Erbach im Odenwald
Erbach is a town and the district seat of the Odenwaldkreis in Hesse, Germany. It has a population of around 13,000; the town lies in the Mittelgebirge Odenwald at elevations between 200 and 560 m in the valley of the Mümling. One geological peculiarity is the creek Erdbach’s complete disappearance within Dorf-Erbach’s community area; the Erdbach reappears near Stockheim. There are several places. Erbach borders in the north on the town of Michelstadt, in the east on the market town of Kirchzell, in the south on the community of Hesseneck and the town of Beerfelden and in the west on the community of Mossautal. A planned merger with the neighbouring town of Michelstadt was blocked in November 2007 by a referendum. For the time being, ways are being sought to deepen the two towns’ cooperation, consider a merger once again in a few years’ time. Since the amalgamations within the framework of municipal reform in 1972, the district seat of Erbach has been made up of twelve Stadtteile: The municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: Buschmann was re-elected in 2012 with 52.7 % of the votes.
The town’s arms might heraldically be described thus: Gules a bend wavy azure, thereon three mullets of six gules. The wavy bend is taken to be a brook, the mullets of six were inspired by the arms borne by the princely Counts of Erbach, who were lords of the Odenwald until 1806. Erbach has partnerships with four towns in Europe: Ansião, Portugal Jičín, Czech Republic Königsee, Thuringia Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin, Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin, France Erbach Palace, the castle of the princely Counts of Erbach was built into a residence in the style of the times in the 18th century. Since the noble house did not have the needed materials on hand, only the middle wing of the planned three-winged building was built; the façade is to a great extent built out of not sandstone, but rather sheeting or wood coloured to look like it. The antique collections at the castle have remained unchanged since Count Franz I’s time. In 2005, the state of Hesse bought the castle for €13,000,000. Within the castle complex is the Late Baroque orangery with the castle garden.
In the area of the orangery and the castle garden, a citizens' initiative in the 1970s managed to thwart plans to tear down the orangery and build a highrise hotel on the site The memorial on the castle square to Count Franz I – the last ruling count –, knocked off its pedestal and thereby broken was repaired and set back in place with support from two Darmstadt artists and some Erbach citizens. The work was financed through grants from the Landesamt für Denkmalpflege as well as donations; the Erbacher Wiesenmarkt was called the Eulbacher Markt or Eulbacher Wiesenmarkt. Eulbach is an outlying centre of the neighbouring town of Michelstadt, it was once a regionally important livestock and farm market. The livestock and farm market was only moved to Erbach sometime in the late 19th or early 20th century by the Counts of Eulbach; until about 1960, the livestock and horse market with its associated horseracing and other horse sports was the main part of the Eulbacher Markt. The Schützenhaus standing on the way into the Wiesenmarkt, suggests that the Eulbacher Markt, at least in part, must have been held in Erbach as early as the mid 19th century: it was here that the Democratic Revolutionaries met in 1848 and on what is now the market grounds beside the Schützenhaus that the Odenwald “Moot” was held under the Michelstadt revolutionary and lawyer Ludwig Bogen’s leadership.
The Deutsches Elfenbeinmuseum Erbach is unique in Europe. Its exhibits are exclusively ivory. Visitors can watch the resident carvers as they go about their artistic work. Franz I, the last ruling count, introduced ivory carving in 1783, thus giving the town the nickname Elfenbeinstadt. Many artists made their homes here and today their works and activities can still be admired at the town’s Deutsches Elfenbeinmuseum Erbach. Owing to widespread bans since 1989, aimed at protecting animals, on dealing in ivory, nowadays comparable materials such as animal horns are used. Popular as a material is prehistoric mammoth tusk, still found from time to time in Siberia. Besides the different colour, this is comparable to elephant tusk ivory. Bosch Rexroth AG, Erbach works, Electric Drives and Controls division Rowenta, Erbach works Koziol GmbH, plastic articles Erbach lies on Bundesstraßen 45 and 47, on the Odenwald Railway. A planned Bundesstraße 45 bypass proposed since the 1970s has once again been included in Hesse state planning.
Schule am Treppenweg Astrid-Lindgren-Schule Schule am Sportpark Schule am Drachenfeld Norbert Busè, filmmaker and film producer Oka Nikolov, Macedonian football goalkeeper Jessica Schwarz, German actress and presenter Timo Boll, professional table tennis player Meike Weber, footballer Heinrich List, farmer from Ernsbach, hid Ferdinand Strauss, a Jew, during the Nazi dictatorship, was betrayed and died in 1942 at Dachau. He and his wife have been recognized as being among the Righteous among the Nations at Yad Vashem. Serap Çileli, aut
Kaufbeuren is an independent town in the Regierungsbezirk of Swabia, Bavaria. The town is enclaved within the district of Ostallgäu. Kaufbeuren Hirschzell Kemnat Neugablonz Oberbeuren Stefan Bosse is the Lord Mayor of Kaufbeuren since November 2004, he was reelected in March 2014 with 57,48 % of the votes. Town hall Crescentiakloster Historic Old Town with conserved, historic city wall St.-Martins-Kirche Fünfknopfturm St.-Blasius-Kirche Hexenturm Gerberturm Pulverturm Münzturm Sywollnturm Zollhäuschen Stadttheater Kaufbeuren kunsthaus kaufbeuren Stadtmuseum Feuerwehrmuseum Puppentheater-Museum Isergebirgs-Museum Maria Crescentia Höss, beatified 1900, sainted 2001 Sophie von La Roche (1730-1807, writer Ludwig Ganghofer, writer Rudolf Roessler and spy Wilhelm Walcher, physicist Hans Liebherr master mason, inventor of the mobile tower crane and founder of the international Liebherr Group. Hans Magnus Enzensberger, poet and publisher Walter Riester, Secretary of State for Employment 1998-2002 Dieter Hegen, former ice-hockey player Erich Weishaupt, ice hockey player Alexander Sulzer, ice hockey player The Kaufbeuren Air Base was established as a Luftwaffe station in 1935.
When seized by the United States Army in May 1945 at the end of World War II it was discovered to be the final location of Nazi Party's top secret FA signals intelligence and cryptanalytic agency. After serving as a U. S. airbase during the post-war period, the field was returned to the town, today serves as a German Air Force training field. The Tänzelfest is a festival, which takes place at the end of June. Children re-enact the history of the town in traditional costume. There are a lot of events at this time; the town is known for their ice hockey team ESV Kaufbeuren. They play in DEL2, the second level of ice hockey in Germany. Ferrara, Italy Szombathely, Hungary Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic "Kaufbeuren". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. 1911. Official website kunsthaus kaufbeuren Tänzelfest in Kaufbeuren The history of Kaufbeuren
Star and crescent
The star and crescent is an iconographic symbol used in various historical contexts but most well known today as a symbol of the former Ottoman Empire and, by popular extension, the Islamic world. It develops in the iconography of the Hellenistic period in the Kingdom of Pontus, the Bosporan Kingdom and notably the city of Byzantium by the 2nd century BCE, it is the conjoined representation of the crescent and a star, both of which constituent elements have a long prior history in the iconography of the Ancient Near East as representing either Sun and Moon or Moon and Morning Star. Coins with crescent and star symbols represented separately have a longer history, with possible ties to older Mesopotamian iconography; the star, or Sun, is shown within the arc of the crescent. The combination is found comparatively in late medieval and early modern heraldry, it rose to prominence with its adoption as the flag and emblem of the Ottoman Empire and some of its administrative divisions and in the 19th-century Westernizing tanzimat.
The Ottoman flag of 1844, with a white ay-yıldız on a red background, continues to be in use as the flag of the Republic of Turkey, with minor modifications. Other states part of the Ottoman Empire used the symbol, including Libya and Algeria; the same symbol was used in other national flags introduced during the 20th century, including the flags of Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Mauritania, Turkmenistan and Maldives. In the 20th century, the star and crescent have acquired a popular interpretation as a "symbol of Islam" embraced by Arab nationalism or Islamism in the 1970s to 1980s, but rejected as erroneous or unfounded by Muslim commentators in more recent times. Unicode introduced a "star and crescent" character in its Miscellaneous Symbols block, at U+262A. Crescents appearing together with a star or stars are a common feature of Sumerian iconography, the crescent being associated with the moon god Sin and the star with Ishtar placed alongside the sun disk of Shamash. In Late Bronze Age Canaan and crescent moon motifs are found on Moabite name seals.
The depiction of the crescent-and-star or "star inside crescent" as it would develop in Bosporan Kingdom is difficult to trace to Mesopotamian art. Exceptionally, a combination of the crescent of Sin with the five-pointed star of Ishtar, with the star placed inside the crescent as in the Hellenistic-era symbol, placed among numerous other symbols, is found in a boundary stone of Nebuchadnezzar I. An example of such an arrangement is found in the reconstruction of a fragmentary stele of Ur-Nammu discovered in the 1920s. Mithradates VI Eupator of Pontus used an eight rayed star with a crescent moon as his emblem. McGing notes the association of the star and crescent with Mithradates VI, discussing its appearance on his coins, its survival in the coins of the Bosporan Kingdom where "he star and crescent appear on Pontic royal coins from the time of Mithradates III and seem to have had oriental significance as a dynastic badge of the Mithridatic family, or the arms of the country of Pontus." Several possible interpretations of the emblem have been proposed.
In most of these, the "star" is taken to represent the Sun. The combination of the two symbols has been taken as representing Sun and Moon, the Zoroastrian Mah and Mithra, or deities arising from Greek-Anatolian-Iranian syncretism, the crescent representing Mēn Pharnakou and the "star" representing Ahuramazda By the late Hellenistic or early Roman period, the star and crescent motif had been associated to some degree with Byzantium. If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople, it was Hecate. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. Like Byzas in one legend, she had her origins in Thrace. Hecate was considered the patron goddess of Byzantium because she was said to have saved the city from an attack by Philip of Macedon in 340 BCE by the appearance of a bright light in the sky. To commemorate the event the Byzantines erected a statue of the goddess known as the Lampadephoros; some Byzantine coins of the 1st century BCE and show the head of Artemis with bow and quiver, feature a crescent with what appears to be a six-rayed star on the reverse.
The star and crescent symbol appears on some coins of the Parthian vassal kingdom of Elymais in the late 1st century CE. The same symbol is present in coins that are associated with Orodes I of Parthia. In the 2nd century CE, some Parthian coins show a simplified "pellet within crescent" symbol; the star and crescent motif appears on the margin of Sassanid coins in the 5th century. Sassanid rulers appear to have used crowns featuring a crescent and crescent, or star and crescent. Use of the star-and-crescent combination goes back to the earlier appearance of a star and a crescent on Parthian coins, first under King Orodes II. In these coins, the two symbols occur separately
Flag of the Soviet Union
The State Flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The flag's design and symbolism are derived from several sources, but emerged during the Russian Revolution; the flag is an international symbol of the communist movement as a whole. The nicknames for the flag were The Red Banner; the design is a solid field of red adorned with a unique gold emblem in the upper hoist quarter. The red flag was a traditional revolutionary symbol long before 1917, its incorporation into the flag paid tribute to the international aspect of workers' revolution; the iconic hammer and sickle design was a modern industrial touch adopted from the Russian Revolution. The union of the hammer and the sickle represents the victorious and enduring revolutionary alliance; the famous emblem is topped by a gold-bordered red star representing the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The first flag with the gold border star and sickle was adopted on 13 November 1923. In 1955, a statute on the flag was adopted which resulted in a change of the hammer's handle length and the shape of the sickle.
This was the final modification to the flag and it continued to be the official national flag until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Its imagery is now the basis for the flags of many communist parties: a yellow hammer and sickle on a red background; the flag of the Soviet Union consisted of a plain red flag with a gold hammer crossed with a gold sickle placed beneath a gold-bordered red star. This symbol is in the upper left canton of the red flag; the colour red honours the red flag of the Paris Commune of 1871 and the red star and hammer and sickle are symbols of communism and socialism. The hammer symbolises urban industrial workers while the sickle symbolises agricultural workers —who together, as the Proletarian class, form the state; the red star represents the Communist Party, its position over hammer and sickle symbolises its leading role in socialist society to unify and enlighten the workers and peasants in the building of communism. The flag's design was legislated in 1955, which gave a clear way to create the flag.
This resulted in the shape of the sickle. The adopted statute stated that: The ratio of width to length of the flag is 1:2; the hammer and sickle are in a square with sides equal to 1⁄4 of the flag's height. The sharp tip of the sickle lies in the center of the upper side of the square, the handles of the hammer and sickle rest in the bottom corners of the square; the length of the hammer and its handle is 3⁄4 of the square diagonal. The five-pointed star is inscribed into a circle with a diameter of 1⁄8 of the flag's height, the circle being tangent to the upper side of the square; the distance of the vertical axis of the star and sickle from the hoist is 1⁄3 of the flag's height. The distance from the upper side of the flag to the center of the star is 1⁄8 of the flag's height. Since 1980, the reverse side of the flag was a plain red field without the hammer and sickle. In practice however, this was commonly disregarded by flag makers as it was far easier and less costly to print the flag through and through, with the obverse design mirrored on the reverse.
It was common to see the reverse of the flag bear the hammer and sickle in the obverse formation. An example of the flag demonstrating its de jure status as being only one-sided is that of the Soviet flag atop the Moscow Kremlin which bore the single-side official design. For vertical display, the flag was made with the distinct difference of having the hammer and sickle rotated 90 degrees in order to compensate for the change in dimensions; this was common in official practice, however the common flag owner would hang the standard design of the flag by the hoist. During the establishment of the Russian SFSR, Vladimir Lenin and his comrades had considered the inclusion of a sword symbol in addition to the hammer and sickle as part of the state seal on which the flag was based; the idea was dismissed. Lenin said "A sword is not one of our symbols."The first official flag was adopted in December 1922 at the First Congress of Soviets of the USSR. It was agreed that the red banner'was transformed from the symbol of the Party to the symbol of a state, around that flag gathered the peoples of the soviet republics to unite into one state — the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics'.
On 30 December 1922, the Congress adopted a Declaration and Agreement on the establishment of the USSR. Article 22 of the Agreement states:'the USSR has a flag, coat of arms and a state seal.' The description of the first flag was given in the 1924 Soviet Constitution, accepted in the second session of the Executive Committee of the USSR on 6 July 1923. The text of article 71 states:'The state flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consists of a red or scarlet field with states coat of arms', it was ordered with the unusual ratio of 4:1 in proportion and consisted of a red flag with the state coat of arms in the center. However, such a flag was never mass-produced; this flag was the official flag for four months, was replaced as the official flag by the more familiar hammer and sickle design during the third session of the CIK of the USSR on 12 November 1923. In the third session of the CIK of the USSR, the description of Soviet flag in the Constitution was changed, article 71 wa
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Selby Abbey is an Anglican parish church in the town of Selby, North Yorkshire, England. It is Grade I listed, it is one of the few surviving abbey churches of the medieval period, although not a cathedral, is one of the biggest. It was subsequently built by the de Lacy family. On 31 May 1256, the Abbey was bestowed with the grant of a Mitre by Pope Alexander IV and from this date was a "Mitred Abbey"; this privilege fell in abeyance a number of times, but on 11 April 1308, Archbishop William Greenfield confirmed the grant, Selby remained a "Mitred Abbey" until the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Archbishop Walter Giffard visited the monastery in 1275 by commission, several monks and the Abbot were charged with a list of faults including loose living. In 1279 Archbishop William de Wickwane made a visitation, found fault with the Abbot as he did not observe the rule of St Benedict, was not singing mass, preaching or teaching, attending chapter. Things had not improved much in 1306 when Archbishop William Greenfield visited and similar visitations in years resulted in similar findings.
The community rebuilt the choir in the early fourteenth century, but in 1340, a fire destroyed the Chapter House, Dormitory and part of the church. The damage was repaired and the decorated windows in the south aisle of the Nave were installed. In 1380-1 there was twenty-five monks. In 1393 Pope Boniface IX granted an indulgence to pilgrims who contributed to the conservation of the chapel of the Holy Cross in the Abbey; the fifteenth century saw more alterations to the Abbey. The perpendicular windows in the North Transept and at the west end of the nave were added and the Sedilia in the Sanctuary was added. One of the final additions was the Lathom Chapel, dedicated to St Catherine, east of the North Transept, in 1465. In the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535 the Abbey was valued at £719 2s. 6¼d. The abbey surrendered on 6 December 1539; the community comprised the Abbot, 23 monks The abbot was pensioned off on £100 a year the prior got £8 and the others between £6 6s. 8d. and £5 each. For a time after the dissolution, the church was unused but in 1618 it became the Parish Church of Selby.
During the English Civil War and the Commonwealth period the building suffered with the north transept window being destroyed, the statues on the brackets in the Choir were demolished. Like York Minster, the church has suffered from subsidence. Many sections collapsed during the seventeenth century, including the central tower in 1690 which destroyed the south transept; the Tower was rebuilt, but not the transept. In the eighteenth century the Choir was filled with galleries, used for services, the Nave only used for secular purposes; the church was restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1871–1873 who restored much of the nave for use, again in 1889–1890 by his son John Oldrid Scott, who restored the choir. The tower was restored in the first few years of the twentieth century; the reredos was designed by Robert Lorimer and added in 1901. The organ builders from John Compton had been working until 11.00 pm on Friday 19 October, shortly after midnight on Saturday the organist Frederick William Sykes spotted flames coming from the organ chamber.
The organ builders had been installing a new kinetic gas engine to provide power to the new organ. Initial reports that the new organ equipment was to blame for the fire were proved inaccurate; the fire destroyed the roof of the choir and the belfry and peal of eight bells was destroyed. All of the interior fittings were destroyed but thanks to the actions of the local fire brigade, the fourteenth-century stained glass in the East window was saved. A secondary fire broke out in the nave roof on the Sunday, but this was extinguished; the abbey was rebuilt under the supervision of John Oldrid Scott at a cost of around £50,000 and reopened in 1909. The restoration of the south transept was completed in 1912, funded by William Liversedge. In 1935 the architect Charles Marriott Oldrid Scott, son of John Oldrid Scott, raised the height of the towers at the front. In 1952 the Abbey was given Grade I listed status. In 1969 Selby Abbey became the first parish church to hold the annual service for the distribution of the Royal Maundy.
The Abbey is undergoing an extensive restoration, costing several million pounds. Stage 6, the restoration of the Scriptorium was completed at a cost of £795,000; the £400,000 cost of restoring the South Choir Aisle and the'Washington Window' was met in full by British American Tobacco. World Monuments Fund committed more than $800,000 to exterior work, including roof repairs, beginning in 2002; the tower is Norman, but the eastern end is in Decorated Gothic style, the west front a mixture of Norman and Victorian. The interior bears some similarity to that of Durham Cathedral. Richly-carved and moulded capitals are found throughout the church. A major feature is the east window, which contains original medieval glass and depicts the Tree of Jesse, a popular subject of that period; the chancel stonework is thought to have been designed by Henry Yevele. A notable feature of the abbey is the fifteenth-century Washington Window, featuring the heraldic arms of the ancestors of George Washington, the first president of the United States.
The design, featuring three red stars above two red bands on a white shield, formed the model for the flag of the District of Columbia. The first organ since the reformation was installed in 1825 by Renn and Boston, in a galle
Flag of the United States
The flag of the United States of America referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States. It consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton bearing fifty small, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows, where rows of six stars alternate with rows of five stars; the 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America, the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, became the first states in the U. S. Nicknames for the flag include the Stars and Stripes, Old Glory, the Star-Spangled Banner; the current design of the U. S. flag is its 27th. The 48-star flag was in effect for 47 years until the 49-star version became official on July 4, 1959; the 50-star flag was ordered by the president Eisenhower on August 21, 1959, was adopted in July 1960. It is the longest-used version of the U. S. has been in use for over 58 years.
At the time of the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, the Continental Congress would not adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year. The flag contemporaneously known as "the Continental Colors" has been referred to as the first national flag; the Continental Navy raised the Colors as the ensign of the fledgling nation in the American War for Independence—likely with the expedient of transforming their previous British red ensigns by adding white stripes—and would use this flag until 1777, when it would form the basis for the subsequent de jure designs. The name "Grand Union" was first applied to the Continental Colors by George Preble in his 1872 history of the U. S. flag. The flag resembles the British East India Company flag of the era, Sir Charles Fawcett argued in 1937 that the company flag inspired the design. Both flags could have been constructed by adding white stripes to a British Red Ensign, one of the three maritime flags used throughout the British Empire at the time.
However, an East India Company flag could have from nine to 13 stripes, was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean. Benjamin Franklin once gave a speech endorsing the adoption of the Company's flag by the United States as their national flag, he said to George Washington, "While the field of your flag must be new in the details of its design, it need not be new in its elements. There is in use a flag, I refer to the flag of the East India Company." This was a way of symbolising American loyalty to the Crown as well as the United States' aspirations to be self-governing, as was the East India Company. Some colonists felt that the Company could be a powerful ally in the American War of Independence, as they shared similar aims and grievances against the British government tax policies. Colonists therefore flew the Company's flag. However, the theory that the Grand Union Flag was a direct descendant of the flag of the East India Company has been criticised as lacking written evidence. On the other hand, the resemblance is obvious, a number of the Founding Fathers of the United States were aware of the East India Company's activities and of their free administration of India under Company rule.
In any case, both the stripes and the stars have precedents in classical heraldry. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the U. S. flag are those in the coat of arms of Valais of 1618, where seven mullets stood for seven districts. On June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution which stated: "Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white. Flag Day is now observed on June 14 of each year. While scholars still argue about this, tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June 1777 by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment; the first official U. S. flag flown during battle was on August 3, 1777, at Fort Schuyler during the Siege of Fort Stanwix. Massachusetts reinforcements brought news of the adoption by Congress of the official flag to Fort Schuyler. Soldiers cut up their shirts to make the white stripes.
Abraham Swartwout's blue cloth coat. A voucher is extant that Capt. Swartwout of Dutchess County was paid by Congress for his coat for the flag; the 1777 resolution was most meant to define a naval ensign. In the late 18th century, the notion of a national flag was only nascent; the flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. On May 10, 1779, Secretary of the Board of War Richard Peters expressed concern "it is not yet settled what is the Standard of the United States." However, the term, "Standard," referred to a national standard for the Army of the United States. Each regiment was to carry the national standard in addition to its regimental standard; the national standard was not a reference to the naval flag. The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement, number of points, nor orientation for the stars and the arrangement or whether the flag had to have seven red stripes and six white ones or vice versa; the appearance was up to the maker of the flag.
Some flag makers arranged the stars into one big star, in a circle or in rows and some re