Game Boy Advance
The Game Boy Advance is a 32-bit handheld video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo as the successor to the Game Boy Color. It was released in Japan on March 21, 2001, in North America on June 11, 2001, in Australia and Europe on June 22, 2001, in mainland China on June 8, 2004 as iQue Game Boy Advance; the GBA was part of the sixth generation. The original model was not backlit and Nintendo addressed that with the release of the redesigned Game Boy Advance SP in 2003. Another redesign, the Game Boy Micro, was released in 2005; as of June 30, 2010, the Game Boy Advance series has sold 81.51 million units worldwide. Its successor, the Nintendo DS, was released in November 2004 and is compatible with Game Boy Advance software. Contrary to the previous Game Boy models, which were all following the "portrait" form factor of the original Game Boy, the Game Boy Advance was designed in a "landscape" form factor, putting the buttons to the sides of the device instead of below the screen; the Game Boy Advance was designed by the French designer Gwénaël Nicolas and his Tokyo-based design studio Curiosity Inc.
In 1996, magazines including Electronic Gaming Monthly, Next Generation, issues 53 and 54 of Total! and the July 1996 issue of Game Informer featured reports of a new Game Boy, codenamed Project Atlantis. Although Nintendo's expectations of releasing the system in at least one territory by the end of 1996 would make that machine seem to be the Game Boy Color, it was described as having a 32-bit RISC processor, a 3-by-2-inch color LCD screen, a link port—a description that more matches the Game Boy Advance, it may have referred to the unnamed, unreleased Game Boy Color successor prototype, revealed at 2009's Game Developers Conference. It was announced that Nintendo of Japan was working on a game for the system called "Mario's Castle". Nintendo tabled the project in 1997, since the original Game Boy was still too popular to merit the release of a successor; the technical specifications of the original Game Boy Advance are, as provided by Nintendo: Backward compatibility for Game Boy and Game Boy Color games is provided by a custom 4.194/8.388 MHz Z80-based coprocessor, while a link port at the top of the unit allows it to be connected to other devices using a Game Link cable or GameCube link cable.
When playing Game Boy or Game Boy Color games on the Game Boy Advance, the L and R buttons can be used to toggle between a stretched widescreen format and the original screen ratio of the Game Boy. Game Boy games can be played using the same selectable color palettes as on the Game Boy Color; every Nintendo handheld system following the release of the Game Boy Advance SP has included a built-in light and rechargeable battery. The Game Boy Advance and Nintendo DS 2D graphics hardware have scaling and rotation for traditional tiled backgrounds in its modes 1 and 2 and scaling and rotation for bitmaps in modes 3 through 5. On each machine supporting this effect, it is possible to change the scaling and rotation values during the horizontal blanking period of each scanline to draw a flat plane in a perspective projection. More complex effects such as fuzz are possible by using other equations for the position and rotation of each line; the "character mode" supports up to 4 tile map background layers per frame, with each tile being 8x8 pixels in size and having 16 or 256 colors.
The "character mode" supports up to 128 hardware sprites per frame, with any sprite size from 8x8 to 64x64 pixels and with 16 or 256 colors per sprite. With hardware comparable to the Super NES, the Game Boy Advance represents progress for sprite-based technology; the Game Boy Advance has platformers, SNES-style role-playing video games, classic games ported from various 8-bit and 16-bit systems of the previous generations. This includes the Super Mario Advance series, as well as the system's backward compatibility with all earlier Game Boy titles. All titles were GBA-exclusive and none of these were backwards compatible with older Game Boy systems, it featured a warning message, refuse to play on classic Game Boy. Final Fantasy VI Advance was the final licensed Japanese GBA game release. Released November 2006, it was the final Nintendo-published game for the system. 2 Games in 1: Columns Crown & ChuChu Rocket! was the final European GBA game, released November 2008. Samurai Deeper Kyo was the final North American GBA game, released in February 2008.
The last Nintendo-developed game released for the system was the Japan-only rhythm game Rhythm Tengoku, which went on to form the popular Rhythm Heaven series. An accessory for the GameCube, known as the Game Boy Player, was released in 2003 as the successor to the Super Game Boy peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System; the accessory allows Game Boy Advance games, as well as Game Boy and Game Boy Color games, to be played on the GameCube. However, some games may have compatibility issues due to certain features. Game Boy Advance games are compatible with the Nintendo DS and Nintendo DS Lite handheld consoles, which feature a cartridge slot at the bottom, they are not, compatible with the Nintendo DSi, as it does not feature a cartridge slot. As part of an Ambassador Program for early adopters of the Nintendo 3DS system, ten Game Boy Advance games were made available free for players who bought a system before August 2011. Unlike other Virtual Console games for the system, players were not able to use features such
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
Star Wars: Battlefront II (2005 video game)
Star Wars: Battlefront II is a first- and third-person shooter video game based on the Star Wars film franchise. Developed by Pandemic Studios and published by LucasArts it is a sequel to 2004's Star Wars: Battlefront and the second game in the Battlefront series; the game was released in PAL regions on October 31, 2005, on the PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable, Microsoft Windows, Xbox platforms, in North America on November 1 of the same year. It was released on the PlayStation Store on October 20, 2009, for download on the PSP; the PSP version was developed by Savage Entertainment. The game features new vehicles, game mechanics and missions compared to the original Battlefront. Unlike its predecessor, Battlefront II features a more narrative-based campaign, retelling portions of the Star Wars story from the point of view of a veteran Imperial Stormtrooper, reminiscing about his tour of duty in service of both the Galactic Republic and as part of the Galactic Empire. Gameplay additions over Battlefront include the use of Jedi, additional game modes such as hero assault, objective-based space battles.
Battlefront II was well received, with the PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions scoring in the mid 80s at aggregators GameRankings and Metacritic. The PC version scored lower at both sites, scoring a 76.60% at GameRankings and 78 at Metacritic. The PSP version was scoring 70.93 % at GameRankings and 69 at Metacritic. Reviewers praised the narrative-based story. Like the original game, it was a commercial success. GameSpy Technology scheduled a shut-down across all titles using the service for May 31, 2014, which included Star Wars: Battlefront II for PC, PS2, Xbox. Electronic Arts announced it would extend support for Battlefront II until June 30, 2014; the extended support ended on July 25, 2014, taking all GameSpy online video games across all platforms offline. The Windows version was added to a list of supported games on GameRanger on May 31, 2014, which allows for continued online play. On October 2, 2017, multiplayer for the Windows version was again enabled, allowing for Steam and GOG cross-play.
As of April 26, 2018, Battlefront II is now backwards compatible on the Xbox One and has enhanced graphics for the Xbox One X. Battlefront II is fundamentally similar to its predecessor, albeit with the addition of new gameplay mechanics; the general objective in most missions is to eliminate the enemy faction. Like its predecessor Star Wars Battlefront, the game is split into two eras: the Clone Wars, with battles taking place between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems, the Galactic Civil War, where battles between the Rebel Alliance and Galactic Empire take place. Players have the ability to choose between six classes during gameplay. Four class types are common to all factions. In addition to the four standard classes, each faction has two unique classes which unlock by scoring a predetermined number of points. For the Rebellion faction, the Bothan Spy and the Wookiee. Battlefront II features heroes - a special class that allows the player to control iconic characters from the Star Wars universe.
Heroes serve as a bonus to players, are unlocked by meeting certain criteria, such as earning a certain number of points. Differences between Battlefront II and its predecessor include the ability to sprint and the ability to roll forward. In addition to utilizing heroes in conquest matches, the game features a hero assault mode in which heroes are pitted against villains in a team deathmatch format. Whereas Star Wars: Battlefront's campaign featured missions dependent on the chosen faction, Battlefront II contains only one campaign, called Rise of the Empire, found in every version of the game except the PlayStation Portable; this set of missions is presented as the narration from a veteran of the 501st Legion, beginning with an attack on the planet Mygeeto during the Clone Wars and ending with the assault on Hoth as depicted in The Empire Strikes Back. There are a total of 18 missions; the PSP version of Battlefront II does not feature the Rise of the Empire campaign. Instead it features three single-player Challenge modes.
In Imperial Enforcer the player is sent to eliminate indigenous species on several given planets, such as Gungans on Naboo and Ewoks on Endor. Rogue Assassin requires the player to eliminate all Imperial officers on a given sets of planets. Bonus points are awarded for any other kills. Rebel Raider tasks the player with locating specific objects in a map and returning them to a designated drop point, similar to Capture the flag. Like its predecessor, Battlefront II includes Galactic Conquest. In this mode, the player commands a fleet throughout the galaxy conquering and protecting planets, much like a game of Risk; when two opposing forces reach the same planet, the game switches to the traditional perspective, the player must eliminate the enemy faction to gain control of that planet. Players gain credits for performing well which can be used to buy new character classes, a new fleet, or bonuses that provide additional support when attacking or defending a planet. While the PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions allow cooperative and competitive battles in Galactic Conquest mode through splitscreen gameplay, the PC version does not.
In Instant Action players can choose from any of the game's 24 maps, as well as any available eras and modes. Four other m
Nintendo Entertainment System
The Nintendo Entertainment System is an 8-bit home video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer platform in Japan known as the Famicom for short, which launched on July 15, 1983; the NES was launched through test markets in New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, before being given a wide release in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by SK Hynix, known as Hyundai Electronics; the best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the North American video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.
It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he believed that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools; because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
The code name for the project was "GameCom", but Masayuki Uemura's wife proposed the name "Famicom", arguing that "In Japan,'pasokon' is used to mean a personal computer, but it is neither a home or personal computer. We could say it is a family computer." Meanwhile, Hiroshi Yamauchi decided that the console should use a red and white theme after seeing a billboard for DX Antenna which used those colors. During the creation of the Famicom, the ColecoVision, a video game console made by Coleco to compete against Atari's Atari 2600 Game system in The United States, was a huge influence. Takao Sawano, chief manager of the project, brought a ColecoVision home to his family, who were impressed by the system's capability to produce smooth graphics at the time, which contrasted with the flickering and slowdown seen on Atari 2600 games. Uemura, head of Famicom development, stated that the ColecoVision set the bar that influenced how he would approach the creation of the Famicom. Original plans called for the Famicom's cartridges to be the size of a cassette tape, but they ended up being twice as big.
Careful design attention was paid to the cartridge connectors since loose and faulty connections plagued arcade machines. As it necessitated taking 60 connection lines for the memory and expansion, Nintendo decided to produce their own connectors in-house rather than use ones from an outside supplier; the controllers were hard-wired to the console with no connectors for cost reasons. The game pad controllers were more-or-less copied directly from the Game & Watch machines, although the Famicom design team wanted to use arcade-style joysticks taking apart ones from American game consoles to see how they worked. There were concerns regarding the durability of the joystick design and that children might step on joysticks left on the floor. Katsuyah Nakawaka attached a Game & Watch D-pad to the Famicom prototype and found that it was easy to use and caused no discomfort. Though, they installed a 15-pin expansion port on the front of the console so that an optional arcade-style joystick could be used.
Uemura added an eject lever to the cartridge slot, not necessary, but he believed that children could be entertained by pressing it. He added a microphone to the second controller with the idea that it could be used to make players' voices sound through the TV speaker; the console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom's popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984. Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari's name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System; the deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game.
This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, Nintendo decided to market its sys
The Atari 2600 sold as the Atari Video Computer System or Atari VCS until November 1982, is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976; this contrasts with the older model of having dedicated hardware that could play only those games that were physically built into the unit. The 2600 was bundled with two joystick controllers, a conjoined pair of paddle controllers, a game cartridge: Combat, Pac-Man; the Atari VCS launched with nine low-resolution games in 2 KiB cartridges. Disagreements over sales potential of the VCS led Bushnell to leave Atari in 1978; the system found its killer app with the port of Taito's Space Invaders in 1980 and became successful, leading to the creation of third-party game developers, notably Activision, competition from other home console makers such as Mattel and Coleco.
By the end of its primary lifecycle in 1983-4, the 2600 was home to games with much more advanced visuals and gameplay than the system was designed for, such as scrolling platform adventure Pitfall II: Lost Caverns, which uses four times the ROM of the launch titles. Atari invested in two games for the 2600, Pac-Man and E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, that would become commercial failures and contributed to the video game crash of 1983. The 2600 was shelved as the industry recovered, while Warner sold off the home console division of Atari to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel; the new Atari Corporation under Tramiel re-released a lower-cost version of the 2600 in 1986, as well as the Atari 7800, backwards compatible with the 2600. Atari dropped support for the Atari 2600 on January 1, 1992, after an estimated 30 million units were sold over the system's lifetime. Atari was founded by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney of which their first major product was Pong in 1972, one of the first successful arcade games.
It transitioned Pong into a home console version by 1975, helping to pit Atari against Magnavox, the only other major competitor for home consoles at the time. Bushnell recognized that this approach to home consoles has a drawback in that because it used custom logic burned onto the circuit board, it was limited to only one game and any variants, would require consumers to buy another console to play a different set of games. Further, while they could continue to take games they had created for arcade machines to home consoles, this development step cost at least US$100,000 and time to complete, once on the market, had only about a three-month shelf life before being outdated, making this a risky move. In 1974, Atari had acquired Cyan Engineering, an electronics company founded by Steve Mayer and Larry Emmons, both former colleagues of Bushnell and Dabney from Ampex, started Atari's Grass Valley Think Tank, where they were involved with coming up with new ideas for arcade games. Based on Bushnell's concern about single-game consoles, the Grass Valley team started working on how to achieve a home console with multi-game support.
Mayer and Emmons recognized that to achieve a home console with multiple game functionality, they would need newly-invented microprocessors within the console, but at that time, such microprocessors cost US$100–300, far outside the range that their market would support. In September 1975, Chuck Peddle of MOS Technology had created a low-cost replacement for the Motorola 6800, the MOS Technology 6502, which they introduced at the 1975 Wescon trade show in San Francisco. Mayer and Ron Milner attended the show, met with Peddle, invited Peddle to Cyan's headquarters to discuss using MOS's microprocessors for a game console. Mayer and Milner had been able to negotiate purchase of the 6502 chips for US$8 a piece, sufficient to begin development of a console. Through their discussions, Cyan and MOS decided that the better solution would be the MOS Technology 6507, a more restrictive but lower-cost version of the 6502. Cyan and MOS arranged to bring in Synertek, a semiconductor manufacturer whose co-founder, Bob Schreiner, was good friends with Peddle, to act as a second source for the 6507.
By December 1975, Atari hired Joe Decuir to help design the first prototype around the 6502, codenamed "Stella", the name of Decuir's bicycle. A second prototype had been completed by March 1976 with the help of Jay Miner, able to squeeze an entire wire wrap of equipment making up the Television Interface Adaptor, sending graphics and audio to the television display, into a single chip; the second prototype included the 6507, the TIA, a ROM cartridge slot and adapter, each cartridge holding a ROM image of a game. Believing that "Stella" would be a success, Bushnell acquired the entire Grass Valley Think Tank and relocated them into Atari's new headquarters in Sunnyvale, California by mid-1976, putting Steve Mayer in charge of the project. Bushnell feared that once this unit was released, competitors would try to copy it, preemptively made arrangements with all integrated chip manufacturers that had interest in the games market to deny sales to his competitors. Fairchild Semiconductor introduced its Fairchild Channel F home console in November 1976, which included ROM cartridge technology, beating Atari to the market.
The company lacked the funds to do so. Bushnell had considered taking Atari public but instead decided to sell the company to Warner Communications for US$28 million, subsequently Warner provided around US$100 million to Atari, allowing them to prioritize and fast-track Stella. By 1977, the product had advanced far enough to brand it as the "Atari Video Computer System" and enga
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick known as the control column, is the principal control device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a center stick or side-stick, it has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft's flight. Joysticks are used to control video games, have one or more push-buttons whose state can be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. Joysticks are used for controlling machines such as cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles, surveillance cameras, zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones. Joysticks originated as controls for aircraft ailerons and elevators, are first known to have been used as such on Louis Bleriot's Bleriot VIII aircraft of 1908, in combination with a foot-operated rudder bar for the yaw control surface on the tail.
The name "joystick" is thought to originate with early 20th century French pilot Robert Esnault-Pelterie. There are competing claims on behalf of fellow pilots Robert Loraine, James Henry Joyce, A. E. George. Loraine is cited by the Oxford English Dictionary for using the term "joystick" in his diary in 1909 when he went to Pau to learn to fly at Bleriot's school. George was a pioneer aviator who with his colleague Jobling built and flew a biplane at Newcastle in England in 1910, he is alleged to have invented the "George Stick". The George and Jobling aircraft control column is in the collection of the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Joysticks were present in early planes; the coining of the term "joystick" may be credited to Loraine, as his is the earliest known usage of the term, although he most did not invent the device. The electrical two-axis joystick was invented by C. B. Mirick at the United States Naval Research Laboratory and patented in 1926". NRL was developing remote controlled aircraft at the time and the joystick was used to support this effort.
In the awarded patent, Mirick writes: "My control system is applicable in maneuvering aircraft without a pilot."The Germans developed an electrical two-axis joystick around 1944. The device was used as part of the Germans' Funkgerät FuG 203 Kehl radio control transmitter system used in certain German bomber aircraft, used to guide both the rocket-boosted anti-ship missile Henschel Hs 293, the unpowered pioneering precision-guided munition Fritz-X, against maritime and other targets. Here, the joystick of the Kehl transmitter was used by an operator to steer the missile towards its target; this joystick had on-off switches rather than analogue sensors. Both the Hs 293 and Fritz-X used FuG 230 Straßburg radio receivers in them to send the Kehl's control signals to the ordnance's control surfaces. A comparable joystick unit was used for the contemporary American Azon steerable munition to laterally steer the munition in the yaw axis only; this German invention was picked up by someone in the team of scientists assembled at the Heeresversuchsanstalt in Peenemünde.
Here a part of the team on the German rocket program was developing the Wasserfall missile, a variant of the V-2 rocket, the first ground-to-air missile. The Wasserfall steering equipment converted the electrical signal to radio signals and transmitted these to the missile. In the 1960s the use of joysticks became widespread in radio-controlled model aircraft systems such as the Kwik Fly produced by Phill Kraft; the now-defunct Kraft Systems firm became an important OEM supplier of joysticks to the computer industry and other users. The first use of joysticks outside the radio-controlled aircraft industry may have been in the control of powered wheelchairs, such as the Permobil. During this time period NASA used joysticks as control devices as part of the Apollo missions. For example, the lunar lander test models were controlled with a joystick. In many modern airliners aircraft, for example all Airbus aircraft developed from the 1980s, the joystick has received a new lease on life for flight control in the form of a "side-stick", a controller similar to a gaming joystick but, used to control the flight, replacing the traditional yoke.
The sidestick saves weight, improves movement and visibility in the cockpit, may be safer in an accident than the traditional "control yoke". Ralph H. Baer, inventor of television video games and the Magnavox Odyssey console, released in 1972, created the first video game joysticks in 1967, they were able to control the vertical position of a spot displayed on a screen. The earliest known electronic game joystick with a fire button was released by Sega as part of their 1969 arcade game Missile, a shooter simulation game that used it as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move a motorized tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen. In 1970, the game was released in North America as S. A. M. I. by Midway Games. Taito released a four-way joystick as part of their arcade racing video game Astro Race in 1973, while their 1975 run and gun multi-directional shooter game Western Gun introduced dual-stick controls with one eight-way joystick for movement and the other for changing the shooting direction.
In North Americ
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo