Xavier Rohart is a French sailor. Member of the YC La Pelle in Marseille, he is now competing in the Star class, he won a bronze medal in the Star Class with Pascal Rambeau at the 2004 Summer Olympics, has competed at four other Olympics. He is a founder of the Star Sailors League, he now sails with PIerre-Alexis Ponsot. 6th at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing in Star with Pascal Rambeau. Bronze medal at the 2004 Olympics in Athens in Star with Pascal Rambeau. 5th at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney in Finn. 7th at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona in Finn. World Champion in Star in 2003 and 2005 World vice-champion in Star in 2007 Third in Star in 2002 et 2006 Third in Finn in 1997 and 1998 European champion in Star in 2015 European vice-champion in Star in 2006 European vice-champion in Finn in 1997 6th at the Star Sailors League Finals 2014 in Nassau in Star. 6th at the Star Sailors League Finals 2013 in Nassau in Star. Elected Sailor of the year of the Fédération Française de Voile in 2003 with his crew Pascal Rambeau Xavier Rohart at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Paul Martin Goodison MBE is an English sailor. In March 2005, he was ranked 2nd in the world in the Laser, behind Robert Scheidt of Brazil, ahead of Michael Blackburn of Australia and Mark Mendelblatt of the United States, he won the gold medal in the Men's Laser class at the 2008 Summer Olympics. In 2009 he won the Laser World Championships, in Canada, he competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics, finishing 4th, the 2012 Summer Olympics, finishing 7th. In 2016, Goodison won the Moth World Championship in Hayama, Japan and in 2017 won the title a second time in Malcesine, Italy. In 2018 he won the title third time back to back. Goodison joined Artemis Racing for their 2017 Louis Vuitton Challenger’s Trophy campaign, he is an avid supporter of Sheffield United. Goodison was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours. Official website Paul Goodison's Team GB profile at the British Olympic Association website https://web.archive.org/web/20090813051532/http://www.mtc-uk.com/talent/paul-goodison
Robert Scheidt is a Brazilian sailor, who has won two gold medals, two silver medals and a bronze from five Olympic Games and a Star Sailors League Final. He is one of the most successful sailors at Olympic Games and one of the most successful Brazilian Olympic athletes, being one of only three to earn five medals along with fellow sailor Torben Grael. and the only sailor to win medals in both dinghy and keelboat classes. Scheidt was born in São Paulo to Karin Kreuger Scheidt, his father gave him his first boat when he was nine, Robert began practising in the Guarapiranga dam. With the help of Dudu Melchert, his coach, he began winning several competitions. At the age of 11, Scheidt became the South American Champion in the Optimist Class, in Algarrobo, Chile, in 1985 and again in 1986; because of his wins, he was chosen to represent Brazil in the Optimist World Championship in 1986. This made him decide to quit tennis and focus on sailing; because his weight and height exceeded the Optimist recommendations, he began sailing in the Snipe Class, was second at the 1989 Brazilian Snipe Junior Championship, champion in 1990, 1991 and 1992.
In 1990, he began sailing in the Lasers and became Brazilian junior champion and was called to represent Brazil in the Junior World Championships, held in Netherlands. Following this championship, he trained in Denmark and Sweden and participated for the first time in the Kiel Week. In 1991, he sailed a good and consistent regatta, won 10 out of the 11 races, became Laser Junior World Champion, in Scotland. In 1995, he won the gold medal in the Pan American Games in Mar del Plata, his first World Championship. In the following year, he graduated at the Mackenzie Presbyterian University in Business Administration. In this year, 1996, his greatest achievement: after a thrilling and controversial duel with Ben Ainslie, he took the Olympic Gold Medal in Atlanta, in the Laser Class, he won in 1996 the World Championship, held in Cape Town, South Africa and again in 1997, in Algarrobo, Chile. In 1999, he won the Gold Medal in the Pan American Games, in Winnipeg, Canada on Lake Winnipeg, ahead of Mark Mendelblatt of the U.
S. and Diego Romero of Argentina. In 2000, after his fourth World Title, in Cancún, there were high expectations that he would win gold in the Olympic Games, in Sydney, but along with the rest of the Brazilian delegation, he failed to win the medal and, after an amazing and controversial battle with Ben Ainslie, from Great Britain, he took home the Silver Medal. His fifth world title came in 2001, in Cork and his sixth in 2002, in Cape Cod, United States. In 2003, he became for the third time Pan American Games Champion, with the gold in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In 2004, he won the Gold Medal in the Laser Class in Athens, Ainslie having moved up a weight division to the Finn Class, won his 6th World Title in Bitez, ahead of Mark Mendelblatt. In March 2005, he was ranked 1st in the world in the Laser, ahead of Paul Goodison of Great Britain, Michael Blackburn of Australia, Mark Mendelblatt of the U. S, his last World Title came in 2005, when he was proclaimed champion in his birth country for the first time, in Fortaleza, Brazil.
After this win, he decided to leave the Laser class and to focus in the two-person racing keelboat Star Class, along with Bruno Prada. In June 2006, he and Prada won the silver medal at the 2006 Kiel Week in Germany, behind Mark Mendelblatt and crewman Mark Strube. In August 2006, he and Prada won a silver medal at the Star European Championship against 93 boats in Neustadt, again behind Mendelblatt and Strube, he won nine titles since 2003, including the World Title in 2007, in Portugal and a silver medal at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. With this podium he became the first Brazilian athlete to win a medal in four consecutive Olympic Games, his four medals put him, along with swimmer Gustavo Borges, behind only sailor Torben Grael as the Brazilian with most Olympic medals. He was appointed as the Brazilian flag bearer at the Beijing Olympic Games. In the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Scheidt won a bronze at the Star, he tied Grael's record and became the first Brazilian to win medals in five Olympics, though he wished to win the gold given that would be the last Olympics for the Star Class.
To ensure another participation in the 2016 Summer Olympics hosted by Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, Scheidt returned to the Laser. On October 25, 2008 he married a Lithuanian Olympic silver medal winner Gintarė Volungevičiūtė in the Town Hall of Kaunas, Lithuania, they have two sons. Robert Scheidt has won 125 titles until May, 2006, including 68 in Brazil and 57 abroad, his main achievements are: Star Class: Olympic Games: Silver in Beijing, 2008 and Bronze in London, 2012 World Championship: 2007, 2011, 2012 Star Sailors League Finals 2013 Pre-Olympic: 2006 South American Championship: 2006 Brazilian Championship: 2006 Laser Class Olympic Games: Gold in Atlanta, 1996 and in Athens, 2004 Silver in Sydney, 2000 World Championships: Tenerife, Spain, 1995 Cape Town, South Africa, 1996 Algarrobo, Chile, 1997 Cancún, Mexico, 2000 Cork, Ireland, 2001 Cape Cod, USA, 2002 Bitez, Turkey, 2004 Fortaleza, Brazil, 2005 Muscat, Oman, 2013 World ISAF Games: Marseille, France, 1997 World Junior Championship: Scotland, 1991 Pan American Games: Mar del Plata, Argentina, 1995 Winnipeg, Canada, 1999 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2003 Europe Cup: 1993, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005 South American Championships: 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997, 2001, 2004 Brazilian Championships: 1987, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 Ki
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Mateusz Kusznierewicz is a Polish sailor, specialising in the Finn and Star classes. His first sailing success came in 1985, where he won the Puchar Spójni at the Zalew Zegrzyński in Warsaw. Most he competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, winning a bronze medal in the Finn. For his sport achievements, he received the Order of Polonia Restituta: Knight's Cross in 1996, Officer's Cross in 2004. 1993: 2nd place World Championships OK Dinghy 1994: European Champion OK Dinghy 2nd place World Championships OK Dinghy 1996: Olympic Champion Finn Dinghy 2nd place European Championships Finn Dinghy 1998: World Champion Finn Dinghy Winner of the Kieler Week Finn Dinghy 1999: Winner of the Kieler Week Finn Dinghy 2000: World Champion Finn Dinghy European Champion Finn Dinghy 4th place at the Olympic Games Finn Dinghy 2001: 2nd place World Championships Finn Dinghy 2002: 2nd place World Championships Finn Dinghy Winner of the Kieler Week Finn Dinghy 2003: 2nd place European Championships Finn Dinghy 6th place World Championships Finn Dinghy 2004 European Champion Finn Dinghy 4th place World Championships Finn Dinghy 3rd place at the Olympic Games Finn DinghyKusznierewicz has won over 20 international regattas, won ISAF Sailor of the Year in 1999.
Mateusz Kusznierewicz at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Mateusz Kusznierewicz at the International Olympic Committee