A wargame is a type of strategy game that simulates warfare realistically, as opposed to abstract strategy games such as chess. A wargame does not involve the activities of actual military forces, better called a field training exercise; the term "wargame" should not be applied to sports such as paintball. Wargames are not a reliable tool for predicting how a commander might react in a hypothetical scenario that he has never faced in the field. There is substantial literature in psychology that shows that humans are bad at predicting how they'd react in hypothetical situations, although wargames do deliver somewhat more reliable predictions than pure thought experiments. Wargames can give hints as to how a commander might react, these hints could be explored and tested through other methods. Wargames on their own are not suitable for disproving technical or tactical theories. Wargames have much more utility as training tools, some military experts contend that that's all they're good for. Wargames are good for training students to respond in a situation, known to provoke bad decisions.
For this purpose, it is not necessary for the wargame to be realistic, it must at least be convincing enough that when the commander encounters the real situation in the field, it will be familiar to him and his trained response will be triggered. Wargames can train students on how to better apply abstract principles of warfare in actual battlefield conditions. A professional wargame is one, employed by a military for the purposes of training or research. A recreational wargame is played for pleasure by civilians. While a wargame does not involve the activities of actual military forces, military command and associated staff may operate in a physical command and control center and execute their decision-making as if the simulation were real. A wargame must at least involve one human player, otherwise it's a mere simulation. Although wargames are adversarial, a wargame need not have clear victory conditions, nor does it have to give each player a fair chance of winning; this is common in military wargames, which are for research and training, not competition.
Real-world conflicts, after all, are fair and do not always have clear winners and losers. By contrast, recreational wargames are designed for competitive play and are structured around fairness and clear victory conditions. A wargame must have a setting, based on some historical era of warfare so as to establish what armaments the combatants may wield and the environment they fight in. A historical setting depicts a real historical era of warfare. Among recreational wargamers, the most popular historical era is World War 2. Professional military wargamers prefer the modern era. A fantasy setting depicts a fictional world in which the combatants wield fictional or anachronistic armaments, but it should be similar enough to some historical era of warfare such that the combatants fight in a familiar and credible way. For instance, Warhammer Age of Sigmar has wizards and dragons, but the combat is based on medieval warfare. A wargame's scenario describes the circumstances of the specific conflict being simulated, from the layout of the terrain to the exact composition of the fighting forces to the mission objectives of the players.
Historical wargamers re-enact historical battles. Alternatively, players may construct a fictional scenario, it is easier to design a balanced scenario where either player has a fair chance of winning if it is fictionalized. Board wargames have a fixed scenario. A wargame's level of war determines to the scope of the scenario, the basic unit of command, the degree to which lower level processes are abstracted. At the tactical level, the scenario is a single battle; the basic unit of command is an individual soldier or small group of soldiers. The time span of the scenario is in the order of minutes. At this level, the specific capabilities of the soldiers and their armaments are described in detail. An example of a tactical-level games is Flames of War, in which players use miniature figurines to represent individual soldiers, move them around on a scale model of the battlefield. At the operational level, the scenario is a military campaign, the basic unit of command is a large group of soldiers.
At this level, the outcomes of battles are determined by a simple computation. At the strategic level, the scenario is an entire war; the player addresses higher-level concerns such as economics and diplomacy. The time span of the game is in the order of years. Flames of War is a tactical-level historical miniature wargame that simulates land battles during World War 2. TACSPIEL is an operational-level military wargame developed in the 1960s by the US Army for research into guerilla warfare. Hearts of Iron IV is a strategic-level computer wargame set in the mid-20th century. Wings of War is tactical-level historical wargame. Star Wars: X-Wing is a fantasy wargame whose rules are based on Wings of War. No wargame can be realistic. A wargame's design must make trade-offs between realism and fun. Military wargames need to be realistic, because their purpose is to prepare officers for real warfare. Recreational wargames only need to be realistic to the degree that the players can suspend their disbelief—they need to be credible, if not realistic.
Fantasy wargames arguably stretch the definition of wargaming by representing fictional or anachronistic armaments, but they may st
Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game
Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game is a role-playing game set in the Star Wars universe and published by West End Games between 1987 and 1999. The game system was modified and rereleased in 2004 as D6 Space, which used a generic space opera setting. An unrelated Star Wars RPG was published by Wizards of the Coast from 2000 to 2010. Since 2012 the official Star Wars role-playing game is another unrelated game, published by Fantasy Flight Games; the game, based on WEG's earlier Ghostbusters RPG, established much of the groundwork of what became the Star Wars expanded universe, its sourcebooks are still cited by Star Wars fans as reference material. Lucasfilm considered the West End Games' Star Wars sourcebooks so authoritative that when Timothy Zahn was hired to write what became the Thrawn trilogy, he was sent a box of West End Games Star Wars books and directed to base his novel on the background material presented within. Many of the first uses of Star Wars alien names appeared for the first time in WEG's Star Wars books.
After Disney's reboot of the Star Wars Expanded Universe in 2014, much of this nomenclature still exists in new canon works. In 1992 West End Games published the second edition of the game, in which the title remained unchanged. In 1996 a revision of the second edition saw the light of day, but its title was changed from Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game - Second Edition to The Star Wars Roleplaying Game: Second Edition - Revised and Expanded. By the end of the game's run around 140 sourcebook and adventure supplements were published for the game during its run through three editions. In addition fifteen issues of a magazine series, the Star Wars Adventure Journal, were published between 1994 and 1998; the Adventure Journal was published in novel format of around 280 pages, consisted of adventures and articles for the game, plus short stories intended to provide inspiration for gamemasters and news relating to Star Wars. WEG's license to produce Star Wars material was lost after the company declared bankruptcy in 1998, the license was picked up by Wizards of the Coast, who held the license until 2010.
Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game won the Origins Award for Best Roleplaying Rules of 1987. Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game uses the D6 System developed for the Ghostbusters roleplaying game. 1st Edition RulesStar Wars: The Roleplaying Game ISBN 0-87431-065-22nd Edition RulesStar Wars: The Roleplaying Game - Second Edition ISBN 0-87431-181-0 The Star Wars Roleplaying Game: Second Edition - Revised and Expanded ISBN 0-87431-268-XAll covers from all core rulebooks published during the game's run: The Star Wars Sourcebook Campaign Pack Tatooine Manhunt Strike Force Shantipole Battle for the Golden Sun Imperial Sourcebook The Star Wars Rules Companion Starfall Otherspace Otherspace II: Invasion Scavenger Hunt Riders of the Maelstrom Crisis on Cloud City Galaxy Guide 1: A New Hope - 1st Edition: 1989, 2nd Edition: 1995. Galaxy Guide 2: Yavin and Bespin- 1st Edition: 1989, 2nd Edition: 1995. Galaxy Guide 3: The Empire Strikes Back- 1st Edition: 1989, 2nd Edition: 1996. Galaxy Guide 4: Alien Races - 1st Edition: 1989, 2nd Edition: 1994, ISBN 0-87431-208-6 Rebel Alliance Sourcebook Black Ice The Game Chambers of Questal The Isis Coordinates Death in the Undercity Galaxy Guide 5: The Return of the Jedi - 1st Edition: 1990, ISBN 0-87431-140-3, 2nd Edition: 1995, ISBN 087431-267-1 Galaxy Guide 6: Tramp Freighters Cracken's Rebel Field Guide Death Star Technical Companion Domain of Evil Graveyard of Alderaan Gamemaster Kit Gamemaster Handbook Planets of the Galaxy Volume 1 Heir to the Empire Sourcebook Dark Force Rising Sourcebook Planets of the Galaxy Volume 2 Mission to Lianna Planet of the Mists The Abduction The Politics of Contraband Gamemaster's Screen Movie Trilogy Sourcebook Dark Empire Sourcebook Planets of the Galaxy Volume 3 Han Solo and the Corporate Sector Sourcebook Supernova Wanted by Cracken Twin Stars of Kira Galaxy Guide 7: Mos Eisley Galaxy Guide 8: Scouts Galaxy Guide 9: Fragments from the Rim Galaxy Guide 10: Bounty Hunters Galaxy Guide 11: Criminal Organizations The Last Command Sourcebook The Planets Collection Creatures of the Galaxy Cracken's Rebel Operatives Classic Campaigns Classic Adventures Vol 1 Classic Adventures Vol 2 Flashpoint!
Brak Sector Galaxy Guide 12: Aliens - Enemies and Allies Galladium's Fantastic Technology: Guns and Gear Heroes and Rogues Platt's Starport Guide Goroth - Slave of the Empire Alliance Intelligence Report The Darkstryder Campaign Thrawn Trilogy Sourcebook Shadows of the Empire Sourcebook Shadows of the Empire: Planets Guide Tales Of The Jedi Companion The Jedi Academy Sourcebook Truce At Bakura Sourcebook Classic Adventures Vol 3 The Best of Star Wars Adventure Journal Issues 1-4 Operation- Elrood Instant Adventures Darkstryder: The Kathol Outback Darkstryder: The Kathol Rift Darkstryder: Endgame Star Wars Trilogy Sourcebook - Special Edition Rules of Engagement: The Rebel SpecForce Handbook Cynabar's Fantastic Technology: Droids Secrets of the Sisar Run Cracken's Threat Dossier Platt's Smugglers Guide Pirates & Privateers Stock Ships The Player's Guide to Tapani Wretched Hives of Scum and Villainy The Black Sands
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
Star Wars Miniatures
Star Wars Miniatures is a 34mm scale collectible miniatures tabletop game based on the Star Wars fictional universe, produced by Wizards of the Coast. The game was released in September 2004 and continued production until May 2010. Star Wars Miniatures players build point-based squads from one of ten different in-universe factions conduct battles between those squads; the game mechanics are a simplified version of the d20 roleplaying game system. Multiple maps and set themes from different settings and time periods from within the Star Wars universe are available. Star Wars Miniatures premiered on September 3, 2004; the first set, "Rebel Storm," was released at that time and was followed up by "Clone Strike," which came out December 4, 2004. April 9, 2005 brought the third set release, titled "Revenge of the Sith", with the "Universe" expansion set in August that, hitting stores on August 27 that year. "Champions of the Force" was released on June 10, 2006. The "Bounty Hunters" set was released in September 2006, followed by "Starships Battles" in November.
The special 30th anniversary set, "Alliance and Empire," was released May 2007. "Force Unleashed" set has been released in November 2007. "Legacy of the Force" was released on March 28, 2008. "Knights of the Old Republic" was released in Summer 2008, followed by "Clone Wars" in the late Fall of that year. Early 2009 included "Imperial Entanglements", followed in June by "Jedi Academy". "Galaxy at War" in October rounded out the 2009 collection, with "Dark Times" to follow in January/February 2010. The final official set released by Wizards of the Coast was "Masters of the Force", released April 2010; the sets released from "Rebel Storm" to "Knights of the Old Republic" have featured 60 constructed and painted miniature figures from different eras and settings of the Star Wars timeline. From "Clone Wars" onward, sets feature a total of 40 pieces. Accompanying the first three sets was a scenario book called Ultimate Missions; each book contained a series of scenarios. Ultimate Missions: Rebel Storm included scenarios drawn from A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, along with the associated radio dramas.
Ultimate Missions: Clone Strike drew its scenarios from Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, Star Wars: Clone Wars. Ultimate Missions: Revenge of the Sith covered Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith; the Ultimate Missions series was discontinued after Revenge of the Sith in favor of scenario packs such as Attack on Endor. On November 11, 2005 a special "AT-AT Imperial Walker Colossal Pack" was released, which came with the AT-AT; the AT-AT is scaled to the other miniatures, stands at fourteen inches high and eighteen inches long. On February 2006, the "Attack on Endor" set was released; this set consists of an AT-ST, an Imperial Stormtrooper, Imperial Stormtrooper Officer and an Imperial Stormtrooper Scout. Included are two double-sided maps and a scenario book. No Ewoks are included. On January 28, 2010, an official announcement on the Wizards of the Coast forum stated that Wizards of the Coast would not renew the license for Star Wars Miniatures. In Star Wars Miniatures, ten different factions are available for play.
They are Rebel, Republic, New Republic, Yuuzhan Vong, Old Republic, Sith and Fringe. Each game requires that each player chooses one of the above factions to play as and builds a squad using miniatures from that faction; the only exception is Fringe, a "neutral" faction, whose figures can be used in any squad. Players agree on a point total and create a squad that does not exceed the chosen point total for one of the following formats: Free-for-all: Each player makes a single faction squad for the battle. Factions may battle factions of different eras or the same faction; this is the format used for sanctioned tournaments. Era Play: Players select an era choose one player to play a light side faction and one to play a dark side faction from that era. Fringe characters may mix with either player's squad; the eras are: Old Republic: Old Republic vs. Sith Rise of the Empire: Republic vs. Separatist. Galactic Civil War: Rebel vs. Imperial. New Republic: New Republic vs. Imperial. New Jedi Order: New Republic vs. Yuuzhan Vong.
Light Side vs. Dark Side: Players make a multi-faction squad with one player representing the light side and the other representing the dark side Fringe may belong to either side. No Faction: Players make a squad using any combination of characters. Sealed: Players open a predetermined amount of Starters and Boosters and make a No Faction squad with the miniatures contained inside. Draft: 4 or more Players each open one of three booster boxes at a time, select one miniature inside and pass the box to the next player; the Players make a squad out of only the miniatures they draft in this way. This can be played No Faction or Factions, if multiple players have the same Faction, they are termed as No Faction for play. After players agree on a point total and play format and build their squads, one of several play maps representing different locations of the Star Wars Universe is chosen and set up; the maps feature a one inch square grid overlay that indicates where characters can move, as well as being used to determine range and the ability to see a target.
Different maps influence the game in different ways. For instance, the map included in the "Revenge of the Sith Starter" represents the interior of a batter
Wizards of the Coast
Wizards of the Coast LLC is an American publisher of games based on fantasy and science fiction themes, an operator of retail stores for games. A basement-run role-playing game publisher, the company popularized the collectible card game genre with Magic: The Gathering in the mid-1990s, acquired the popular Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game by purchasing the failing company TSR, experienced tremendous success by publishing the licensed Pokémon Trading Card Game; the company's corporate headquarters are located in Washington in the United States. Wizards of the Coast publishes role-playing games, board games, collectible card games, they have received numerous awards, including several Origins Awards. The company has been a subsidiary of Hasbro since 1999. All Wizards of the Coast stores were closed in 2004. Wizards of the Coast was founded by Peter Adkison in 1990 just outside Seattle and its current headquarters are located in nearby Renton; the company only published role-playing games such as the third edition of Talislanta and its own The Primal Order.
The 1992 release of The Primal Order, a supplement designed for use with any game system, brought legal trouble with Palladium Books suing for references to Palladium's game and system. The suit was settled in 1993. In 1991, Richard Garfield approached Wizards of the Coast with the idea for a new board game called RoboRally, but was turned down because the game would have been too expensive for Wizards of the Coast to produce. Instead, Adkison asked Garfield if he could invent a game, both portable and quick-playing, to which Garfield agreed. Adkison set up a new corporation, Garfield Games, to develop Richard Garfield's collectible card game concept called Manaclash, into Magic: The Gathering; this kept the game sheltered from the legal battle with Palladium, Garfield Games licensed the production and sale rights to Wizards until the court case was settled, at which point the shell company was shut down. Wizards debuted Magic in July 1993 at the Origins Game Fair in Dallas; the game proved popular at Gen Con in August 1993, selling out of its supply of 2.5 million cards, scheduled to last until the end of the year.
The success of Magic generated revenue that carried the company out from the handful of employees in 1993 working out of Peter's original basement headquarters into 250 employees in its own offices in 1995. In 1994, Magic won both the Mensa Top Five mind games award and the Origins Awards for Best Fantasy or Science Fiction Board Game of 1993 and Best Graphic Presentation of a Board Game of 1993. In 1994, Wizards began an association with The Beanstalk Group, a brand licensing agency and consultancy, to license the Magic brand. After the success of Magic, Wizards published RoboRally in 1994, it soon won the 1994 Origins Awards for Best Fantasy or Science Fiction Board Game and Best Graphic Presentation of a Board Game. Wizards expanded its role-playing game line by buying SLA Industries from Nightfall Games and Ars Magica from White Wolf, Inc. in 1994. In 1995, Wizards published another card game by Richard Garfield, The Great Dalmuti, which won the 1995 Best New Mind Game award from Mensa.
In August 1995, Wizards released Everway and four months closed its roleplaying game product line. Peter Adkison explained that the company was doing a disservice to the games with lack of support and had lost money on all of Wizards' roleplaying game products. In 1995, Wizards' annual sales passed US $65 million. Wizards announced the purchase of TSR, the cash-strapped makers of Dungeons & Dragons on April 10, 1997. Wizards acquired Five Rings Publishing Group for $25 million. Many of the creative and professional staff of TSR relocated from Wisconsin to the Renton area. Wizards used TSR as a brand name for a while retired it, allowing the TSR trademarks to expire. Between 1997 and 1999, the company spun off several well-loved but poorly selling campaign settings to fan groups, focusing business on the more profitable Greyhawk and Forgotten Realms lines. In Summer 1997, Wizards revisited the concept of a 3rd edition of Dungeons & Dragons, having first discussed it soon after the purchase of TSR.
Looking back on the decision in 2004, Adkison stated: "Obviously, had a strong economic incentive for publishing a new edition. And given the change in ownership we thought this would be an excellent opportunity for WotC to'put its stamp on D&D'." He "Set overall design direction" for the new edition of D&D. Wizards released the third edition of Dungeons & Dragons in 2000, as well as the d20 System. With these releases came the Open Game License, which allowed other companies to make use of those systems; the new edition of the D&D game won the 2000 Origins Award for Best Roleplaying Game. In 2002, Wizards sponsored a design contest which allowed designers to submit their campaign worlds to Wizards, to produce an original campaign world. In 2003 Wizards released version 3.5 of the d20 system. Wizards helped to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the D&D game at Gen Con Indy 2004. On August 2, 1997, Wizards of the Coast was granted U. S. Patent 5,662,332 on collectible card games. In January 1999, Wizards of the Coast began publishing the successful Pokémon Trading Card Game.
The game proved to be popular, selling nearly 400,000 copies in less than six weeks, selling 10 times be