regular rock falls. A public outcry emerged over the closure as Lawrence Hargrave Drive is the only road directly linking Coalcliff, Stanwell Park, Otford. The Sea Cliff Bridge was named by 11-year-old schoolgirl Makenzie Russell following a competition opened to local primary school students. It is a location for Love padlocks. The Sea Cliff Bridge is one of only seven off-shore parallel to coast bridges in the world, the Sea Cliff Bridge has been featured in a joint 2007 Ferrari/Shell Fuel television advert that was shown in many countries around the world including Australia.
The television advert featured a Ferrari Formula 1 car being driven along the bridge at high speed, the bridge has been featured in many car advertisements around the world, including in VE Holden Commodore commercials. It is featured in the game, Forza Horizon 3
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Lawrence Hargrave, MRAeS, was an Australian engineer, astronomer and aeronautical pioneer. Hargrave was born in Greenwich, the son of John Fletcher Hargrave and was educated at Queen Elizabeths Grammar School, Kirkby Lonsdale. He immigrated to Australia with his family, arriving in Sydney on 5 November 1865 on the La Hogue and he accepted a place on the Ellesmere and circumnavigated Australia. He found the experience of use in constructing his models. In 1872, as an engineer, he sailed on the Maria on a voyage to New Guinea, in 1875 he again sailed as an engineer on William John Macleays expedition to the Gulf of Papua. In 1877 he was inspecting the newly developing pearling industry for Parbury Lamb and he returned to Sydney, joined the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1877, and in 1878 became an assistant astronomical observer at Sydney Observatory. He held this position for five years, retired in 1883 with a moderate competency. Hargrave had been interested in experiments of all kinds from an early age, when his father died in 1885, and Hargrave came into his inheritance, he resigned from the observatory to concentrate on full-time research.
And for a time gave particular attention to the flight of birds, in his career, Hargrave invented many devices, but never applied for a patent on any of them. He needed the money but he was a believer in scientific communication as a key to furthering progress. As he wrote in 1893, Workers must root out the idea by keeping the results of their labours to themselves a fortune will be assured to them, patent fees are much wasted money. The flying machine of the future will not be fully fledged. Like everything else it must be evolved gradually, the first difficulty is to get a thing that will fly at all. When this is made, a full description should be published as an aid to others, excellence of design and workmanship will always defy competition. Among many, three of Hargraves inventions were significant, Study of curved aerofoils, particularly designs with a thicker leading edge. The box kite, which improved the lift to drag ratio of early gliders. Work on the engine, which powered many early aircraft up until about 1920.
He made endless experiments and numerous models, and communicated his conclusions in a series of papers to the Royal Society of New South Wales, two papers which will be found in the 1885 volume of its Journal and Proceedings show that he was early on the road to success
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorized foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider. Most modern hang gliders are made of an aluminium alloy or composite frame covered with synthetic sailcloth to form a wing, typically the pilot is in a harness suspended from the airframe, and controls the aircraft by shifting body weight in opposition to a control frame. Early hang gliders had a low ratio, so pilots were restricted to gliding down small hills. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and national airspace governing organizations control some aspects of hang gliding. Obtaining the safety benefits of being instructed is highly recommended, the earliest forms of gliding had existed in China. By the end of the sixth century A. D. the Chinese had managed to build kites large and it was only a matter of time before someone decided to simply remove the kite strings and see what happened. Most early glider designs did not ensure safe flight, the problem was that early pioneers did not sufficiently understand the underlying principles that made a birds wing work.
Starting in the 1880s technical and scientific advancements were made that led to the first truly practical gliders, otto Lilienthal built controllable gliders in the 1890s, with which he could ridge soar. His rigorously documented work influenced designers, making Lilienthal one of the most influential early aviation pioneers and his aircraft was controlled by weight shift and is similar to a modern hang glider. Hang gliding saw a stiffened flexible wing hang glider in 1904, in 1910 in Breslau, the triangle control frame with hang glider pilot hung behind the triangle in a hang glider, was evident in a gliding clubs activity. In April 1909, a article by Carl S. Volmer Jensen with a biplane hang glider in 1940 called VJ-11 allowed safe three-axis control of a foot-launched hang glider. In 1960-1962 Barry Hill Palmer adapted the flexible wing concept to make foot-launched hang gliders with four different control arrangements, in 1963 Mike Burns adapted the flexible wing to build a towable kite-hang glider he called Skiplane.
Since then, the Rogallo wing has been the most used airfoil of hang gliders, there are basically two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails, Woven Polyester Fabrics, and Composite Laminated Fabrics made of some combination of polyester film and polyester fibers. Woven polyester sailcloth is a tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers that has been stabilized by the hot-press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to distortion and stretch and this resistance is important in maintaining the aerodynamic shape of the sail. Woven polyester provides the best combination of weight and durability in a sail with the best overall handling qualities. Laminated sail materials using polyester film achieve superior performance by using a stretch material that is better at maintaining sail shape but is still relatively light in weight. In most hang gliders, the control is and has achieved using a horizontal bar held by the pilot, known as triangle control frame