Gimme a Break!
Gimme a Break! is an American sitcom that aired on NBC for six seasons from October 29, 1981 until May 12, 1987. The series starred Nell Carter as the housekeeper for a widowed police chief and his three daughters; the sitcom takes place in Glenlawn, a fictional suburb, located in either central or northern California. Nellie Ruth "Nell" Harper agrees to look after the Kanisky household as a special favor to her dying friend Margaret Huffman Kanisky, the wife of police chief Carl Kanisky, serving as a parental figure to the Chief's three teenage daughters, Katie and Samantha. A foster son, was added to the Kanisky household in Season 3. Five episodes into the sixth and final season, the show changed locales from Glenlawn to New York City, when Nell, concerned for Joey's welfare after he moved there with his absentee father, traveled there to check on him, she subsequently assumed guardianship of Joey and his younger brother Matthew at their father's request and was forced to permanently relocate there after Chief Kanisky's father Stanley sold the family's Glenlawn home.
Over the six-year run, a number of celebrities appeared on the show, including singers Whitney Houston, Andy Gibb, Sammy Davis, Jr. Ray Parker Jr. and The Pointer Sisters. More than not, the guest singers would perform a song with Nell on the episodes. During the third season, Pat Sajak guest-starred as himself when Nell and her friend Addy were contestants on Wheel of Fortune. Other notable guest stars included Milton Berle, Danny Glover, Rue McClanahan, Tony Randall, Helen Hunt, Don Rickles, Gwen Verdon, Dennis Haysbert, Ernie Hudson, Gary Collins, Elizabeth Berkley; the episode "Cat Story" was performed and broadcast live on March 2, 1985, as a promotional gimmick, which the cast performed without major incident. An earlier episode, "Baby of the Family," ranked No. 38 on TV Land's list of "The 100 Most Unexpected TV Moments. The location of Glenlawn is never clarified, various contradictory location information is presented during the series. Seaons 3 episode "James Returns" states that Glenlawn is "over 300 miles" from Santa Barbara, "The Mayor", an episode from the same season, shows the chief boasting that a new police car could make it to Sacramento in 23 minutes.
These would place Glenlawn somewhere near Stockton. However, another episode from Season 3, "Flashback", placed the town an hour away from Fresno, in the direction of Bakersfield. In another episode where exterior shooting took place, GlenLawn is on the ocean with palm trees; the proximity to the Bay Area is supported by season episodes where Katie moves to San Francisco and Julie moves to nearby San Jose. Nell Carter as Nellie Ruth "Nell" Harper. Nell was a singer from Tuscaloosa County, Alabama who ran away from home when she was 18, she met and became friends with Margaret Kanisky and promised to look after her family after she had died from cancer. In keeping her promise, Nell took on the role of housekeeper and mother to the kids and remained in the series for the entire 6-year run, she became a foster mother to Joey Donovan in Season 3. Nell moved to Greenwich Village in New York City in Season 6 with Joey and Addy and worked as an assistant editor for a publishing company. Dolph Sweet as Police Chief Carl "Chief" Kanisky.
Police Chief Carl Kanisky, known as "the Chief," was a widower with three teenage daughters. After Dolph Sweet's death on May 8, 1985, his character of the Chief was written out of the series as having died, the show continued with Nell taking over as head of the household. Kari Michaelsen as Kathleen "Katie" Kanisky; the Chief's eldest daughter, portrayed as being promiscuous. She opened a boutique called Katie's Korner. After her boutique went out of business, she was written out of the series as having obtained a job in San Francisco, her last appearance was the first episode of Season 6. Lauri Hendler as Julie Kanisky Maxwell; the Chief's middle daughter, portrayed as being intelligent. She married Jonathan Maxwell at the end of Season 4 and became pregnant in Season 5. In the Season 6 premiere, after Nell Maxwell had been born, the new three-member Maxwell family moved to San Jose and was therefore written out of the series. Lara Jill Miller as Samantha "Sam" Kanisky; the Chief's youngest daughter, portrayed as a typical tomboy in her preteen years but developed into a boy-crazy teenager.
She moved to Warren County, New Jersey to go to Littlefield College and had a recurring role in Season 6. John Hoyt as Stanley "Grandpa" Kanisky; the Chief's crusty but lovable Polish immigrant father. After his wife died, Grandpa Kanisky came to live with his son and granddaughters in Season 3. In Season 6 he moved into the same building as Nell. Joey Lawrence as Joey Donovan, who became Nell's foster son. Joey became a key cast member, his father Tim Donovan appeared on the show in New York City. Joey met his little brother and moved in with Tim at the beginning of season 6 but soon afterwards was reunited with Nell and lived with her and Addy in New York City. Howard Morton as Office
Richard Marvin Butkus is a former American football player, sports commentator, actor. He played professional football as a linebacker for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League from 1965 to 1973. Through those nine seasons he was invited to eight Pro Bowls, named a first-team All-Pro six times, was twice recognized by his peers as the NFL's Defensive Player of the Year. Renowned as a fierce tackler and for the relentless effort with which he played, Butkus is regarded as one of the greatest and most intimidating linebackers in pro football history. Born in Chicago, Butkus played his entire football career in his home state, which began at Chicago Vocational High School; as a college football player at the University of Illinois, he was a linebacker and center for the Fighting Illini. A two-time consensus All-American, he led the Illini to a Rose Bowl victory in 1963 and was deemed the most valuable player in the Big Ten Conference, in 1964 he was named college football's Lineman of the Year by United Press International.
He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1983. Butkus was drafted by the Bears as the third overall pick in the 1965 NFL Draft, he soon established himself as a ball hawk with his penchant for forcing turnovers. In his NFL career, he intercepted 22 passes, recovered 27 fumbles, was responsible for causing many more fumbles with his jarring tackles, his tackling ability earned him both trepidation from opposing players. According to Hall of Fame defensive end Deacon Jones, Butkus "was a well-conditioned animal, every time he hit you, he tried to put you in the cemetery, not the hospital." In 2009, the NFL Network named Butkus the most feared tackler of all time. Butkus is credited with having defined the middle linebacker position, is still viewed as the "gold standard by which other middle linebackers are measured." He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1979, his No. 51 jersey is retired by the Bears. Following his playing career, Butkus began careers in acting, sports commentary, celebrity endorsement.
He is active in philanthropy through the Butkus Foundation. Richard Marvin Butkus was born in Chicago, the youngest of eight children, but the first to be born in a hospital, he was a large baby. His father John, a Lithuanian immigrant to Ellis Island who spoke broken English, was an electrician and worked for the Pullman-Standard railroad company, his mother, worked 50 hours a week at a laundry. Butkus grew up in the Roseland neighborhood on Chicago's South Side, he attended their games at Comiskey Park. His older brother Ron played football for three colleges and tried out for the Cardinals before quitting due to a bad knee. For four years starting at age 15, Butkus worked with his four brothers as a mover. Butkus played high school football as a fullback, linebacker and placekicker for coach Bernie O'Brien at Chicago Vocational High School, he averaged five yards per carry as a fullback, but preferred playing linebacker, where he made 70 percent of his team's tackles. In Butkus's first year on the varsity team, Chicago Vocational surrendered only 55 points in eight games.
In 1959, he was the first junior to be honored by the Chicago Sun-Times as Chicago's high school player of the year. Injuries limited his play as a senior, but he was still recruited by colleges to play football. Butkus chose to attend the University of Illinois, played center and linebacker from 1962 through 1964 for the Illinois Fighting Illini football team. In his first year on the varsity team, he was named to the 1962 All-Big Ten Conference football team as the third-team center by the Associated Press and second-team center by United Press International. In 1963, Illinois defeated Washington in the 1964 Rose Bowl. Butkus was named the team's most valuable player for the season, was awarded the Chicago Tribune Silver Football as the Big Ten's most valuable player, he was a unanimous choice as a center for the 1963 College Football All-America Team, earning first-team honors from all seven major selectors. As a senior in 1964, Butkus was named the team's co-captain along with safety George Donnelly.
UPI deemed Butkus college football's Lineman of the Year for 1964, he was named the player of the year by the American Football Coaches Association and The Sporting News. For the second consecutive season he was deemed the Illini's most valuable player, he was chosen for the 1964 All-America team by five of the six major selectors. In a cover story for Sports Illustrated that season, sportswriter Dan Jenkins remarked, "If every college football team had a linebacker like Dick Butkus of Illinois, all fullbacks soon would be three feet tall and sing soprano." Butkus finished sixth in Heisman Trophy balloting in 1963 and third in 1964, rare results both for a lineman and a defensive player. According to statistics kept by the university, he completed his college career with 374 tackles: 97 in 1962, 145 in 1963, 132 in 1964. Butkus was drafted in the first round by both the Denver Broncos of the American Football League and the Chicago Bears of the National Football League. After several days of recruiting by both the teams and leagues, his decision to sign with the Bears was viewed as a major victory for the NFL.
Although the Bears offered him less money than did the Broncos, playing for his hometown team and coach George Halas was more enticing. His rookie contract was worth $200,000. Along with fellow future Hall of Famer Gale Sayers, Butkus was one of three first-round picks for the Bears in the 1965 NFL Draft
Caitlyn Marie Jenner is an American television personality and retired Olympic gold medal–winning decathlete. Jenner was a college football player for the Graceland Yellowjackets before incurring a knee injury that required surgery. Convinced by Olympic decathlete Jack Parker's coach, L. D. Weldon, to try the decathlon, Jenner won the men's decathlon event at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, setting a third successive world record and gaining fame as "an all-American hero". Given the unofficial title of "world's greatest athlete", Jenner established a career in television, writing, auto racing, business and as a Playgirl cover model. Jenner has six children with three successive wives—Chrystie Crownover, Linda Thompson and Kris Jenner—and has since 2007 appeared on the reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians with Kris, their daughters Kendall and Kylie Jenner, Kris's other children Kourtney, Khloé, Rob Kardashian. Assigned male at birth, Caitlyn Jenner publicly came out as a trans woman in April 2015.
Her new name was publicly announced in July of that year, with her name and gender being changed the following September. From 2015 to 2016, Jenner starred in the reality television series I Am Cait, which focused on her gender transition. In January 2017, she underwent sex reassignment surgery. Jenner has been called the most famous transgender woman in the world. Caitlyn Marie Jenner was born William Bruce Jenner on October 28, 1949, in Mount Kisco, New York, to Esther Ruth and William Hugh Jenner, her father was an arborist. She is of English, Irish and Welsh descent, her younger brother, was killed in a car accident in Canton, Connecticut on November 30, 1976, shortly after Jenner's success at the Olympic Games. As a young child, Jenner was diagnosed with dyslexia. Jenner attended Sleepy Hollow High School in Sleepy Hollow, New York, for her freshman and sophomore years and Newtown High School in Newtown, for her junior and senior years, graduating in 1968. Jenner earned a football scholarship and attended Graceland College in Lamoni, but was forced to stop playing football because of a knee injury.
Recognizing Jenner's potential, Graceland track coach L. D. Weldon encouraged Jenner to switch to the decathlon. In 1970, Jenner placed fifth while debuting in the decathlon at the Drake Relays in Des Moines, Iowa. Jenner graduated from Graceland College in 1973 with a degree in physical education. At the 1972 U. S. Olympic trials in Eugene, Jenner was in fifth place in the men's decathlon, behind Steve Gough and Andrew Pettes, with only the last event remaining. Needing to make up a 19-second gap on Gough in the men's 1500 metres, Jenner qualified for the Olympic team by running a fast final lap, finishing 22 seconds ahead of the other runners; this prompted the Eugene Register-Guard to ask: "Who's Jenner?" Following the Olympic Trials, Jenner finished in tenth place in the decathlon at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. By watching Soviet Mykola Avilov win the event, Jenner was inspired to start an intense training regimen. "For the first time, I knew what I wanted out of life and, it, this guy has it.
I started training that night at midnight, running through the streets of Munich, training for the Games. I trained that day on through the 1976 Games, 6–8 hours a day, every day, 365 days a year."After graduating from Graceland, Jenner married girlfriend Chrystie Crownover and moved to San Jose, California. Chrystie provided most of the family income by working as a flight attendant for United Airlines. Jenner sold insurance at night, earning US$9,000 a year. In the era before professional American athletes were allowed to compete in Olympic sports, this kind of training was unheard of. On the other hand, Soviet athletes were state-sponsored, what gave them a certain advantage over amateur American athletes. During this period, Jenner trained at the San Jose City College and San Jose State University tracks. San Jose athletics centered on SJCC coach Bert Bonanno. Many other aspiring Olympic athletes trained at San Jose. Jenner's most successful events were the skill events of the second day: hurdles, pole vault, javelin and 1500 meters.
Jenner was the American champion in the men's decathlon event in 1974, was featured on the cover of Track & Field News magazine's August 1974 issue. While on tour in 1975, Jenner won the French national championship, a gold medal at the 1975 Pan American Games, earning the tournament record with 8,045 points; this was followed by new world records of 8,524 points at the U. S. A./U. S. S. R./Poland triangular meet in Eugene, Oregon on August 9–10, 1975, breaking Avilov's record, 8,538 points at the 1976 Olympic trials in Eugene. The record in Eugene was a hybrid score because a timing system wind aided marks. Still, Jenner was proud of "A nice little workout, huh?" "We got. We scared the hell out of everybody in the world only a month away from the Games." Of the 13 decathlons Jenner competed in between 1973 and 1976, the only loss was at the 1975 AAU National Championships, when a "no height" in the pole vault marred the score. At the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal, Jenner achieved five personal bests on the first day of the men's decathlon – a "home run" – despite being in second place behind Guido Kratschmer of West Germany.
Jenner was confident: "The second day has all my good events. If everything works out all right, we should be ahead after it's all ov
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle to pull front-to-back on one side and the other in rotation. Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well. Kayaks were created thousands of years ago by the Inuit known as Eskimos, of the northern Arctic regions, they used driftwood and sometimes the skeleton of whale, to construct the frame of the kayak, animal skin seal skin was used to create the body. The main purpose for creating the kayak, which translates to "hunter's boat" was for hunting and fishing; the kayak's stealth capabilities allowed for the hunter to sneak up behind animals on the shoreline and catch their prey. In the 1740s, Russian explorers led by Vitus Bering came in contact with the Aleutians, who had taken the basic kayak concept and developed multiple designs for hunting and environmental conditions.
They soon recognized the Aleutians were skillful at hunting sea otters by kayak. Because otters were a popular commodity in Europe and Asia, they would exploit and kidnap Aleutians and keep them aboard their ships to work and hunt. By the mid-1800s the kayak became popular and the Europeans became interested. German and French men began kayaking for sport. In 1931, Adolf Anderle was the first person to kayak down the Salzachöfen Gorge, believed to be the birthplace of modern-day white-water kayaking. Kayak races were introduced in the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936. In the 1950s, fiberglass kayaks were developed and used, until 1980s when polyethylene plastic kayaks were introduced. Kayaking progressed as a fringe sport in the U. S. until the 1970s, when it became a mainstream popular sport. Now, more than 10 white water kayaking events are featured in the Olympics. While kayaking represents a key international watersport, few academic studies have been conducted on the role kayaking plays in the lives and activities of the public Kayaks can be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made.
Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, manoeuvrability and paddling style. Kayaks can be made of metal, wood, plastic and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber, more expensive but feather light carbon fiber; each material has its specific advantage, including strength, portability, resistance to ultraviolet and storage requirements. For example, wooden kayaks can be built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame. Inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and transported and stored, are considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats. There are many types of kayaks used in flat whitewater kayaking; the sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on what type of water to be paddled on and what the paddler would like to do. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the paddle blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water.
These vary in length and shape depending on the intended use, height of the paddler, the paddler's preference. Kayaks should be equipped with one or more buoyancy aid which creates air space that helps prevent a kayak from sinking when filled with water. A life jacket should be worn at all times, a helmet is often required for most kayaking and is mandatory for white water kayaking. Various other pieces of safety gear include a whistle for signaling for help. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wetsuit or spray top help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures. "Sit on top" kayaks place the paddler in an shallowly-concave deck above the water level. This style is used for non-white water activities as most find it harder to stay inside the kayak while preventing them from "rolling" which allows the user to upright themselves if they flip over. There are some benefits to sit on tops such as the ability for a "dry hatch" these are a compartment, that runs the length of the kayak, which in addition to providing more buoyancy allows for the kayaker to store various equipment in.
"Sit on top" kayaks use "through holes" which allows any water that got in the boat to make it through the deck and dry hatch to drain. "Cockpit style" involves sitting with the legs and hips inside the kayak hull with a spray deck or "spray skirt" that creates a water-resistant seal around the waist. There is a wide range of "cockpit style" boats which allow for more user control of the boat as they are able to push against the walls of the boat to tip in order to complete maneuvers. A common variant of "cockpit style" kayaks are "play boats" these are very short kayaks in which the user does tricks and maneuvers: "Inflatables" are a hybrid of the two previous configurations; these boats are subject to more instability due to the way the boat sits higher in the water. They are used in a more commercial setting, they are affectionately called "Duckies". "Tandems" are configured for m
The decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events. The word "decathlon" was formed, in analogy to the word "pentathlon", from Greek δέκα and ἄθλος. Events are held over two consecutive days and the winners are determined by the combined performance in all. Performance is judged on a points system in each event, not by the position achieved; the decathlon is contested by male athletes, while female athletes compete in the heptathlon. Traditionally, the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" has been given to the person who wins the decathlon, thus the world's greatest athlete of all times is the recordman of decathlon; this began when King Gustav V of Sweden told Jim Thorpe, "You, are the world's greatest athlete" after Thorpe won the decathlon at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. The official decathlon world record holder is French Kevin Mayer, who scored 9,126 points at the 2018 Décastar; the event developed from the ancient pentathlon. Pentathlon competitions were held at the ancient Greek Olympics.
Pentathlons involved five disciplines – long jump, discus throw, javelin throw, sprint and a wrestling match. Introduced in Olympia during 708 BC, the competition was popular for many centuries. By the sixth century BC, pentathlons had become part of religious games. A ten-event competition known as the "all-around" or "all-round" championship, similar to the modern decathlon, was first contested at the United States amateur championships in 1884 and reached a consistent form by 1890; the modern decathlon first appeared on the Olympic athletics program at the 1912 Games in Stockholm. The vast majority of international and top level men's decathlons are divided into a two-day competition, with the track and field events held in the order below. Traditionally, all decathletes who finish the event, rather than just the winner or medal winning athletes, do a round of honour together after the competition; the current world record holder is Kevin Mayer from France with 9126 points which he set on 16 September 2018 in Talence, France.
At major championships, the women's equivalent of the decathlon is the seven-event heptathlon. However, in 2001, the IAAF approved scoring tables for a women's decathlon. Women's disciplines differ from men's in the same way as for standalone events: the shot and javelin weigh less, the sprint hurdles uses lower hurdles over 100 m rather than 110 m; the points tables used are the same as for the heptathlon in the shared events. The schedule of events differs from the men's decathlon, with the field events switched between day one and day two; the one-hour decathlon is a special type of decathlon in which the athletes have to start the last of ten events within sixty minutes of the start of the first event. The world record holder is Czech decathlete Robert Změlík, who achieved 7,897 points at a meeting in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia, in 1992. In Masters athletics, performance scores are age graded before being applied to the standard scoring table; this way, marks that would be competitive within an age division can get rated if those marks would not appear on the scale designed for younger age groups.
Additionally, like women, the age divisions use lower hurdles. Based on this system, German Rolf Geese in the M60 division and American Robert Hewitt in the M80 divisions have set their respective world records over 8,000 points. Using the same scale, Nadine O'Connor scored 10,234 points in the W65 division, the highest decathlon score recorded; the 2001 IAAF points tables use the following formulae: Points = INT for track events Points = INT for field events A, B and C are parameters that vary by discipline, as shown in the table on the right, while P is the performance by the athlete, measured in seconds, metres, or centimetres. The decathlon tables should not be confused with the scoring tables compiled by Bojidar Spiriev, to allow comparison of the relative quality of performances by athletes in different events. On those tables, for example, a decathlon score of 9,006 points equates to 1,265 "comparison points", the same number as a triple jump of 18 m. Split evenly between the events, the following table shows the benchmark levels needed to earn 1,000, 900, 800 and 700 points in each sport.
The official decathlon world record holder is American Ashton Eaton, who scored 9,045 points at the 2015 IAAF World Championships. It was improved upon by Kevin Mayer of France, with a score of 9,126 points set during the 2018 Décastar in Talence, pending ratification by the IAAF. Previous record from Ashton Eaton: The total decathlon score for all world records in the respective events would be 12,560; the total decathlon score for all the best performances achieved during decathlons is 10,544. The Difference column shows the difference in points between the decathlon points that the individual current world record would be awarded and the points awarded to the current decathlon record for that event; the % Difference column shows the percentage difference between the time, distance or height of the individual world record and the decathlon record (other than the Total entry, which shows the percentage difference between award
A bicycle called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence at a given time; these numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions, they provide a popular form of recreation, have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitness and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing and bicycle stunts. The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. However, many details have been improved since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design; these have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling.
The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that played a key role in the development of the automobile were invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels; the word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysées and Bois de Boulogne". The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle a carriage; the design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used with some degree of overlap for a time. Other words for bicycle include "bike", "pushbike", "pedal cycle", or "cycle". In Unicode, the code point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2; the entity 🚲. The "Dandy horse" called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais.
It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner. Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his or her feet while steering the front wheel; the first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is disputed. He is associated with the first recorded instance of a cycling traffic offense, when a Glasgow newspaper in 1842 reported an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow and was fined five shillings. In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel; this was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.
Several inventions followed using rear-wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. In that same year, bicycle wheels with wire spokes were patented by Eugène Meyer of Paris; the French vélocipède, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing". It featured a tubular steel frame on; these bicycles were difficult to ride due to poor weight distribution. In 1868 Rowley Turner, a sales agent of the Coventry Sewing Machine Company, brought a Michaux cycle to Coventry, England, his uncle, Josiah Turner, business partner James Starley, used this as a basis for the'Coventry Model' in what became Britain's first cycle factory. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive, connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel.
These models were known as safety bicycles, dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's 1885 Rover, manufactured in Coventry is described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon the seat tube was added. Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres in 1889, winning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and England. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed; this refinement led to the 1890s invention of coaster brakes. Dérailleur gears and hand-operated Bowden cable-pull brakes were developed during these years, but were only adopted by casual riders; the Svea Velocipede with vertical pedal arrangement and