Mining in Sierra Leone
The mining industry of Sierra Leone accounted for 4.5 percent of the country's GDP in 2007 and minerals made up 79 percent of total export revenue with diamonds accounting for 46 percent of export revenue in 2008. The main minerals mined in Sierra Leone are diamonds, bauxite, gold and limonite. Mining in Sierra Leone has been seen as one of the key factors for instability in the country and one of the reasons for the country's recent civil war. Traditionally, benefits from diamond mining have ended up with private companies and corrupt officials rather than the country's government and people; the Ministry of Mineral Resources, is responsible for the management of the country's minerals sector and the Mines and Minerals Act 2009. Sierra Leone is a candidate for the Extraction Industries Transparency Initiative. GoSL publishes data on licenses and payments by mining companies on their Online Repository established by Revenue Development Foundation, the repository was launched in January 2012.
Organised mining began in the 1920s with bauxite first being recorded in 1920 along the Falaba to Waia road. Diamonds were found in the early 1930s, from 1934 to 1956 the Sierra Leone Selection Trust held the monopoly for mining, prospecting for and marketing diamonds throughout Sierra Leone; the Consolidated African Selection Trust Ltd, which owned mining operation around West Africa, provided the initial capital for the SLST. The monopoly was given for 99 years but in 1955 the SLST gave up rights to alluvial deposits outside its lease area; this allowed artisan and small scale mining of alluvial deposits, by 1965 there had been a large movement from agricultural work to working these deposits. In 1970 a joint SLST and government organisation was formed called the National Diamond Mining Corporation. Before the start of the Civil War in 1991 250,000 people made a living in the mining and quarrying sector with direct and indirect employment accounting for 14% of the country's total labour force.
The mineral wealth of Sierra Leone in diamonds, became a key factors in its instability and the outbreak of Civil War. Despite being among the top-ten diamond-producing nations, the mining sector faces many challenges, including weak laws and smuggling issues. Sierra Leone is losing large revenue that could have been earned from taxes and licensing agreements; those revenues could be reinvested for example in the healthcare sector to help those people whose health is affected by mining operations. Research suggests. NACE argues that with good institutional reforms, Sierra Leone can increase mineral exports seven-fold by 2020. Sierra Leone’s mining performance is poor as compared to Botswana, where mining contributes 38% to their GDP. Sierra Leone is ranked as one of the top five producers of rutile, a titanium ore, used in paint pigment and welding rod coatings; the government issued leases for mining rutile are held by Sierra Rutile Limited, owned by Titanium Resources Group, owned by European and U.
S investors. These leases cover 580 km2 of land. In 2009 the Government of Sierra Leone received Le 1,854 million in royalties from rutile mining. In 2009 production decreased by 19.07 percent to 63,860 tons, exports were worth US$35,920,300. On the 8th of December 2016, Sierra Rutile Limited, Sierra Leone's largest rutile producer was acquired by Australian mineral sands miner Iluka Resources. Gold mining in Sierra Leone consisted of small scale operation exploiting alluvial deposits. After the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War exploration of gold grew and by 2013 to 2015 new modern mines are expected to be in production. In 2010 Cluff Gold, a British company, found gold deposits in the rocks of the southern Kangari hills and is planning to build a mechanised mine to extract it. In 2009 production levels of gold fell by 17.71 percent to 5060 Troy Ounces from 6150 Troy Ounces in 2008. This was due to a drop in mining activity in the second half of the year and was despite a rise in the price of gold on the global market.
The drop may have been due to increased smuggling as the Government of Sierra Leone had raised the duty to higher than the neighboring countries. The increase in the value of gold meant gold exports were worth 15.73 percent more at US$4,764,000 in 2009 compared to US$4,116,400 in 2008. Diamonds are found in about a quarter of Sierra Leone in the south-east and east of the country, with the diamond fields cover 7,700 square miles; the main production areas are concentrated around the drainage areas of rivers in the Kono, Kenema and Bo Districts. In the Kono, Kenema, Bo and Pujehun Districts there are 1,700 artisanal mining licenses in operation. In 2009 the government recorded exports of 400,480 carats of diamonds, this included 143,620 carats of industrial diamonds and 256,860 of gem diamonds; this was and increase of 7.86 percent on the previous year, a result of legislative changes, in the form of a new mining law, to enable fees and royalties to be collected more and an increase in the amount of diamond mining.
Diamond exports were worth US$78,373,900 in 2009 accounting for 59 percent of the country's exports. The drop in the value of diamonds on the world market meant that the value of diamond exports decreased by 20.68 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. The largest diamond found in Sierra Leone, the third largest diamond in the world, was a 969.8 carat rough diamond. It was named the An-al of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone should have been one of the world’s richest countries, being blessed with resources, including gold and diamonds. However, it remains one o
Sierra Leone the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests; the country has a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census. Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature; the country's capital and largest city is Freetown. Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area; these regions are subdivided into sixteen districts. Sierra Leone was a British Crown Colony from 1808 to 1961. Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961, led by Sir Milton Margai, who became the country's first prime minister. In May 1962, Sierra Leone held its first general elections as an independent nation. On 19 April 1971, Siaka Stevens' government abolished Sierra Leone's parliamentary government system and declared Sierra Leone a presidential republic.
From 1978 to 1985, Sierra Leone was a one-party state in which Stevens' APC was the only legal political party in the country. The current constitution of Sierra Leone, which includes multiparty democracy, was adopted in 1991 by the government of President Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' hand-picked successor. On 23 March 1991, a rebel group known as the Revolutionary United Front led by a former Sierra Leone army officer Foday Sankoh launched an eleven-year brutal civil war in the country, in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Sierra Leone government. In April 1992, a group of junior army officers in their twenties overthrew president Momoh from power, their leader a 25 year old captain Valentine Strasser became the world's youngest Head of State. In January 1996 Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio returned the country to multi-party democracy and the 1991 constitution was reestablished. Bio handed power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah after his victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election.
In 1997, the military overthrew President Kabbah. However, in February 1998, a coalition of West African Ecowas armed forces led by Nigeria removed the military junta from power by force and President Kabbah was reinstated as president. Sierra Leone has had an uninterrupted democracy from 1998 to present. In January 2002, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fulfilled his campaign promise by ending the civil war as the rebels were defeated by military force with the help and support of Ecowas, the British government, the African Union, the United Nations. 16 ethnic groups inhabit each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Mende; the Temne are predominantly found in the northwest of the country, the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Comprising a small minority, about 2%, are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African-American and West Indian slaves. Although English is the official language, used in schools and government administration, Krio, an English-based creole, is the most spoken language across Sierra Leone and is spoken by 98% of the country's population.
The Krio language unites all the different ethnic groups in the country in their trade and social interaction. Sierra Leone is a Muslim-majority country at about 78%, though there is an influential Christian minority at 21%. Sierra Leone is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant states in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other peacefully, religious violence is rare; the major Christian and Muslim holidays are public holidays in the country, including Christmas, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha Sierra Leone has relied on mining diamonds, for its economic base. It is among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, is a major producer of gold, has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world. Despite this natural wealth, 53% of its population lived in poverty in 2011. Sierra Leone is a member of many international organisations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Mano River Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Development Bank and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2,500 years, populated successively by societies who migrated from other parts of Africa. The people adopted the use of iron by the 9th century and by 1000 AD agriculture was being practised along the coast; the climate changed and boundaries among different ecological zones changed as well, affecting migration and conquest. Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest and swampy environment was considered impenetrable; this environmental factor protected its people from conquests by the Mande and other African empires. This reduced the Islamic influence of the Mali Empire but Islam, introduced by Susu traders and migrants from the north and east, became adopted in the 18th century. European contacts within Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa in the 15th century. In 1462, Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra mapped the hills surrounding what is now Freetown Harbour, naming the shaped formation Serra da Leoa or "Serra Leoa".
The Spanish rendering of this geographic formation is Sierra Leona, adapted and, became the country's current name. Although according to the p
Siaka Probyn Stevens was the leader of Sierra Leone from 1967 to 1985, serving as Prime Minister from 1967 to 1971 and as President from 1971 to 1985. Stevens' leadership was characterised by patrimonial rule and self worship, consolidating power by means of corruption and exploitation. Stevens and his All People's Congress party won the contested 1967 Sierra Leone general elections over incumbent Prime Minister Sir Albert Margai of the Sierra Leone People's Party. In April 1971, Stevens made Sierra Leone a republic and became president a day after the constitution had been ratified by the Parliament of Sierra Leone, he was the second President of the Republic after Christopher Okoro Cole, a judge, sworn in for a day after which he resigned, paving the way for Stevens. Stevens served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity from 1 July 1980 to 24 June 1981 and engineered the creation of the Mano River Union, a three-country economic federation of Sierra Leone and Guinea. Stevens retired from office at the end of his term on 28 November 1985.
After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, he chose Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh, the commander of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces, as his successor. Siaka Probyn Stevens was born on 24 August 1905 in Moyamba, Moyamba District in the Southern Province of British Sierra Leone to a Limba father and a Mende mother. Although born in Moyamba, Stevens was raised in Freetown. Stevens completed his primary education in Freetown and completed secondary school at Albert Academy in Freetown, before joining the Sierra Leone Police Force. From 1923 to 1930, Stevens rose to the rank of First Class Musketry Instructor. From 1931 to 1946, he worked on the construction of the Sierra Leone Development Company railway, linking the Port of Pepel with the iron ore mines at Marampa. In 1943, he helped co-found the United Mine Workers Union and was appointed to the Protectorate Assembly in 1946 to represent worker interests. In 1947, Stevens studied labour relations at Ruskin College. In 1951, Stevens co-founded the Sierra Leone People's Party and was elected to the Legislative Council.
A year he became Sierra Leone's first Minister of Mines and Labor. In 1957, he was elected to the House of Representatives as a member for Port Loko constituency, but lost his seat as a result of an election petition. APC was founded in 1963/64 when he visited East Germany, with Sheku Magona and Kade Kamara, with Kade Kamara going to China to getting the seed money for the start of the party. After disagreements with the SLPP leadership, Stevens broke ties with the party and co-founded the People's National Party, of which he was the first secretary-general and deputy leader. In 1959, he participated in independence talks in London; when the talks concluded, however, he was the only delegate who refused to sign the agreement on the grounds that there had been a secret defence pact between Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom. Another point of contention was the Sierra Leonean government's position that there would be no elections held before independence, which would shut him out of the political process.
He was promptly expelled from the PNP upon his return from the talks. Stevens launched the Elections Before Independence Movement. After exploiting the disenchantment of northern and eastern ethnic groups with the SLPP, along with the creation of an alliance with the Sierra Leone Progressive Independence Movement, He was one of the 8TH member's of the APC after it was formed on 20 March 1960; the All People's Congress is one of the two major political parties in Sierra Leone, the other is the Sierra Leone People's Party. The party was founded in 1960 by a breakaway group from the Sierra Leone People's Party who vehemently opposed the idea of election before independence, but instead supported the idea of independence before elections; the All People's Congress,was formed at 5,Elba Street,Freetown, they consisted of the late Alhaji Chief Mucktarru Kallay, First chairman and Leader and who gave the name and the symbol. Allieu Badarr Koroma, Deputy chairman, C. A. Kamara-Taylor, First Secretary General, Alhaji Sheik Gibril Sesay,Treasurer, Kawusu Konte, Organiser, S A T Koroma, Public Relations, Kotor AbuBakarr Sam Bangura, The Artist, drawings of the Symbol, first seventh and add six to thirteen.
These were the first seven and founders members of the All Peoples Congress Party. The next Members are Siaka probyn Stevens, Nancy Steele, S. I. Koroma, Bob Allen, Mohamed Bash-Taqui and Ibrahim Bash-Taqui. Sir. Albert Margai who would return to the SLPP and become Prime Minister, Siaka P. Stevens who would later become Prime Minister and subsequently President of Sierra Leone; the APC governed the country from 1968 to 1992, became the ruling party again in 2007, after the party presidential candidate Ernest Bai Koroma won the 2007 Sierra Leone presidential election. In elections held on 17 March 1967, the APC won by an narrow margin, Stevens was appointed Prime Minister, but he was arrested in only an astonishing several minutes after taking office during a military coup. After a brief period of military rule, Stevens reassumed the post of Prime Minister on 26 April 1968. In April 1971, a republican constitution was introduced, it was ratified by the House of Representatives on 20 April and Okoro Cole, the former interim Governor general and the chief justice, became the acting president.
A day he resigned and Stevens became the country's president, with wide executive and legislative powers. In 1973, the first elections under the new constitution were held; the polls were marred by violence and were boycotted by the SLPP, which gav
Koidu Town is the capital and largest city of the diamond-rich Kono District in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. The population of Koidu Town is 124,662 based on the 2015 Sierra Leone Census. Koidu Town is the fifth largest city in Sierra Leone by population, after Freetown, Kenema, Bo and Makeni. Koidu Town is a major urban, business and diamond trade center. Koidu Town lies 270 miles east of Freetown, about 54 miles north of Kenema. Two of the world’s ten largest and most famous rough diamonds were found in the Woyie River that flows through Koidu Town; the city is known as Koidu City. The mayor of Koidu City and members of the Koidu-New Sembehun city council are directly elected every four years by the residents of Koidu; the current mayor of Koidu Town is Komba Sam of the Coalition 4 Change political party. Komba Sam was narrowly elected mayor of Koidu Town with 49.5% of the votes in the 2018 Koidu Mayoral election over his closest rival of the Sierra Leone People's Party. Koidu is one of the religiously diverse cities in Sierra Leone.
The city is inhabited by significant numbers of many of Sierra Leone's ethnic groups, with no single ethnic group forming a majority. Most of the foreign diamond workers in Kono District reside in the city; the Krio language is by far the most spoken language in Koidu Town and is the primary language of communication in the city. In 1995 the government of Sierra Leone signed an agreement with the South African company Branch Energy Limited, a subsidiary of Executive Outcomes, a business that supplied mercenaries to governments across Africa; the agreement, negotiated under the Mines and Minerals Act of 1994, was scheduled to last 25 years. Under it Sierra Leone’s military government gave the concession to operate the Koidu diamond mine to the firm in payment for helping to suppress the Revolutionary United Front rebels in the area during the country’s civil war, they had been using the diamonds to buy weapons and ammunition from Guinea and the Sierra Leone army. The government of Sierra Leone retained a 60% ownership stake in the Koidu mine.
The Sierra Leone Civil War ended in 2002. Records leaked from the Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca show that the family foundation of Beny Steinmetz family paid $1.2 million for half of the mining license issued by the national government for the Koidu mine. In 2003 the government transferred rights and responsibilities from Branch Energy to Koidu Holdings, a company owned by Octea of the BSGR Resources group, for a $28 million.. The 2007 Koidutown-Sefadu protest was an action by 400 protesters in Koidu-Sefadu, aimed at the local diamond mine which the residents claimed had lowered local living conditions and the environmental conditions in the area; the result of the protest was a clampdown by Sierra Leonean police. Two more protesters were shot in one of them a 12-year-old boy. Koidu town is one of Sierra Leone's six municipalities and is governed by a directly elected city council, headed by a mayor, in whom executive authority is vested; the mayor is responsible for the general management of the city.
The mayor is elected directly by the residents of Koidutown every four years in a municipal elections. The current mayor of Koidu Town is Saa Emerson Lamina of the ruling All Peoples Congress party APC, he was suspended by the national government in 2016, following the release of the Panama Papers and publication of an article quoting him complaining about the diamond mine's operation and failure to pay taxes. The City Council elected Aiah Bartholomew Baima Komba Acting Mayor of Koidu. Under Lamina the city had filed suit in 2015 against Koidu’s parent company Octea Limited, claiming that the company owed $684,000 in unpaid property taxes. In April 2016 Justice Bintu Alhadi of the High Court of Sierra Leone ruled that Octea and Koidu Limited were separate entities and that Octea technically did not own the mine, so had no duty to pay its property tax. Lamina says the suspension was intended to silence him and that he continues to act as mayor because he believes the national government has no authority to remove him from office A 32-page Ministry of Finance and Economic Development audit blamed the finance and procurement officers of the Council for the minor issues, according to Politico.
Koidu town is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in Sierra Leone. Though the city is home of the Kono people, members of all the country's other ethnic groups and most of the foreign diamond workers in the Kono District reside in the city. American aid workers helped rebuild the Koidu Government hospital, which has improved the alarming health situation in the town. Various other aid organizations, including the UN Refugee Agency, UNHCR and its partners, have helped drill wells, re-build clinics and schools and regenerate livelihoods in the area, as part of a programme to support the reintegration of Sierra Leoneans who returned after living for several years as refugees in neighbouring countries; the local radio station in Koidu Town is the Eastern Radio 96.5. The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation TV, radio are on the air in the city; the BBC World Service, CNN International, several other international stations are on the air in the city on satellite. Sierra Leone National Premier League club, the Diamond Stars is based in Koidu.
The club represents the Kono District. Like the rest of Sierra Leone, football is by far the most popular sport in Koidu Town; the Sierra Leonean professional football club known as the Diamond Stars of Kono, based in Koidu Town, represents the city and the entire Kono District in the Sierra Leone National Premier League. The Diamond Stars Football Club
Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools, they are the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth. Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it. Small numbers of defects or impurities color diamond blue, brown, purple, orange or red. Diamond has high optical dispersion. Most natural diamonds have ages between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years. Most were formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometers in the Earth's mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometers. Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved minerals and replaced them with diamonds.
Much more they were carried to the surface in volcanic eruptions and deposited in igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Synthetic diamonds can be grown from high-purity carbon under high pressures and temperatures or from hydrocarbon gas by chemical vapor deposition. Imitation diamonds can be made out of materials such as cubic zirconia and silicon carbide. Natural and imitation diamonds are most distinguished using optical techniques or thermal conductivity measurements. Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal. Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond; the two most common allotropes of pure carbon are graphite. In graphite the bonds are sp2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with each bound to three nearest neighbors 120 degrees apart. In diamond they are sp3 and the atoms form tetrahedra with each bound to four nearest neighbors. Tetrahedra are rigid, the bonds are strong, of all known substances diamond has the greatest number of atoms per unit volume, why it is both the hardest and the least compressible.
It has a high density, ranging from 3150 to 3530 kilograms per cubic metre in natural diamonds and 3520 kg/m³ in pure diamond. In graphite, the bonds between nearest neighbors are stronger but the bonds between planes are weak, so the planes can slip past each other. Thus, graphite is much softer than diamond. However, the stronger bonds make graphite less flammable. Diamonds have been adapted for many uses because of the material's exceptional physical characteristics. Most notable are its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity, as well as wide bandgap and high optical dispersion. Diamond's ignition point is 720 -- 800 °C in 850 -- 1000 °C in air; the equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond is well established theoretically and experimentally. The pressure changes linearly between 1.7 GPa at 0 K and 12 GPa at 5000 K. However, the phases have a wide region about this line where they can coexist. At normal temperature and pressure, 20 °C and 1 standard atmosphere, the stable phase of carbon is graphite, but diamond is metastable and its rate of conversion to graphite is negligible.
However, at temperatures above about 4500 K, diamond converts to graphite. Rapid conversion of graphite to diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: at 2000 K, a pressure of 35 GPa is needed. Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases with increasing pressure. At high pressures and germanium have a BC8 body-centered cubic crystal structure, a similar structure is predicted for carbon at high pressures. At 0 K, the transition is predicted to occur at 1100 GPa; the most common crystal structure of diamond is called diamond cubic. It is formed of unit cells stacked together. Although there are 18 atoms in the figure, each corner atom is shared by eight unit cells and each atom in the center of a face is shared by two, so there are a total of eight atoms per unit cell; each side of the unit cell is 3.57 angstroms in length. A diamond cubic lattice can be thought of as two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices with one displaced by 1/4 of the diagonal along a cubic cell, or as one lattice with two atoms associated with each lattice point.
Looked at from a <1 1 1> crystallographic direction, it is formed of layers stacked in a repeating ABCABC... pattern. Diamonds can form an ABAB... structure, known as hexagonal diamond or lonsdaleite, but this is far less common and is formed under different conditions from cubic carbon. Diamonds occur most as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles; as diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms, they have many facets that belong to a cube, rhombicosidodecahedron, tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron. The crystals can be elongated. Diamonds are found coated in nyf, an opaque gum-like skin; some diamonds have opaque fibers. They are referred to as opaque if the fibers
Harry Winston was an American jeweler. He donated the Hope Diamond to the Smithsonian Institution in 1958 after owning it for a decade, he traded the Portuguese Diamond to the Smithsonian in 1963. Winston founded the Harry Winston Inc. in New York City in 1932. He had been called by many as the "King of Diamonds". Winston's father Jacob started a small jewelry business after he and his mother immigrated to the United States from Ukraine. While growing up, he worked in his father's shop; when he was twelve years old, he recognized a two-carat emerald in a pawn shop, bought it for 25 cents, sold it two days for $800. Winston started his business in 1920 and opened his first store in New York City in 1932. Winston's jewelry empire began in 1926, with his acquisition of Arabella Huntington's jewelry collection, for $1.2 million. The wife of railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington, Arabella amassed one of the world's most prestigious collections of jewelry from Parisian jewelers such as Cartier; when Winston bought the collection after her death, the designs of the jewelry in the collection were quite old fashioned.
Winston redesigned the jewelry into more contemporary styles and showcased his unique skill at jewelry crafting. According to the Huntington museum, "He boasted that Arabella's famous necklace of pearls now adorned the necks of at least two dozen women around the world."When he died, Winston left the company to his two sons and Bruce, who entered into a decade-long battle over the control of the company. In 2000, Ronald along with new business partner, Fenway Partners, bought Bruce out from the company for $54.1 million. Winston was among the most noted jewelers in the world, well-known to the general public. In the 1953 musical film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" includes the spoken interjection "Talk to me, Harry Winston, tell me all about it!" The Lauren Weisberger comic novel, Chasing Harry Winston, was published in May 2008. In 2015, Harry Winston, Inc. operated 39 salons and numerous retail affiliates in locations such as New York, Beverly Hills, Las Vegas, Honolulu, Bal Harbour, Costa Mesa, other countries around the world.
Reference: The Arcots, first 33.70 and 23.65 carats, recut by Winston to 31.01 and 18.85 carats, respectively. The stones were thought to be a match, but when Winston bought them, removed them from their settings and discovered they were not, he decided to recut them to improve their clarity and brilliance. Both were either colorless or near-colorless, antique pear-shaped brilliants; the Anastasia, three emerald cuts weighing 42.95, 30.90 and 22.88 carats, all D color and Flawless clarity. Cut from a rough crystal weighing 307.30 carats Winston had purchased in 1972, largest gem named after Anastasia Nikolaevna, daughter of Czar Nicholas II. The Ashoka a 42.47 carats, modified elongated cushion brilliant. Purchased by Winston from a Chinese dealer in 1947. Stone was recut in 1977 from its original weight of 42.47 carats before it was sold again as a ring. The Blue Heart, a 30.82 carats, heart-shaped brilliant. After the cut was made, Cartier sold it to the Unzue family of Argentina in 1910, it reappeared in Paris in 1953 where it was purchased by an important European titled family purchased by Harry Winston in 1959.
Winston mounted it in a ring and sold it to Marjorie Merriweather Post, who donated it to the Smithsonian Institution. The Briolette of India, a 90.38 carats, briolette cut. The Cornflower Blue, 31.93 carats pear brilliant. The larger stone was sold in 1969 as the pendant for a diamond necklace. Winston repurchased it two years then sold it to a Middle Eastern client; the round brilliant was set as a ring and sold in 1969. In 1987 the pear brilliant was auctioned in Switzerland; the Countess Széchényi, a 62.05 carats, D color, pear-shaped brilliant. Purchased by Winston in 1959 from namesake and recut to a flawless 59.38 carats. Sold to an American industrialist in 1966; the Crown of Charlemagne, a 37.05 carats, sky blue, Old European cut brilliant. The Deal Sweetener, a 45.31 carats diamond plus four smaller stones, D color and Flawless, emerald cut. In 1974 Winston bought a large parcel of diamonds worth $24,500,000—at that time the largest individual sale of diamonds in history. Harry Oppenheimer, head of De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. arranged the transaction.
When Winston asked Oppenheimer, "How about a little something to sweeten the deal?" Harry Oppenheimer pulled a 181 carats rough diamond out of his pocket and rolled it across the table. Winston picked up the stone and said "Thanks." It was cut into the largest being named the Deal Sweetener. Other gems cut from the crystal: An emerald cut of 24.67 carats, plus three pear shapes of 10.80, 4.19 and 1.45 carats, respectively. All were sold that same year; the Deepdene, a 104.52 carats, antique cushion brilliant. Purchased by Winston in 1954 from Cary W. Bok sold the following year to Mrs. Eleanor Loder of Canada. Resurfaced in 1971 and put up for auction at Christie's in