AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas. It is the world's largest telecommunications company, the second largest provider of mobile telephone services, the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States through AT&T Communications. Since June 14, 2018, it is the parent company of mass media conglomerate WarnerMedia, making it the world's largest media and entertainment company in terms of revenue; as of 2018, AT&T is ranked #9 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. AT&T began its history as Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880; the Bell Telephone Company evolved into American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which rebranded as AT&T Corporation. The 1982 United States v. AT&T antitrust lawsuit resulted in the divestiture of AT&T Corporation's subsidiaries or Regional Bell Operating Companies, resulting in several independent companies including Southwestern Bell Corporation.
In 2005, SBC purchased its former parent AT&T Corporation and took on its branding, with the merged entity naming itself AT&T Inc. and using its iconic logo and stock-trading symbol. In 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth, the last independent Baby Bell company, making their joint venture Cingular Wireless wholly owned and rebranding it as AT&T Mobility. The current AT&T reconstitutes much of the former Bell System, includes ten of the original 22 Bell Operating Companies along with the original long distance division. AT&T can trace its origin back to the original Bell Telephone Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell after his patenting of the telephone. One of that company's subsidiaries was American Telephone and Telegraph Company, established in 1885, which acquired the Bell Company on December 31, 1899, for legal reasons, leaving AT&T as the main company. AT&T established a network of subsidiaries in the United States and Canada that held a government-authorized phone service monopoly, formalized with the Kingsbury Commitment, throughout most of the twentieth century.
This monopoly was known as the Bell System, during this period, AT&T was known by the nickname Ma Bell. For periods of time, the former AT&T was the world's largest phone company. In 1982, U. S. regulators broke up the AT&T monopoly, requiring AT&T to divest its regional subsidiaries and turning them each into individual companies. These new companies were known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or more informally, Baby Bells. AT&T continued to operate long distance services, but as a result of this breakup, faced competition from new competitors such as MCI and Sprint. Southwestern Bell was one of the companies created by the breakup of AT&T Corp; the architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope; the company soon started a series of acquisitions. This includes the 1987 acquisition of Metromedia mobile business and the acquisition of several cable companies in the early 1990s. In the half of the 1990s, the company acquired several other telecommunications companies, including some Baby Bells, while selling its cable business.
During this time, the company changed its name to SBC Communications. By 1998, the company was in the top 15 of the Fortune 500, by 1999 the company was part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. In 2005, SBC purchased AT&T for $16 billion. After this purchase, SBC adopted the better-known AT&T name and brand, with the original AT&T Corp. still existing as the long-distance landline subsidiary of the merged company. The current AT&T claims the original AT&T Corp.'s history as its own, though its corporate structure only dates from 1983. It retains SBC's pre-2005 stock price history, all regulatory filings prior to 2005 are for Southwestern Bell/SBC, not AT&T Corp. In September 2013, AT&T Inc. announced it would expand into Latin America through a collaboration with América Móvil. In December 2013, AT&T announced plans to sell its Connecticut wireline operations to Stamford-based Frontier Communications. AT&T purchased the Mexican carrier Iusacell in late 2014, two months purchased the Mexican wireless business of NII Holdings, merging the two companies to create AT&T Mexico.
In July 2015, AT&T purchased DirecTV for $48.5 billion, or $67.1 billion including assumed debt, subject to certain conditions. AT&T subsequently announced plans to converge its existing U-verse home internet and IPTV brands with DirecTV, to create AT&T Entertainment. In an effort to increase its media holdings, on October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion. AT&T owns a 2% stake in Canadian-domiciled entertainment company Lionsgate. On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon. In October 2018, it was announced that the service Is set to launch in 2019On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T planned to launch a new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor's broadband network sometime next year. On November 20, 2017, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim filed a lawsuit for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division to block the merger with Time Warner, saying it "will harm competition, result in higher bills for consumers and less innovation."
In order for AT&T to acquire Time Warner, the Department of Justice stated that the company must
Sony MIX is an Indian pay television music channel owned by Sony Pictures Networks that broadcasts Hindi-language music videos. It was launched on 1 September 2011; the channel launched its own music awards in 2018, named Audience Music Awards to honour the artists of the Indian music industry. Official website
Sony Crackle is a US-based OTT platform of Sony Pictures Entertainment. The library consists of original content as well as programming acquired from other companies; the streaming network is available in 21 countries and is accessible on connected devices including mobile, smart TVs, through gaming consoles. It can be seen in-flight on American Airlines and in Marriott Hotels. Known as Grouper, renamed Crackle, the name of the streaming service was changed to Sony Crackle on January 14, 2018. Sony Crackle was founded as Grouper by Josh Felser, Dave Samuel, Mike Sitrin, Aviv Eyal in 2004. In August 2006, Sony purchased the online video site Grouper for $65 million. In July 2007, Sony announced that Grouper would be rebranded and repurposed as Crackle, a multi-platform video-entertainment network and studio featuring full-length movies and television shows from Sony's library, would produce original content made for the internet. In late 2008, San Francisco–based Crackle was moved to Sony's Culver City base to be formally folded into the studio's digital content operations.
In March 2011, Crackle became available for streaming across PS3, Roku boxes, Sony Blu-ray players and Bravia TVs. In April 2011, Crackle announced that it would release apps for iOS and Android systems in June of the same year. Crackle partnered with Xbox Live, making its content available for Xbox 360. In June 2013, Crackle released an app for the BlackBerry 10 platform. In December 2013, Crackle made its content available for the Apple TV set-top box. In January 2012, Crackle added Animax to its content, available to viewers in the Canada. Towards the end of 2013, the Animax branding was removed. In Australia, Crackle became the free-to-air home of Sony's popular American soap opera Days of Our Lives after the television broadcaster Nine Network axed the series after 45 years. Several anime shows from Funimation are streamed on Sony Crackle. On July 31, 2017, Sony Pictures Television announced that it would buy a controlling 95% stake in Funimation for $143 million, a deal, approved by the United States Department of Justice on August 22, 2017, closed on October 27, 2017.
On April 1, 2014, Sony Pictures Television ceased its Crackle operations in the UK and Australia four years after Crackle had expanded into the UK. Crackle UK had struggled to gain a large audience due to other competitors like LoveFilm and Netflix. Two days NBCUniversal Television & New Media Distribution struck a multi-year deal with Crackle to have more than 140 of NBCUni's feature films streamed. Crackle shut down its UK service in April 2014 without prior notice. On April 30, 2014, Crackle announced it would begin carrying Sports Jeopardy!, which as its name implies is a sports-themed version of the syndicated game show Jeopardy!, beginning that fall. Dan Patrick will host the series. One week after the cancellation of the theatrical release of The Interview, in the aftermath of the Sony hack, the New York Post reported that Sony would release the movie for free, on Crackle. On April 14, 2015, Crackle held its first-ever upfront presentation. During the event, it announced a new feature dubbed "Always On".
Among the new programs announced was Crackle's first animated series, SuperMansion. On June 4, 2015, Crackle announced a new collaboration between Moat and Freewheel in the industry's first-ever comprehensive system to track viewable ad measurement across connected TV. On October 8, 2015, Crackle premiered SuperMansion, a stop-motion animated comedy television series created by Matthew Senreich and Zeb Wells; the series stars Bryan Cranston, Heidi Gardner, Tucker Gilmore, Keegan-Michael Key, Tom Root, Yvette Nicole Brown, Zeb Wells, Jillian Bell. Emmy-nominated Season 2 premiered February 16, 2017, followed by an original Halloween special, SuperMansion: Drag Me to Halloween, that premiered October 5. Season 3 is expected in 2018. On April 20, 2016, Crackle announced an innovative advertising solution that replaces convention at their upfront presentation called "BreakFree" advertising; the BreakFree experience promotes binge viewing of Crackle's original shows while creating a story narrative for advertisers.
In addition, Crackle unveiled a new virtual reality strategy allowing advertisers to reach consumers through dynamic VR experiences. Designed to immerse and engage viewers, Sony's ad-supported streaming service is the first AVOD network to provide brands with advertising opportunities and marketing initiatives that take advantage of this latest disruptive technology. On January 17, 2017, it was announced. On April 19, 2017, the AVOD service released results of new research study that identifies a new and coveted psychographic segment called "Connected Entertainment Enthusiasts"; this segment is the first generation of gamers. It is the preferred entertainment hub of their household for streaming TV, movies and for video games making them hard to reach through traditional media outlets. In addition, Crackle announced a VR companion piece to their original drama series Snatch, which premiered at the Venice Film Festival in September 2017. Crackle announced at the 2017 upfront presentation that the free ad-supported service would greenlight new scripted original drama The Oath and created by former Los Angeles County Sheriff's deputy Joe Halpin.
Sony Liv is an Indian general entertainment, video on demand service, owned by Sony Pictures Networks India Pvt. Ltd. based in Mumbai, India. The service was launched on January 23, 2013. Sony Liv is a part of the network of Television channels owned by Sony Pictures Networks India Pvt. in India. The network's other channels include: Sony TV, Sony SAB, Sony Mix, Sony Max, Sony Max 2, Sony Six, Sony Pix, AXN, Sony Yay, it offers original Web series like Lovebytes, Married Women Diaries, etc. Anime is now part of Sony Liv with the inclusion of Animax as a live channel. Sony Pictures Networks bagged the Indian subcontinent telecast rights for the 2018 FIFA World Cup; the network will be dedicating channels to broadcast in Russia, which includes Sony SIX, Sony TEN 1, Sony TEN 2, Sony TEN 3, Sony ESPN. Sony Liv is the official mobile and Internet broadcaster for streaming all 2018 FIFA World Cup live matches starting June 14. Sony Liv's Library consists of 18 years of content from the Sony Entertainment Network Channels in India Sony TV, SAB TV,Sony MIX, Sony Max, Sony MAX 2, SET PIX, AXN and Animax.
Along with a wide selection of English and regional movies, Sony Liv has Animax that broadcasts a wide range of anime. Sony Liv consists of regional offerings like the first Gujarati web series titled Kacho Papad Pako Papad,an popular multistarer on the platform. Sony Liv is the first Indian OTT platform to produce music content for a Hollywood Feature Film - producing music for the Hindi version of the blockbuster titled Passengers starring Chris Pratt and Jennifer Lawrence; the singers for the original soundtrack titled Aaadat included Jubin Nautiyal, Shirley Setia and Raftaar. After shutting down a linear TV channel on April 18, 2017, Animax was made available as a digital streaming channel in India from July 7, 2017. Sony Liv is streaming most of Sony's TV channels as live channels including Animax HD, Sony BBC Earth, Food Food, etc. C. I. D. Super Dancer Prithvi Vallabh - Itihaas Bhi, Rahasya Bhi Porus Yeh Un Dinon Ki Baat Hai Rishta Likhenge Hum Naya Tenali Rama Beyhadh Woh Teri Bhabhi Hai Pagle Sajan Re Phir Jhoot Mat Bolo Yeh Moh Moh Ke Dhaagey Kuch Rang Pyar Ke Aise Bhi KBC Season 9 Sabse Bada Kalakar TV, Biwi aur Main Parvarrish – Season 2 Pyaar Ko Ho Jaane Do Saheb Biwi Aur Boss Lights Camera Kissey Power Couple Sankatmochan Mahabali Hanuman Tanlines LIVShutter #LoveBytes Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi...
Let's Go Police Factory Itna Karo Na Mujhe Pyaar Yam Hain Hum Chhoti Khushi Hum Aapke Ghar Mein Rehte Hain Adaalat Wah Wah Kya Baat Hai Comedy Superstar Suryaputra Karn Bharat Ka Veer Putra – Maharana Pratap Vighnaharta Ganesha Crime Patrol Satark Hum Hain Na Humsafars Itti Si Khushi Tum Aise Hi Rehna Chidiya Ghar Chandrakant Chiplunkar Seedi Bambawala F. I. R. Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah Baal Veer Badi Door Se Aaye Hain Gutur Gu 3 Chintu Pintu Family Antakshri Yeh Dil Sun Raha Hai Piya Basanti Re Ek Rishta Aisa Bhi Hamari Sister Didi Tum Saath Ho Jab Apne Singhasan Battisi Khushiyon Kii Gullak Aashi Simply Baatien With Raveena Dil Hai Chot*Dil Hai Chotaa "Yeh pyaar nahi to kya hai" Sony Liv features programming in the following key genres: comedy, drama, action. Anime is part of Sony Liv via Animax HD. Sony Liv is available worldwide in four languages, includes select programming in Hindi, English,Marathi and Tamil. Sony Pictures Networks India signed a deal with Times Internet's BoxTV to make its video content available on BoxTV's website.
The service will be available to BoxTV users worldwide and DD Free DTH. Sony Livhas reached about 25 million views on a monthly basis on its website and YouTube channel. List of Sony Liv-ready devices: Sony Bravia Smart TVs & Sony Xperia Smartphones Supported Web Browsers by Platform: OS X: An Intel-based Mac with OS 10.4.8 or later. Browser support is Safari 4, Firefox 5 or Google Chrome through web browser. Microsoft Windows: Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows Vista, Windows 7 running Internet Explorer 8, Firefox 2 or Google Chrome 6. Windows 8.1 through web browser. Other software options: Android Version 2.2 and above. IOS iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch Windows Phone Mood Wheel – Content Suggestions based on Mood MY Q – Personalized Playlist Liv Gurus – Liv's Frequent Flyer Program for Video. On June 1, 2014, Sony Pictures Networks India launched LIV Sports, a digital sports entertainment property. Liv Sports was the official mobile and Internet broadcaster for the 2014 FIFA World Cup starting June 12.
Liv Sports showed both live and video-on-demand match content with statistics and analysis. It broadcasts La Liga, Serie A, Ligue 1, UEFA CHAMPIONS LEAGUE, UEFA EUROPA LEAGUE, in football, it broadcasts international cricket matches played by Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa, West Indies and Zimbabwe, MOTO GP, WWE RAW, Smackdown and other WWE Pay-Per-Views, UFC and NBA After Sony's acquisition of Ten Sports Network all TEN Sports live programs began broadcasting on Sony Liv. Sony Entertainment Television SAB TV Crackle Video on demand Digital rights management Official website
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
Sony Entertainment Television
Sony Entertainment Television is an Indian Hindi-language general entertainment television channel. It was launched in October 1995, is owned by Sony Pictures Networks India, a subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment, which in turn is owned by the Japanese Sony Corporation. SET has been one of India's most popular television channels, having produced many iconic shows such as CID, Indian Idol, Boogie Woogie and Crime Patrol. A version for international transmission exists, known as Sony Entertainment Television Asia. Launched on 8 October 1998, it is based in the United Kingdom; the international version is available in several countries and regions, including Australia, Europe, Guyana, the Middle East, New Zealand, South Africa, Suriname and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States. Official website
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m