Royal Coster Diamonds is the oldest, still operating, diamond polishing factory in the world, located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Founded in 1840, they have handled a few historical masterpieces. For example, they re-polished the Koh i Noor, mounted in the Crown of Queen Mary, the Dresden Green Diamond, held in the New Green Vault at Dresden Castle. 1840: Moses Elias Coster, diamond cutter in Amsterdam, founds Coster Diamonds in a factory building at the Waterlooplein in Amsterdam. 1848: Son Meijer Moses Coster succeeds his father. He leaves for Paris for new business. 1910: Felix Theodoor Manus purchases Coster Diamonds from one of Coster’s inheritors. It becomes a company and remains so until the German occupation in 1940. 1945: After World War II, Wim Biallosterski, owner of a diamond sawing company, purchases the company Coster Diamonds. 1962: Ben Meier purchases the Coster premises together with partner Max Meents, Joop Schoos and Simon Cohen. 1970: The old diamond factory has to make way for the construction of the town hall.
Coster Diamonds moves to its current location at the Paulus Potterstraat at the famous Museum Square. 1995: The well-known diamond factory Van Moppes Diamonds was purchased by Coster Diamonds. 2005: Coster Diamonds was obliged to close the Van Moppes Diamonds factory. Due to events in the world like terrorism and Sars in the Far East, there were hardly any visitors left. 2007: Opening of the Diamond Museum Amsterdam to display some of the most beautiful diamond artifacts. 2007: Introduction of a new patented round diamond cut with 201 facets. This brilliant cut with 144 extra facets, is called "The Royal 201". It's considered to be the most sparkling diamond cut in the world. 2016: King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands grants Coster Diamonds the Honorary title Royal. Hereby, Coster Diamonds became Royal Coster Diamonds. To become Royal, an organization has to be leading in its field of expertise, be of national importance and has to be in existence for at least 100 years. In 1852, Mr J. A. Feder and Mr L.
B. Voorzanger, both diamond polishers at Royal Coster Diamonds, went to London to re-polish the famous Koh-i Noor. Mr J. A. Fedder died in 1864. Louis Benjamin Voorzanger won the silver medal for his achievements at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1855, he polished the “famous diamond Star of the South”. He died in 1886; the family of the deceased diamond polisher still owns the silver plates with the inscription of this price for the diamond polishers, who polished the Koh-i Noor. In 1959, Ben Meier polished the many diamonds which were set in a white gold watch, presented to Queen Juliana by the Dutch people. Between 1991 and 1994 Pauline Willemse, a diamond polisher at Royal Coster Diamonds, polished the smallest diamond in the world; this is a brilliant cut stone with 57 facets. 0.16–0.17 mm in diameter and with a height of 0.11 mm. This event was published in the Guinness Book of Records; this and other famous diamonds are on display at Royal Coster Diamonds and can be seen during a diamond tour through the polishing factory.
The Pittsburgh Press, published from 1884 to 1992, was a major afternoon daily newspaper in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US. It was one of many competing city newspapers published prior to the First World War including The Hearst Corporation-owned Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph, the Pittsburgh Dispatch, the Block Communications-owned Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. At one time, the Press was the second largest newspaper in Pennsylvania, behind only the Philadelphia Inquirer. For four years starting in 2011, the brand was revived and applied to an afternoon online edition of the Post-Gazette; the Evening Penny Press, the title changed to The Pittsburg Press in 1887. The paper referred to the city and its sports teams as "Pittsburg" until August 1921, when the letter H was added. In 1923, the Press was acquired by the Scripps-Howard Syndicate. During the 1960s, it entered into a Joint Operating Agreement with the competing Pittsburgh Post-Gazette; the Post-Gazette had purchased and merged with the Hearst Corporation's Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph leaving just itself and the much larger Pittsburgh Press.
The JOA was to be managed by the Pittsburgh Press owners as the Press had the larger circulation and was the stronger of the two papers. Under the JOA, the Post-Gazette became a 6-day morning paper, the Pittsburgh Press became a 6-day afternoon paper in addition to publishing the sole Sunday paper; this arrangement was in effect until Scripps began bargaining with the Teamsters union, whose contract with the Press expired in 1991. After a lengthy Teamsters strike in 1992, Scripps sold the Press to Block Communications, the owners of the much smaller JOA paper, the Post-Gazette, who promptly ceased printing the Press and folded it into the Post-Gazette. In return, Scripps received The Monterey County Herald; the sale required a ruling by the U. S. Department of Justice as the JOA was regulated by the Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970; the outcome was a surprise to many people in Pittsburgh, as the Press had a much higher profile, was the larger of the two JOA papers, both in company size and in circulation.
Before the 1992 strike, many assumed that the smaller Post-Gazette would cease publication when the JOA expired. The departure of the Press meant that Scripps was exiting the Pittsburgh market entirely; the Sunday edition was popular with readers because of its two comics sections, which included Prince Valiant, Dick Tracy, Gordo, Priscilla's Pop, Jest in Pun, among many others, because of the four inserted magazines: Press TV Guide, Family and Weekly. Block Communications announced on November 14, 2011 that it was bringing back the Press in an online-only edition for the afternoon, effective immediately. David Shribman, executive editor of the Post-Gazette, explained his paper's motivation for reviving the Press name, citing the fact that his newspaper still received letters to the editor addressed to the Press instead of the Post-Gazette, that despite nearly 20 years since its last publication Pittsburgh natives still talked about the Press on a regular basis. Although published electronically, the new Press was formatted with a fixed layout replicating that of a traditional printed newspaper.
The experiment ended with the issue of September 25, 2015. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, current owner of the "Press" name and present-day heir to its archives. Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations Official website History of the Post-Gazette Justice Department Will Not Challenge Acquisition Of Pittsburgh Press By The Post-Gazette Google News Archive's microfilm archive 1888–1992
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
The Koh-i-Noor spelt Kohinoor and Koh-i-Nur, is one of the largest cut diamonds in the world, weighing 105.6 carats, part of the British Crown Jewels. Mined in Golconda, there is no record of its original weight, but the earliest well-attested weight is 186 old carats. Koh-i-Noor is Hindi-Urdu and Persian for "Mountain of Light", it changed hands between various factions in south and west Asia, until being ceded to Queen Victoria after the British conquest of the Punjab in 1849. The stone was of a similar cut to other Mughal era diamonds like Darya-i-Noor which are now in the Iranian Crown Jewels. In 1851, it went on display at the Great Exhibition in London, but the lacklustre cut failed to impress viewers. Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, ordered it to be re-cut as an oval brilliant by Coster Diamonds. By modern standards, the culet is unusually broad, giving the impression of a black hole when the stone is viewed head-on; because its history involves a great deal of fighting between men, the Koh-i-Noor acquired a reputation within the British royal family for bringing bad luck to any man who wears it.
Since arriving in the UK, it has only been worn by female members of the family. Victoria wore the stone in a circlet. After she died in 1901, it was set in the Crown of Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, it was transferred to the Crown of Queen Mary in 1911, to the crown of Queen Elizabeth in 1937 for her coronation as Queen consort. Today, the diamond is on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London, where it is seen by millions of visitors each year; the governments of India and Pakistan have both claimed ownership of the Koh-i-Noor and demanded its return since the two countries gained independence from the UK in 1947. The British government insists the gem was obtained under the terms of the Last Treaty of Lahore and has rejected the claims; the diamond is believed to have come from Kollur Mine, a series of 4-metre deep gravel-clay pits on the banks of Krishna River in the Golconda, India. It is impossible to know when or where it was found, many unverifiable theories exist as to its original owner.
Babur, the Turco-Mongol founder of the Mughal Empire, wrote about a "famous" diamond that weighed just over 187 old carats – the size of the 186-carat Koh-i-Noor. Some historians think. According to his diary, it was acquired by Alauddin Khalji, second ruler of the Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, when he invaded the kingdoms of southern India at the beginning of the 14th century and was in the possession of Kakatiya dynasty, it passed to succeeding dynasties of the Sultanate, Babur received the diamond in 1526 as a tribute for his conquest of Delhi and Agra at the Battle of Panipat. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor, had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. In 1658, his son and successor, confined the ailing emperor to Agra Fort. While in the possession of Aurangzeb, it was cut by Hortenso Borgia, a Venetian lapidary, reducing the weight of the large stone to 186 carats. For this carelessness, Borgia was fined 10,000 rupees. According to recent research, the story of Borgia cutting the diamond is not correct, most mixed up with the Orlov, part of Catherine the Great's imperial Russian sceptre in the Kremlin.
Following the 1739 invasion of Delhi by Nader Shah, the Afsharid Shah of Persia, the treasury of the Mughal Empire was looted by his army in an organised and thorough acquisition of the Mughal nobility's wealth. Along with millions of rupees and an assortment of historic jewels, the Shah carried away the Koh-i-Noor, he exclaimed Koh-i-Noor!, Persian for "Mountain of Light", when he obtained the famous stone. One of his consorts said, "If a strong man were to throw four stones – one north, one south, one east, one west, a fifth stone up into the air – and if the space between them were to be filled with gold, all would not equal the value of the Koh-i-Noor". After Nader Shah was killed and his empire collapsed in 1747, the Koh-i-Noor fell to his grandson, who in 1751 gave it to Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire, in return for his support. One of Ahmed's descendants, Shuja Shah Durrani, wore a bracelet containing the Koh-i-Noor on the occasion of Mountstuart Elphinstone's visit to Peshawar in 1808.
A year Shujah formed an alliance with the United Kingdom to help defend against a possible invasion of Afghanistan by Russia. He was overthrown, but fled with the diamond to Lahore, where Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, in return for his hospitality, insisted upon the gem being given to him, he took possession of it in 1813, its new owner, Ranjit Singh, willed the diamond to the East India Company-administered Hindu Jagannath Temple in Puri, in modern-day Odisha, India. However, after his death in 1839, his will was not executed. On 29 March 1849, following the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Kingdom of Punjab was formally annexed to Company rule, the Last Treaty of Lahore was signed ceding the Koh-i-Noor to Queen Victoria and the Maharaja's other assets to the company. Article III of the treaty read: "The gem called the Koh-i-Noor, taken from Shah Sooja-ool-moolk by Maharajah Ranjeet Singh, shall be surrendered by the Maharajah of Lahore to the Queen of England"; the Governor-General in charge of the ratification of this treaty was the Marquess of Dalhousie.
The manner of his aidi
A diamond cut is a style or design guide used when shaping a diamond for polishing such as the brilliant cut. Cut does not refer to shape, but the symmetry and polish of a diamond; the cut of a diamond affects a diamond's brilliance. In order to best use a diamond gemstone's material properties, a number of different diamond cuts have been developed. A diamond cut constitutes a more or less symmetrical arrangement of facets, which together modify the shape and appearance of a diamond crystal. Diamond cutters must consider several factors, such as the shape and size of the crystal, when choosing a cut; the practical history of diamond cuts can be traced back to the Middle Ages, while their theoretical basis was not developed until the turn of the 20th century. Design creation and innovation continue to the present day: new technology—notably laser cutting and computer-aided design—has enabled the development of cuts whose complexity, optical performance, waste reduction were hitherto unthinkable.
The most popular of diamond cuts is the modern round brilliant, whose facet arrangements and proportions have been perfected by both mathematical and empirical analysis. Popular are the fancy cuts, which come in a variety of shapes, many of which were derived from the round brilliant. A diamond's cut is evaluated by trained graders, with higher grades given to stones whose symmetry and proportions most match the particular "ideal" used as a benchmark; the strictest standards are applied to the round brilliant. Different countries base their cut grading on different ideals: one may speak of the American Standard or the Scandinavian Standard, to give but two examples; the history of diamond cuts can be traced to the late Middle Ages, before which time diamonds were employed in their natural octahedral state—anhedral diamonds were not used in jewelry. The first "improvements" on nature's design involved a simple polishing of the octahedral crystal faces to create and unblemished facets, or to fashion the desired octahedral shape out of an otherwise unappealing piece of rough.
This was called the point cut and dates from the mid 14th century. By the mid 15th century, the point cut began to be improved upon: a little less than one half of the octahedron would be sawn off, creating the table cut; the importance of a culet was realised, some table-cut stones may possess one. The addition of four corner facets created the old single cut. Neither of these early cuts would reveal. At the time, diamond was valued chiefly for its adamantine superlative hardness. For this reason, colored gemstones such as ruby and sapphire were far more popular in jewelry of the era. In or around 1476, Lodewyk van Berquem, a Flemish polisher of Bruges, introduced the technique of absolute symmetry in the disposition of facets using a device of his own invention, the scaif, he cut stones in the shape known as briolette. About the middle of the 16th century, the rose or rosette was introduced in Antwerp: it consisted of triangular facets arranged in a symmetrical radiating pattern, but with the bottom of the stone left flat—essentially a crown without a pavilion.
Many large, famous Indian diamonds of old feature a rose-like cut. However, Indian "rose cuts" were far less symmetrical as their cutters had the primary interest of conserving carat weight, due to the divine status of diamond in India. In either event, the rose cut continued to evolve, with its depth and arrangements of facets being tweaked; the first brilliant cuts were introduced in the middle of the 17th century. Known as Mazarins, they had 17 facets on the crown, they are called double-cut brilliants as they are seen as a step up from old single cuts. Vincent Peruzzi, a Venetian polisher increased the number of crown facets from 17 to 33, thereby increasing the fire and brilliance of the cut gem, properties that in the Mazarin were incomparably better than in the rose, yet Peruzzi-cut diamonds, when seen nowadays, seem exceedingly dull compared to modern-cut brilliants. Because the practice of bruting had not yet been developed, these early brilliants were all rounded squares or rectangles in cross-section.
Given the general name of cushion—what are known today as old mine cuts—these were common by the early 18th century. Sometime the old European cut was developed, which had a shallower pavilion, more rounded shape, different arrangement of facets; the old European cut was the forerunner of modern brilliants and was the most advanced in use during the 19th century. Around 1900, the development of diamond saws and good jewelry lathes enabled the development of modern diamond cutting and diamond cuts, chief among them the round brilliant cut. In 1919, Marcel Tolkowsky analyzed this cut: his calculations took both brilliance and fire into consideration, creating a delicate balance between the two. Tolkowsky's calculations would serve as the basis for all future brilliant cut modifications and standards. Tolkowsky's model of the "ideal" cut is not perfect; the original mo
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning baron, duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are referred to as royalty or "royals." It is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all. A royal family includes the spouse of the reigning monarch, surviving spouses of a deceased monarch, the children, brothers and paternal cousins of the reigning monarch, as well as their spouses.
In some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, a royal family may include one or more former monarchs. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the royal family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty and Royal Highness. There is a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts, that is, potential successors to the throne; this is not always observed. In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, conventions, or special common law; the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. In certain monarchies, such as that found in Saudi Arabia or Kuwait, or in political systems where the monarch exercises executive power, such as in Jordan, it is not uncommon for the members of a royal family to hold important government posts or military commands.
In most constitutional monarchies, members of a royal family perform certain public, social, or ceremonial functions, but refrain from any involvement in electoral politics or the actual governance of the country. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal and noble styles held by members of the family; the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereign's prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages and personal titles of royal family members; the members of a royal family may not have a surname or dynastic name. In a constitutional monarchy, when the monarch dies, there is always a law or tradition of succession to the throne that either specifies a formula for identifying the precise order of succession among family members in line to the throne or specifies a process by which a family member is chosen to inherit the crown.
In the former case the exact line of hereditary succession among royal individuals may be identified at any given moment during prior reigns whereas in the latter case the next sovereign may be selected only during the reign or shortly after the demise of the preceding monarch. Some monarchies employ a mix of these selection processes, providing for both an identifiable line of succession as well as authority for the monarch, dynasty or other institution to alter the line in specific instances without changing the general law of succession; some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary Russia. Whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses. Arenberg ducal family Fürstenberg princely family Ligne princely family Merode princely family Schwarzenberg princely family Thurn und Taxis princely family Media related to Royal families at Wikimedia Commons
Vadodara is the third-largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, 141 kilometres from the state capital Gandhinagar; the railway line and NH 8 that connect Mumbai pass through Vadodara. It is known as a Sanskari nagari of India; as of 2011, Vadodara had a population of 2.065 million people. The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads, it is the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, the largest university in Gujarat. An important industrial and educational hub of western India, the city houses several institutions of national and regional importance while its major industries include petrochemicals, chemicals, plastics, IT and foreign exchange services; the first recorded history of the city is that of the early trader settlers who settled in the region in 812 AD. The province was Hindu-dominated with Hindu kings ruling until 1297.
The Gupta Empire was the first power in the region in the early years of the CE. The region was taken over by the Chaulukya dynasty. By this time Muslim rule had spread across India, the reins of power were snatched by the Delhi Sultans; the city was ruled for a long time by these Sultans. The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs; the capital was known as Virakshetra or Viravati. On, it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree, it is now impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara. In 1907, a small village and township in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda, it is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the floodplain during that age. The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools.
There is evidence of the existence of early man in the Mahi River valley at a number of sites within 10 to 20 kilometres to the north-east of Vadodara. However, no evidence of the existence of these people is found around present-day Vadodara; this may be because of the absence of cobbles on the banks of the Vishwamitri rivulet. Baroda State was a former Indian State. Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726. Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705–1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.
His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming the most powerful rulers in the region. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802, the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had inherited the throne from rival claimants, Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was surrendered; the golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875. Near Maharaja Sayaji Gaekwad University there is a well known garden, built by Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad himself in 1879 A.
D. This garden is known as Sayaji Baug known for visitors centre; this place is situated on river Vishwamitri. Vadodara is located at 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30. It is the 18th-largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres and a population of 2.1 million, according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits in central Gujarat; the Vishwamitri dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V. Despite the 800 mm of precipitation that the city receives annually, Vadodara features a semi-arid climate under Köppen's Climate classification due to the area's high potential evapotranspiration. There are three main seasons: Summer and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry; the weather is hot during March to July, when the average ma