A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that operates late into the night. A nightclub is distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music; the upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry; some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as hip hop. Many clubs have recurring club nights on different days of the week. Most club nights focus on a particular sound for branding effects. From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox.
Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a "social hall" functioning as a home for dance and political activism events. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capone's involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York's 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, the Stork Club; these nightclubs featured big bands. In Germany, the first discothèque on record that involved a disc jockey was Scotch-Club, which opened in 1959. In Occupied France and bebop music, the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as "decadent American influences", so as an act of resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques where they danced to jazz and swing music, played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available; these discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous.
There were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables that she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music; the Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St; these original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a young public—mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe.
While the discothèque swept Europe throughout the 1960s, it did not reach the United States until the 1970s, where the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs until the disco era. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel's, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. Sybil Burton opened the "Arthur" discothèque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first and hottest disco in New York City through 1969; the first large-scale discothèque in Germany opened in 1967 as the club Blow Up in Munich, which because of its extravagance and excesses gained international reputation. Disco has its roots in the underground club scene. During the early 1970s in New York City, disco clubs were places where oppressed or marginalized groups such as homosexuals, Latinos, Italian-Americans, Jews could party without following male to female dance protocol or exclusive club policies.
Discoteques had a law. This shifted the idea of this post-heterosexist community, as women could be seen as a kind of gateway for men to advance their own experience without fear of being arrested under the male-to-male dancing law; the women sought these experiences to seek safety in a venue that embraced the independent woman — with an eye to one or more of the same or opposite sex or none. Although the culture that surrounded disco was progressive in dance couples, cross-genre music, a push to put the physical over the rational, the role of female bodies looked to be placed in the role of safety net, it brought together people from different backgrounds. These clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. By the late 1970s many major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes centered on discothèques and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "... a smooth mix of long single records to keep people'dancing all night long'".
Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music. The genre of disco has changed through the years, it is classified both as a nightclub. This club culture that originated in downtown New York, was attended by a variety of different ethnicities and economic backgrounds, it was an inex
Shoreditch is a district in Central and North East London and located in the East End, is divided between the London boroughs of Hackney and Tower Hamlets. A historic entertainment quarter since the 16th century, today it hosts a number of nightclubs and bars to the west, while the northern area of Hoxton is residential. In Tower Hamlets, a small part of Shoreditch is a small exclave separated by Bethnal Green from the rest of the district in East London, it is considered part of the district due to the now-closed Shoreditch tube station location; the district itself lies to the north and north east of the City of London while the exclave lies north and east of Spitalfields and south and west of Bethnal Green. Toponymists believe that the name comes from Old English "scoradīc", i.e. shore-ditch, the shore being a riverbank or prominent slope. One legend holds that the place was named "Shore's Ditch", after Jane Shore, the mistress of Edward IV, supposed to have died or been buried in a ditch in the area.
This legend is commemorated today by a large painting, at Haggerston Branch Library, of the body of Shore being retrieved from the ditch, by a design on glazed tiles in a shop in Shoreditch High Street showing her meeting Edward IV. But the area was known as "Soersditch". London County Council Survey of London attests to at least thirty deeds between 1150 and 1250 CE which refer to Shoreditch. Another suggested origin for the name is "sewer ditch", in reference to a drain or watercourse in what was once a boggy area, it may have referred to the headwaters of the Walbrook. In another theory, antiquarian John Weever claimed that the name was derived from Sir John de Soerdich, lord of the manor during the reign of Edward III. Though now part of Inner London, Shoreditch was an extramural suburb of the City of London, centred on Shoreditch Church at the old crossroads where Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are crossed by Old Street and Hackney Road. Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are a small sector of the Roman Ermine Street and modern A10.
Known as the Old North Road, it was a major coaching route to the north, exiting the City at Bishopsgate. The east–west course of Old Street–Hackney Road was probably a Roman Road, connecting Silchester with Colchester, bypassing the City of London to the south. Shoreditch Church is of ancient origin, it is featured in the famous line "when I grow rich say the bells of Shoreditch", from the English nursery rhyme "Oranges and Lemons". Shoreditch was the site of a house of canonesses, the Augustinian Holywell Priory, from the 12th century until its dissolution in 1539; this priory was located between Shoreditch High Street and Curtain Road to east and west, Batemans Row and Holywell Lane to north and south. Nothing remains of it today. In 1576, James Burbage built the first playhouse in England, known as "The Theatre", on the site of the Priory; some of Shakespeare's plays were performed here and at the nearby Curtain Theatre, built the following year and 200 yards to the south. It was here that Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet gained "Curtain plaudits", where Henry V was performed within "this wooden O".
Shakespeare's Company moved the timbers of "The Theatre" to Southwark at the expiration of the lease in 1599, in order to construct The Globe. The Curtain continued performing plays in Shoreditch until at least 1627; the suburb of Shoreditch was attractive as a location for these early theatres because it was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. So, they drew the wrath of contemporary moralists, as did the local "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" and the "great number of dissolute and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, habitations of beggars and people without trade, inns, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, dicing houses, bowling alleys, brothel houses". During the 17th century, wealthy traders and French Huguenot silkweavers moved to the area, establishing a textile industry centred to the south around Spitalfields. By the 19th century, Shoreditch was the locus of the furniture industry, now commemorated in the Geffrye Museum on Kingsland Road.
These industries declined in the late 19th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Shoreditch was a centre of entertainment to rival the West End and boasted many theatres and music halls: The National Standard Theatre, 2/3/4 Shoreditch High Street. In the late 19th century this was one of the largest theatres in London. In 1926, it was converted into a cinema called The New Olympia Picturedrome; the building was demolished in 1940. Sims Reeves, Mrs Marriott and James Anderson all appeared here. There was considerable rivalry with the West End theatres. John Douglass wrote a letter to The Era following a Drury Lane first night, in which he commented that "seeing that a hansom cab is used in the new drama at Drury Lane, I beg to state that a hansom cab, drawn by a live horse was used in my drama... produced at the Standard Theatre... with real rain, a real flood, a real balloon." The Shoreditch Empire known as The London Music Hall, 95–99 Shoreditch High Street. The theatre was rebuilt in 1894 by Frank Matcham.
The architect of the Hackn
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.
The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that grew out of domestic dwellings; the Anglo-Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let. These alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England, they spread across the kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.
The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.
As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and, because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets
Columbia Road is a street in Washington, D. C. that forks from Connecticut Avenue north of Dupont Circle, branches north and east through 16th Street to the McMillan Reservoir. Along its route, it marks the southern border of the Kalorama Triangle neighborhood, the principal east/west passage through the Adams Morgan neighborhood, is one of the primary thoroughfares in the Columbia Heights neighborhood. In Adams Morgan, it is bordered by a great deal of street-level retail, constituting the main commercial area within Adams Morgan. Much like the neighborhood of Columbia Heights, Columbia Road was not in fact named for the District, but rather for Columbian College, which would go on to be renamed to the present-day George Washington University. Located on Columbia Road, the Knickerbocker Theatre was a famous cinema built in 1917, the site of a major disaster five years when it collapsed during a blizzard, killing 98 and injuring 133 more
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 22.214.171.124 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
Nevertherless, archive.is controls or deletes web pages saved some days before, without any policy or right of discussion and appeal. While saving a dynamic list, archive.is searchbox shows only a result that links the previous and the following section of the list. The other web pages saved are filtered, sometimes may be found by one of their occurrences. Digital preservation Internet Archive Link rot Perma.cc Wayback Machine Web archiving WebCite WP:Link rot Official website "Offline blog"
A dress code is a set of rules written, with regards to clothing. Dress codes are created out of social perceptions and norms, vary based on purpose and occasions. Different societies and cultures are to have different dress codes. Dress codes are symbolic indications of different social ideas, including social class, cultural identity, attitude towards comfort and political or religious affiliations. In seventh through the 9th centuries the European royalty and nobility used a dress code to differentiate themselves from other classes of people. All classes wore the same clothing, although distinctions among the social hierarchy began to become more noticeable through ornamented garments. Common pieces of clothing worn by peasants and the working class included plain tunics, jackets and shoes. According to rank, embellishments adorned the collar of the waist or border. Examples of these decorations included, as James Planché states, “gold and silver chains and crosses, bracelets of gold, silver or ivory and jeweled belts, strings of amber and other beads, brooches, buckles”.
The nobility tended to wear longer tunics than the lower social classes. While dress codes of modern-day Europeans are less strict, there are some exception, it is possible to ban certain types of clothing in the workplace, as exemplified by the European Court of Justice's verdict that "a ban on Islamic headscarves at work can be lawful". The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast had a complex social hierarchy which consisted of slaves and nobles, with dress codes indicating these social distinctions. John R. Jewitt, an Englishman who wrote a memoir about his years as a captive of the Nuu-chah-nulth people in 1802-1805, describes how, after some time living there and the chiefs decided that he must now be "considered one of them, conform to their customs". Jewitt resented the imposition of this dress code, finding the loose untailored garments cold, attributed to them a subsequent illness of which he died, he was not allowed to cut his hair, had to paint his face and body as a Nootka would.
Different cultures lead to different cultural norms as to what a woman should wear. For example, in Indonesia, both men and women wear the sarong, a length of cloth wrapped to form a tube; the wrapper, a rectangular cloth tied at the waist, is worn by both sexes in parts of West Africa. The Scottish kilt, still worn at many social gatherings to establish a social and cultural identity, represents the height of masculinity. In many societies, particular clothing may be a status symbol, reserved or affordable to people of high rank. For example, in Ancient Rome only senators were permitted to wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple. In China before the establishment of the republic, only the emperor could wear yellow. Military and firefighters wear uniforms, as do workers in many industries. School children wear school uniforms, while college and university students sometimes wear academic dress. Members of religious orders may wear uniforms known as habits. Sometimes a single item of clothing or a single accessory can declare one's occupation or rank within a profession.
In many regions of the world, national costumes and styles in clothing and ornament declare membership in a certain village, religion, etc. A Scotsman declares his clan with his tartan. A French woman identified her village with her coif. A Palestinian woman identifies her village with the pattern of embroidery on her dress. See also: Religious clothing Different religions have a certain clothing that are symbolic of their religion. A Jewish or Muslim man may display his religious affiliation by wearing a cap and other traditional clothing. A Jewish man may indicate his observance of Judaism by wearing a kippah. Many Muslim women wear head or body coverings that proclaim their status as respectable women and cover their beauty. Traditionally, Hindu women wear sindoor, a red powder, in the parting of their hair to indicate their married status. However, this is not true of all Hindu women. In many Orthodox Jewish circles, married women wear head coverings such as snood, or wig. Additionally, after their marriage, Jewish men of Ashkenazi descent begin to wear a talit during prayer.
Men and women of the Western world may wear wedding rings to indicate their married status, women may wear engagement rings when they are engaged. Each country has its own set of cultural norms. Wherever you go these norms and laws regarding clothing are subject to change depending on the region and culture. For example nudity is something. In New Guinea and Vanuatu, there are areas where it is customary for the men to wear nothing but penis sheaths in public. Women wear. In remote areas of Bali, women may go topless; this is uncommon in more western countries. Although in America and some parts of Europe, there are nude beaches. In the United States, The Gender Nondiscrimination Act, prohibits employers, health care providers, housing authorities from discriminating against people on the basis of gender. Many place have their own private dress code; such as for weddings, religious gatherings, etc. Employees are sometimes req
Dalston is a district of London Borough of Hackney in London, England and is 4 miles north-east of Charing Cross. Dalston began as a hamlet on either side of Dalston Lane; as the area urbanised, the term came to apply to surrounding areas including Kingsland and Shacklewell. Prime Minister Tony Blair, who lived in Mapledene Road from 1980–86, described Dalston as being on "the wrong side of Kingsland Road", contrasting the area with more fashionable districts. Gentrification has led to a rapid increase in the price of property, with current prices 8% above the London average; the process of change was accelerated by the East London line extension, now part of London Overground, the reopening of Dalston Junction railway station, part of London's successful bid to host the 2012 Olympics. Dalston has never been an administrative unit, for this reason the boundaries are not defined. There are popularly understood boundaries in the south and west, but its northern and eastern extent is not delineated.
This is a common situation in London's neighbourhoods which merge and change over time. There is an electoral Ward of the same name. Dalston's boundaries are described with more or less precision below: South: Dalston takes Hackney's southern border with Shoreditch. Albion Drive forms much of this boundary. West: The Roman A10 road marks most of Dalston's western margin; the exception is that both sides of Kingsland High St. are included - here Dalston takes Hackney's western boundary as it crosses the A10 to take in a small area bounded by Boleyn Road and the Crossway. This area includes Dalston Kingsland Railway Station; the western boundary corresponds with the western side of the E8 postal area with which Dalston is associated – though the postal area takes in parts of central Hackney and Haggerston that are not described as belonging to Dalston. North: There is not a tradition of a clear northern boundary with West Hackney. Dalston's close association with the E8 postal area means that its ‘sphere of self-identification' does not extend far, if at all, beyond the postcode boundary, no further north than Farleigh Road.
East: Between Downs Road and Amhurst Road, the physical barrier of the railway embankment marks the postcode boundary with Lower Clapton. There is little tradition of a boundary with the central Hackney area except that it is sometimes said that Dalston extends as far as the park at London Fields; the name Dalston is thought to have derived from Deorlaf's tun in much the same way as nearby Hoxton was named after the farm of "Hoch". The first written record available is from 1294; the village was one of four small villages within the Parish of Hackney that were grouped for assessment purposes, together having only as many houses as the village of Hackney. John Rocque's map of 1746 shows the village of Kingsland centred on the crossroads at what is now Dalston Junction and the small village of Dalston further east along Dalston Lane. Another clear feature is Roman Ermine Street which now forms most of the western boundary of this area. Ermine Street now has the road number A10 and goes by a number of names, including Kingsland Road as it travels through London.
Around AD 1280 a leper hospital was founded in Dalston by the citizens of London and in AD 1549 it was attached to the chapel of St Bartholomew as an outhouse. During the 18th and 19th centuries the area changed from an agricultural and rural landscape to an urban one. By 1849, it was described as a increased suburban village, with some handsome old houses, by 1859 the village had exceeded its neighbour and, with the railways and continuous building, the village of Kingsland disappeared. During the 1930s, 1940s and 1960s the area's large Jewish and other minority populations made it a target for provocative rallies by Oswald Mosley and the various organisations he founded; these were opposed by many local people, together with organisations such as the 43 Group and this led to a number of violent confrontations, notably in the Ridley Road area. In July 2017 a violent riot broke out on Dalston road, which had started as a manifestation against police violence. Protesters barricaded the spot where a man, who died at the Royal London Hospital, had been arrested.
The rioters caused property damage. St. Mark's Church: St. Mark’s is a large Victorian church built in the period 1864–66 to a design by Chester Cheston, it is reputedly the largest parish church in London, larger than Southwark Cathedral, capable of hosting congregations of 1800-2000 people and its great size has earned it the nickname, the “Cathedral of the East End””. The residential area around the church is of high architectural quality and has accordingly been designated the “St. Mark’s Conservation Area”. Rio Cinema: The Rio Cinema is a Grade II listed independent Art Deco cinema, it is a popular single-screen cinema located on Kingsland High Street, with a history stretching back over 100 years. German Hospital: The German Hospital, locally known as'The German', is a group of attractive Victorian red brick buildings that were home to a hospital from 1845-1987; the hospital was founded to cater for London's large German-speaking community. It became an ordinary NHS facility before its facilities were merged and moved to Homerton University Hospital.
Dalston is known for music and its nightlife. Its biggest festival to date began in Dalston Music Festival. Centred on Gillett Square and 8 clubs i