Museum of Architecture, Wrocław
The Museum of Architecture is in Wrocław, Poland. The museum was founded in 1965; the museum is the only architecture museum in Poland. It is located in a 15th-century post-Bernardine set of buildings, including the St Bernardine of Sienna Church and a monastic quadrangle with a garden; the Museum of Architecture was a founder-member of the International Confederation of Architectural Museums. The museum's collections illustrate the evolution of architecture in general, although with a specific focus on Poland; the largest collection of stained glass in Poland can be found here. Permanent exhibitions on display are: "Relics of Wroclaw's Mediaeval Architecture". Museum website Museum website
Pan Tadeusz is an epic poem by the Polish poet and philosopher Adam Mickiewicz. The book was first published in June 1834 in Paris, is considered by many to be the last great epic poem in European literature. Pan Tadeusz is recognized as the national epic of Poland, it is compulsory reading in Polish schools. A film based on the poem was made in 1999 by Andrzej Wajda, it is written in Polish alexandrines. The story takes place over the course of five days in 1811 and two days in 1812, at a time in history when Poland-Lithuania had been divided between the armies of Russia and Austria and erased from the political map of Europe, although in 1807, just before the story begins, Napoleon had established a satellite Duchy of Warsaw in the Prussian partition, which remained in existence until the Congress of Vienna held in the aftermath of Napoleonic defeat; the place is situated in the village of Soplicowo. Pan Tadeusz recounts the story of two feuding noble families, the love between Tadeusz Soplica of one family, Zosia of the other.
Another sub-plot involves a spontaneous revolt of the local inhabitants against the occupying Russian garrison. Since Mickiewicz published his poem as an exile in Paris, he was free from the Russian censors to talk about the occupation; the fact that the Polish national poem begins with the words "O Lithuania" stems from the fact that the 19th-century concept of nationality had not yet been geopoliticized in his time. The term "Lithuania" used by Mickiewicz refers to a geographical region encompassed by the present-day borders of Belarus and Lithuania as well as the eastern edge of present-day Poland. All works of Mickiewicz including Pan Tadeusz are in the Polish language, he had been brought up in the culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a multicultural state that had encompassed most of what today are the separate countries of Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine. Numerous quotations from Pan Tadeusz are well known in translation, above all its opening lines: Maude Ashurst Biggs published "Master Thaddeus" in 1885 in London, Watson Kirkconnell "Sir Thaddeus" in 1962.
George Rapall Noyes published a prose translation of the poem in 1917. At least Book Four was published in 2000 by Christopher Adam Zakrzewski. A full version translation by Marcel Weyland in the original metre was published in Sydney in 2004, London and New York in 2005. A new English verse translation by Bill Johnston is forthcoming in September 2018 from Archipelago Books; the first translation of the poem into a different language, was made in 1859 by the Belarusian writer and dramatist Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich, in Vilnius. Because of the pressure from Tsarist authorities, Dunin-Martshinkyevich was able to publish only the first two chapters of the poem; the first film version of the poem as a feature was produced in 1928. The film version made by Andrzej Wajda in 1999 was his great cinematic success in Poland. Foray 1834 in poetry Compendium ferculorum, albo Zebranie potraw Pan Tadeusz or The Last Foray in Lithuania: A Story of Life Among Polish Gentlefolk in the Years 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books, full text of the 1917 translation by George Rapall Noyes, 1917.
Sinjoro Tadeo, aŭ la lasta armita posedopreno en Litvo. Nobelara historio de la jaroj 1811 kaj 1812 en dekdu libroj verse esperanta.. Pan Tadeusz in Esperanto, translated by Antoni Grabowski
Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province, in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships into which Poland is divided. Lower Silesia was part of Medieval Poland during the Piast dynasty. After the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138, Poland entered a period of fragmentation. Silesia became a province of Poland as a duchy, which on became divided into many small duchies reigned by dukes and princes of the Piast dynasty. During this time and ethnic Germanic influence prospered due to immigrants from the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire; this impacted on the local architecture as well as traditions and cuisine. At the same time, Lower Silesia was a leading Polish cultural center; the Book of Henryków, which contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language, as well as Statuta synodalia Episcoporum Wratislaviensis, which contains the oldest printed text in Polish, were both created here. Both texts can be seen in Wrocław. Złotoryja, Poland's first town, was granted municipal privileges by Henry the Bearded.
Over the centuries, Lower Silesia has experienced epochal events such as the Protestant Reformation, the Silesian Wars, industrialisation, the two World Wars. Lower Silesia is one of the richest provinces in Poland as it has valuable natural resources such as copper, brown coal and rock materials, which are exploited by the biggest enterprises, its well developed and varied industries attract both foreign investors. Its capital and largest city is Wrocław, situated on the Odra River, it is one of Poland's largest and most dynamic cities with a growing international profile, is regarded as one of the most important commercial and tourist sites in the whole country. Burial sites of Polish monarchs and consorts are located in Trzebnica. Furthermore, the voivodeship is famous for its many castles and palaces and is one of Poland's most visited regions by tourists; the voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Wrocław, Legnica, Wałbrzych and Jelenia Góra Voivodeships, following the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998.
It covers an area of 19,946 square kilometres, as of 2013 has a total population of 2 914 362. Although much of the region is low-lying it includes Sudeten Foreland and part of the Sudetes mountain range running along the Polish/Czech border. Popular ski resorts in Lower Silesian Voivodeship include Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba in the Karkonosze mountains. Other important tourist destinations in the voivodeship include the chief city, Wrocław, as well as the towns of Jelenia Góra and Legnica; the town of Boleslawiec is famed for its pottery. The voivodeship has the largest number of spa towns in Poland: Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój, Długopole-Zdrój, Duszniki-Zdrój, Jedlina-Zdrój, Kudowa-Zdrój, Lądek-Zdrój, Polanica-Zdrój, Przerzeczyn-Zdrój, Szczawno-Zdrój, Świeradów-Zdrój. Lower Silesian Voivodeship is bordered by Lubusz Voivodeship to the north-west, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the north-east, Opole Voivodeship to the south-east, the Czech Republic to the south, Germany to the west; the Wrocław–Copernicus Airport serves as an international and domestic airport.
The main railway station is Wrocław Główny. The A4 motorway, A8 motorway and A18 motorway run through the Voivodeship. Lower Silesian Voivodeship is one of the most visited voivodeships in Poland, it is famous for a large number of castles and palaces, inter alia: Książ Castle, Czocha Castle, Chojnik Castle, Grodziec castle, Gorzanów Castle, Kliczków Castle. There is a lot in the Jelenia Góra valley; the voivodship's most visited city is Wrocław with many sights and attractions, inter alia open all year round Aquapark, Wrocław SPA Center and famous Wrocław's dwarfs. The annual international Chopin Festival is held in the Fryderyk Chopin Theatre in Duszniki-Zdrój, established at the site of the first concert played by the Polish virtuoso pianist outside of the Russian Partition of Poland. Other major attraction of the town is the Museum of Papermaking, established in a 17th-century paper mill; the Festival of Good Beer is held every year, on the second weekend of June. Śnieżka is one of the first European peaks visited by tourists, it is the highest peak of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the whole of the Sudetes.
Other highlights include: Kłodzko Fortress, Fort Srebrna Góra, Legnickie Pole, Henryków, Lubiąż Abbey, Krzeszów Abbey, Oleśnica Mała, Vang stave church, Churches of Peace, Sokołowsko, Cave Bear, Museum of Gold Mining and Metallurgy in Złoty Stok, Coal Mine in Nowa Ruda, Museum of Industry and Railway in Jaworzyna Śląska, Skull Chapel in Czermna, Mount Ślęża, Table Mountains, Owl Mountains, The Main Trail Sudetes, Barycz Valley Landscape Park and connected with the history of World War II - complex tunnels Project Riese, a German Gross-Rosen concentration camp, German War Cemetery and Park Peace in the Nadolice Wielkie. Castles and palaces Burial sites of Polish monarchs and consorts Protected areas in Lower Silesian Voivodeship: 2 National Parks Karkonosze National Park Table Mountains National Park 12 Landscape Parks Barycz Valley Landscape Park Bóbr Valley Landscape Park Bystrzyca Valley Landscape Park Chełmy Landscape Park Jezierzyca Valley Landscape Park Książ Landscape Park Owl Mountains Landscape Park Przemków Landscape Park Rudawy Landscape Park Ślęża Landscape Park Śnieżnik Landscape Park Sudety Wałbrzyskie Landscape Park 67 Nature reserves 20 protected landscape areas 3100 Natural monuments 1
National Heritage Board of Poland
The National Heritage Board of Poland is a Polish governmental institution responsible for the objects considered most important to the nation's cultural heritage. The institute administers the National Heritage Site lists according to the Ordinance No 32 of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, passed on December 23rd, 2010; the objects protected include A) immoveable sites, B) moveable objects, C) archeological monuments. These three basic types are classed into three levels of National Heritage Sites, which are firstly the List of World Heritage Sites of Poland, secondly the list of Historical Monuments, which are sites named by the Prime Minister, thirdly, the list of cultural heritage; the institute keeps a list of national parks protected by the "law article paragraph 16 on the protection of monuments and the guardianship of monuments dated 23 July 2003". The institute organizes the European Heritage Days in Poland, as well as conducting research on heritage preservation. Culture of Poland
The Racławice Panorama is a monumental cycloramic painting depicting the Battle of Racławice, during the Kościuszko Uprising. It is located in Poland; the painting is one of only a few preserved relics of a genre of 19th-century mass culture, the oldest in Poland. The panorama stands in a circular fashion and, with the viewer in the center, presents different scenes at various viewing angles. A special kind of perspective used in the painting and additional effects create a feeling of reality; the idea came from the painter Jan Styka in Lwów who invited the renowned battle-painter Wojciech Kossak to participate in the project. They were assisted by Ludwik Boller, Tadeusz Popiel, Zygmunt Rozwadowski, Teodor Axentowicz, Włodzimierz Tetmajer, Wincenty Wodzinowski and Michał Sozański; the project was conceived as a patriotic commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the victorious Battle of Racławice, a famous episode of the Kościuszko Insurrection, a heroic but failed attempt to defend Polish independence.
The battle was fought on 4 April 1794 between the insurrectionist force of regulars and peasant volunteers under Kościuszko himself and the Russian army commanded by General Alexander Tormasov. For the nation which had lost its independence, the memory of this glorious victory was important; the National Exhibition, organized in Lwów in 1894, offered an excellent opportunity to realize Styka’s idea. Canvas, woven to order, was bought in Brussels, the specially built rotunda’s iron structure in Vienna; the rotunda, located in Stryjski Park in Lwów, was ready in July 1893. The huge panoramic painting was executed within 9 months, between August 1893 and May 1894; the official opening was on 5 June 1894. Since the beginning, Panorama of the Battle of Racławice attracted enormous attention and brought crowds of tourists to Lwów. On average 75 000 viewers visited it every year. After World War II, the painting was brought to Wrocław along with a part of the collection of the Ossoliński Institute; as under the communist regime the subject was considered politically sensitive, the efforts to have the canvas restored and exhibited, undertaken by successive Volunteer Committees, were successful only after August 1980.
Reopened on 14 June 1985, the major attraction of the old Lwów has become the main tourist attraction of Wrocław. Here, contemporary viewers have an opportunity to participate in a unique illusionist spectacle. Among the many guests who have visited the panorama are Pope John Paul II. Franz Joseph I of Austria said "Imposant. Es hat mich frappirt." Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen said about this painting, "This is the most beautiful panorama I have seen." Józef Piątek, Małgorzata Dolistowska, "Panorama racławicka", Wrocław 1988, ISBN 83-04-02757-7 Romuald Nowak "Panorama racławicka", Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu 1999/2010, ISBN 978-83-86766-41-3 Magdalena Irek-Koszerna "Panorama Racławicka piórem i pędzlem", Wydawnictwo Zet 2010 ISBN 978-83-62013-38-8 Krystyna Tyszkowska "Panorama Racławicka: 90 lat niezwykłych dziejów", ISBN 83-03-01493-5 Józef Grabski "Mała Panorama Racławicka Wojciecha Kossaka i Jana Styki", 2002 IRSA Publishing House, ISBN 978-83-915130-0-2 Franciszek Ziejka, "Panorama Racławicka", Wydawnictwo: K.
A. W. 1984, ISBN 83-03-00206-6 International Panorama Council Official website the Wroclaw Municipality website – details of the "Panorama of the Battle of Racławice"
Wrocław is a city in western Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south; the population of Wrocław in 2018 was 639,258, making it the fourth-largest city in Poland and the main city of the Wrocław agglomeration. Wrocław is the historical capital of Lower Silesia. Today, it is the capital of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship; the history of the city dates back over a thousand years, its extensive heritage combines all religions and cultures of Europe. At various times, it has been part of the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg Monarchy and Germany. Wrocław became part of Poland again in 1945, as a result of the border changes after the Second World War, which included a nearly complete exchange of population. Wrocław is a university city with a student population of over 130,000, making it one of the most youthful cities in the country.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the University of Wrocław Breslau University, produced 9 Nobel Prize laureates and is renowned for its high quality of teaching. Wrocław is classified as a Gamma-global city by GaWC, it was placed among the top 100 cities in the world for the quality of life by the consulting company Mercer and in the top 100 of the smartest cities in the world in the IESE Cities in Motion Index 2017 report. The city hosted the Eucharistic Congress in the Euro 2012 football championships. In 2016, the city was a European Capital of the World Book Capital. In this year, Wrocław hosted the Theatre Olympics, World Bridge Games and the European Film Awards. In 2017, the city was the host of the World Games; the city's name was first recorded as "Wrotizlava" in the chronicle of German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg, which mentions it as a seat of a newly installed bishopric in the context of the Congress of Gniezno. The first municipal seal stated. A simplified name is given, as Wrezlaw, Prezla or Breslaw.
The Czech spelling was used in Latin documents as Vratislavia. At that time, Prezla was used in Middle High German. In the middle of the 14th century, the Early New High German form of the name, began to replace its earlier versions; the city is traditionally believed to be named after Wrocisław or Vratislav believed to be named after Duke Vratislaus I of Bohemia. It is possible that the city was named after the tribal duke of the Silesians or after an early ruler of the city called Vratislav; the city's name in various other languages is: Hungarian: Boroszló, Czech: Vratislav, German: Breslau, Hebrew: ורוצלב, Yiddish: ברעסלוי, Silesian German: Brassel, Latin: Vratislavia or Budorgis or Wratislavia. The city's name in other languages is available at the list of names of European cities. Persons born or living in the city are known as "Vratislavians". In ancient times at or near Wrocław was a place called Budorigum, it has been mapped to Claudius Ptolemy's map of AD 142–147. The city of Wrocław originated at the intersection of two trade routes, the Via Regia and the Amber Road.
Settlements in the area existed during the migration period. A Slavic tribe Ślężans erected on Ostrów Tumski a gord; the city was first recorded in the 10th century as Vratislavia, the Bohemian duke Vratislaus I founded here a Bohemian stronghold. Vratislavia was derived from the duke's name Vratislav. In 985, Duke Mieszko I of Poland conquered Silesia including Wrocław; the town was mentioned explicitly in the year 1000 AD in connection with a founding of a bishopric during the Congress of Gniezno. The medieval chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum, written by Gallus Anonymus in 1112–1116, named Wrocław, along with Kraków and Sandomierz, as one of the three capitals of the Polish Kingdom. During Wrocław's early history, the control over it changed hands between Bohemia, the Kingdom of Poland, after the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Poland, the Piast-ruled duchy of Silesia. One of the most important events during this period was the foundation of the Diocese of Wrocław by the Polish Duke Bolesław the Brave in 1000.
Along with the Bishoprics of Kraków and Kołobrzeg, Wrocław was placed under the Archbishopric of Gniezno in Greater Poland, founded by Pope Sylvester II through the intercession of the Emperor Otto III in 1000, during the Congress of Gniezno. In the years 1034–1038 the city was affected by Pagan reaction in Poland; the city became a commercial centre and expanded to Wyspa Piasek, to the left bank of the River Oder. Around 1000, the town had about 1,000 inhabitants. In 1109 during the Polish-German war, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the German march into Poland. By 1139, a settlement belonging to Governor Piotr Włostowic was built, another was founded on the left bank of the River Oder, near the present seat of the University. While the city was Polish, there were communities of Bohemians, Jews and Germans. In the 13th century, Wrocław was the political centre of the divided Polish kingdom. In April 1241, during the First Mongol invasion of Poland the city was abandoned by the inhabitants and burned for strategic reason
A technology museum is a museum devoted to applied science and technological developments. Many museums are both a technology museum; the most significant technology museums in Europe are: the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris, founded in 1794. Further technology museums in Germany include the Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin-Kreuzberg, the Technoseum in Mannheim, the Technik Museum Speyer and the Technikmuseum Magdeburg; the most prestigious of its kind in Austria is the Technisches Museum in Vienna. Many other independent museums, such as transport museums, cover certain technical genres, processes or industries, for example mining, metrology, musical instruments, ceramics or paper; this article is based upon a translation of the German language version as at November 2013