JLA: The Nail series
JLA: The Nail is a three-issue comic book mini-series published by DC Comics in 1998 under its Elseworlds imprint. The story and drawn by Alan Davis, is set in a parallel universe where Jonathan and Martha Kent's truck experiences a flat tire caused by a nail, which stops them from discovering a Kryptonian spaceship outside Smallville containing the baby Kal-El, negating Superman, it was followed by a sequel, JLA: Another Nail, a three-issue mini-series published in 2004 which wrapped up several loose ends from the original mini-series, such as the war between the New Gods and the Green Lantern Corps and Oliver Queen's public betrayal of the Justice League. The story's theme is set in the first paragraph: For want of a nail the shoe was lost, for want of a shoe the horse was lost, for want of a horse the knight was lost, for want of a knight the battle was lost. So it was a kingdom. Twenty-four years ago, farmers Jonathan and Martha Kent experience a flat tire on their truck caused by a nail, which stops them from discovering a Kryptonian spaceship containing the baby Kal-El.
In the present day, the Justice League consists of Batman, Wonder Woman, the Flash, the Atom, Martian Manhunter and Green Lantern. Journalist Perry White conducts an anti-metahuman propaganda campaign along with mayor of Metropolis Lex Luthor and deputy mayor Jimmy Olsen. After a battle with Amazo which resulted in the death of Hawkman, Oliver Queen became a bitter paraplegic who claims that the Justice League are aliens who are conspiring against humanity. Metahumans are eliminated or captured one by one: first the supervillains and teams such as the Doom Patrol and the Outsiders; the Joker liberates the prisoners in Arkham Asylum with energy-generating gauntlets which he uses to trap Batman and kill Robin and Batgirl. Catwoman attacks the Joker and frees Batman, who damages the Joker's gauntlets and snaps his neck on live television as Arkham explodes. Batman retreats to the Batcave with Catwoman while the Joker's murder tarnishes the Justice League's reputation. Metamorpho is brainwashed into killing the Thinker and Perry White and dies while trying to tell Martian Manhunter what happened.
Green Lantern discovers a force field around Earth. The Flash saves Ra's al Ghul and the League of Assassins from an attack by Amazo while seeking the mastermind behind all of these events. Wonder Woman is framed for the destruction of the White House. Riots erupt soon afterwards and Luthor takes control of the United States, using flying masked robots called the Liberators to enforce the law; the members of the Justice League are captured by the Liberators until Batman, the Flash and the Atom are left. Lois Lane, a journalist investigating the anti-metahuman propaganda campaign, suspects a conspiracy. At a metahuman research facility, Lois meets Dr. Lana Lang, who sends her to Smallville where the Kents help shelter escaped metahumans. Lois confronts Jimmy, who reveals that LexCorp discovered Kal-El's empty spaceship and found traces of his DNA within it. Luthor used the alien DNA to turn Jimmy into a Kryptonian-human hybrid. Metahumans have been imprisoned and harvested for their DNA in order to convert humans into Kryptonians and create a Kryptonian society ruled by Jimmy.
Batman, the Atom, the Flash free the captive Justice League members and destroy the Liberators, only to be confronted by a super-powered Jimmy. Jimmy defeats the League due to their inexperience with Kryptonian powers as the fight spreads to an Amish community; as Jimmy is about to kill Batman, he is stopped by a farmer. The farmer is revealed to be Kal-El, found as a baby by an Amish couple and raised as their son. Jimmy attempts to persuade Kal to join him but Kal refuses, unable to ignore his conscience. Jimmy engages Kal in a fight. Despite the two of them being evenly matched, the stress of the fight causes Jimmy’s DNA graft to fail and his body to disintegrate. With Jimmy and the Liberators defeated, the Justice League regains public confidence with the help of its newest member: Superman. A year earlier, Apokolips goes to war with New Genesis, the Green Lantern Corps is dispatched to stem the loss of life. One Green Lantern is killed, her power ring selects Big Barda as its new host. Barda and Mister Miracle manage to reverse the effects of a device designed to vaporize all matter within millions of light years, causing Darkseid to disintegrate into nothingness and be scattered across the universe instead.
Hal Jordan reveals to the Justice League. Oliver Queen is dying from injuries caused by Amazo in the same fight. Kal-El is adjusting to his new life as Superman, devoting himself full-time to heroics with little rest. During a mission in Peru with the Martian Manhunter, Superman's strength begins to fade as he tries to save a village from an attack by Evil Star. Kal takes a sabbatical and bonds with Jonathan and Martha Kent & Lois Lane as they create a new secret identity for him; the members of the Justice League investigate various disturbances in spacetime. Batman, who continues to fight crime separately from the League along with Batwoman, encounters Deadman, who reveals that demons are escaping Hell and invading Earth. Batman is attacked by a demonically-powered Joker. Using the resources
Courtney Elizabeth Whitmore, known as Stargirl, is a fictional superhero created by Geoff Johns and appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character's name and personality were patterned after Johns' sister Courtney, who died in the explosion of TWA Flight 800 in 1996. Courtney Whitmore was known as the second Star-Spangled Kid, but she began using the name "Stargirl" after she was presented with the Cosmic Staff by Jack Knight. Stargirl has appeared in films, she has appeared in live-action shows Smallville, played by Britt Irvin, Legends of Tomorrow, played by Sarah Grey. Stargirl will be played by Brec Bassinger in her own television series for DC Universe; the character was created by artist Lee Moder. She made her first appearance in Stars and S. T. R. I. P. E. #0. The character's inspiration was Geoff Johns' sister Courtney, who died in the explosion of TWA Flight 800 in 1996. Courtney Whitmore, stepdaughter of Pat Dugan, finds the original Star-Spangled Kid's gear in her stepfather's belongings.
She dons the costume to annoy Dugan. Dugan, a skilled mechanic and builds S. T. R. I. P. E. A robotic suit that he uses to accompany and protect her. During her time in Blue Valley, her frequent nemesis is the young villainess known as Shiv, daughter of the immortal Dragon King, their most recent rematch was on a page added to the hardcover edition. Courtney joins the Justice Society of America. After being given Starman Jack Knight's cosmic staff, she changes her identity to Stargirl. Courtney appears in most issues of JSA and it is in these pages that her half sister Patricia Dugan is born, she confronts her predecessor's killer, Solomon Grundy. Driven further into madness by the Joker's chemical assault, Grundy attacks the JSA headquarters with the head of the Statue of Liberty. With the aid of Jakeem Thunder, Courtney into the sewers below; the young heroes defeat Grundy. Jakeem's Thunderbolt repairs the Statue. Grundy develops an obsession with Courtney. Courtney encounters Merry Pemberton, the sister of the original Star-Spangled Kid.
Merry's concerns about her brother's legacy and about young superheroes battling adults causes friction with Courtney. They resolve their differences during a battle against the forces of Klarion the Witch Boy. Courtney saves Merry's life during an attack by Amazo. During this incident, Courtney temporarily has the body of a much more mature adult, she discovers her biological father working as a common thug for an incarnation of the Royal Flush Gang. They confront each other during one of the Flush Gang's robberies. In Stars and S. T. R. I. P. E. and an issue of Impulse, Courtney hints at having a crush on Robin, a concept, not developed in subsequent issues. Courtney dates fellow JSA member Captain Marvel, who, in his secret identity of Billy Batson, is the same age as she. To outsiders, Captain Marvel is by all appearances an adult, the relationship between Marvel and Stargirl draws criticism from Jakeem Thunder and Jay Garrick. After Garrick confronts them, Marvel leaves the JSA and Courtney, instead of revealing his secret to the team.
Marvel returns to the JSA and explains that the Wisdom of Solomon prevents him from revealing his secret identity. A glimpse into the future shows an adult "Starwoman" married to Albert Rothstein, the JSA member known as Atom Smasher. Courtney's family is murdered by agents of Per Degaton, she travels with the rest of the JSA to 1951. The Modern Age successors to Golden Age JSA members meet and fight alongside the originals to save her family and the future, she finds herself forced to work with Atom Smasher again, for the first time since he defected to Black Adam's rival team. Afterward, she forgives him, he survives. She returns to her own time to find her family alive again. Atom Smasher is tried and convicted for his actions while working for Black Adam. During a TV appearance, Courtney says that with Al in prison, she would "be there for him... no matter how long it takes." Courtney is approached by the Shade. This tragedy and her experience of the relationship between Liberty Belle and Jesse Quick prompts her to re-evaluate her family life.
She discovers that she can't hate her biological father for his failings as a man. She learns to accept Pat Dugan as her only real father figure. Stargirl becomes part of a coalition consisting of the JSA, the Doom Patrol and the Teen Titans, organized to stop Superboy-Prime from destroying Smallville. Superboy-Prime kills several of the Titans, including Pantha and Baby Wildebeest and maims Risk, removing his arm. Stargirl attends a memorial service for heroes who died in the Crisis. Afterwards, she begins attending college, she has altered her equipment: her rod now telescopes into a small cylinder, her costume and belt materialize as the rod extends to full size. Courtney joins the new roster of the Justice Society and fights without S. T. R. I. P. E.'s assistance. A seasoned hero despite her age, she forges a bond with her young teammate Cyclone, the eager and over-impulsive granddaughter of the first Red Tornado, they bond after witnessing the death of Mister America. Courtney suggests Cyclone create name.
She resumes her role of mentorship for the youngest heroes by helping Jefferson Pierce's daughter, cope with her powers and
Thom Kallor is a fictional character appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. He has many incarnations connected to the Legion of Super-Heroes; the character has been known as Star Boy and Starman. Thom Kallor first was created by Otto Binder and George Papp. Star Boy is a member of the Legion of Super-Heroes, a group of young heroes living a millennium in the future, he was born to astronomer parents on an observation satellite orbiting the planet Xanthu with the ability to temporarily increase the mass of an object, up to the mass of a star. Although he temporarily acquires Kryptonian-level powers similar to those of Superboy when he was caught in the tail of a comet, these fade. Early in his Legion career, he travels to the 20th century to meet Superboy. While he is there, to make Superboy jealous Lana Lang threatens to expose his identity if he refuses to pretend to be her boyfriend. However, the Boy of Steel overhears her plan fails. Star Boy is expelled from the Legion for killing his girlfriend Dream Girl's ex-boyfriend Kenz Nuhor in self-defence, in violation of the Legion's rule against killing.
After this, he and Dream Girl join the Legion of Substitute Heroes before returning to the Legion. Although Star Boy wears a purple uniform with a white cape and five-pointed yellow star on his chest, his best-known costume is a full-body starfield suit with white gloves and boots. After the events of Zero Hour and the death of Kid Quantum, Xanthu's original representative to the Legion, Star Boy joins the Legion, he does not get along with Leviathan because Leviathan blames himself for Kid Quantum's death and sees his replacement as a reminder of his failure as a leader. In addition to his mass-increasing powers, Star Boy temporarily acquires several Kryptonian-like powers and the ability to breathe fire after spaceship accidents. However, he finds these abilities difficult to control; when Xanthu leaves the United Planets, Star Boy and fellow Xanthian Legionnaires spread the word that the government of their home planet has been deceived and are astonished at the decision to remain with the Affiliated Planets.
In a Starman storyline, the post-Zero Hour Thom Kallor discovers that he is destined to travel back to the 21st century, assume the mantle of Starman and lose his life. The Danny Blaine version of Thom Kallor was inspired by the Kingdom Come character, designed by Alex Ross. Although Star Boy was depicted as a white Xanthian, Mark Waid's 2005 Legion reboot recasts the character as black, he is described as Cosmic Boy's right-hand man, remains loyal to him during the Legion until his disappearance at the end of the Dominators storyline. This version of Star Boy inhabits the home of hero-turned-villain Superboy-Prime; the Starman in Justice Society of America volume three is a Thom Kallor similar to his pre-Crisis incarnation rather than the Star Boy who had appeared in Legion of Super-Heroes volume five, raising the question of co-existent timelines. He traveled from his future to the Kingdom Come universe, to the present. Kallor claims to hear voices in his head, has been diagnosed as borderline schizophrenic.
When he is not a superhero, he is a voluntary patient at the Sunshine Sanitarium. His schizophrenia began soon after he acquired his abilities, is managed with 31st-century technology. In the sanitarium he assumes the identity of his favorite pulp hero on Xanthu; the god-like Gog soon restores. Starman leaves the sanitarium and works as a gravedigger, which he believes will help him carry out his mission in the present. During a battle with the Justice Society Infinity of Earth-2, it is learned that his starfield suit was designed by three Brainiac 5s and is a map of the recreated multiverse; the rest of the Justice Society of America arrive after learning from Sandman that Gog is rooting himself into the Earth, they must kill him and separate his head from the planet. Gog's followers try to protect him, he punishes them including Starman's sanity. The JSA remove Gog's head and Starman opens a stargate to the Source Wall, where Superman places the head. Superman asks Starman to return him to Earth-22.
In the Final Crisis: Legion of 3 Worlds miniseries, it is learned that Starman received his mysterious mission from Brainiac 5 during a 31st-century conflict between the Legion and the united forces of Superboy-Prime and the Legion of Super-Villains. Starman's mission was to exhume the body of Superboy and place it in the regeneration chamber in the Fortress of Solitude used to restore Superman after his death; the healing process takes a millennium, in the 31st century Superboy is reborn to join the fight. Starman does not return to the 31st century at the end of the series. In Adventure Comics volume 2 #8, Starman is part of a secret Legion team sent by the late R. J. Brande to the 21st century to save the future in the "Last Stand of New Krypton" storyline. Kallor reappears on the Legion roster after the Flashpoint reality-altering event, although he is inexplicably a paraplegic, he leaves the team to rescue Dream Girl fr
Gardner Francis Cooper Fox was an American writer known best for creating numerous comic book characters for DC Comics. Comic book historians estimate that he wrote more than 4,000 comics stories, including 1,500 for DC Comics. Gardner was a science fiction author and wrote many novels and short stories. Fox is known as the co-creator of DC Comics heroes the Flash, Doctor Fate and the original Sandman, was the writer who first teamed those and other heroes as the Justice Society of America and recreated the team as the Justice League of America. Fox introduced the concept of the Multiverse to DC Comics in the 1961 story "Flash of Two Worlds!" Gardner F. Fox was born in the son of Julia Veronica and Leon Francis Fox, an engineer. Fox recalled being inspired at an early age by the great fantasy fiction writers. On or about his eleventh birthday, he was given The Gods of Mars and The Warlord of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs, books which "opened up a complete new world for me." He "read all of Burroughs, Harold Lamb, Talbot Mundy," maintaining copies "at home in my library" some 50 years later.
Fox received a law degree from St. John's College and was admitted to the New York bar in 1935, he practiced for about two years, but as the Great Depression continued he began writing for DC Comics editor Vin Sullivan. Debuting as a writer in the pages of Detective Comics, Fox "intermittently contributed tales to nearly every book in the DC lineup during the Golden Age." He was a frequent contributor of prose stories to the pulp science fiction magazines of the 1930s and 1940s. A polymath, Fox included numerous real-world historical and mythological references in his comic strips, once saying, "Knowledge is kind of a hobby with me". For instance, during a year's worth of Atom comic strip stories, Fox referred to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the space race, 18th-century England, miniature card painting, Norse mythology, numismatics, he revealed in letters to fan Jerry Bails that he kept large troves of reference material, mentioning during 1971, "I maintain two file cabinets chock full of stuff.
And the attic is crammed with books and magazines.... Everything about science, nature, or unusual facts, I can go to my files or the at least 2,000 books that I have". During his career writing for DC Comics, Fox wrote novels and short stories using a variety of male and female pseudonyms for a number of publishers, including Ace, Gold Medal, Tower Publications, Belmont Books, Dodd Mead, Pocket Library, Pyramid Books and Signet Books. During the mid-to-late 1940s, into the 1950s, Fox wrote a number of short stories and text pieces for Weird Tales and Planet Stories, was published in Amazing Stories and Marvel Science Stories, he wrote for a diverse range of pulp magazines, including Baseball Stories, Big Book Football Western, Fighting Western, Football Stories, Lariat Stories, Ace Sports, SuperScience, Northwest Romances, Thrilling Western, Ranch Romances for a number of publishing companies. Fox wrote a pair of science fiction novels titled Thief of Llarn. From 1969 to 1970, Belmont Books published a series of sword and sorcery novels by Fox, featuring the barbarian character Kothar.
These were Kothar: Barbarian Swordsman, Kothar of the Magic Sword and the Demon Queen and the Conjurer's Curse and Kothar and the Wizard Slayer. These were followed in 1976 by another series featuring the barbarian Kyrik: Kyrik: Warlock Warrior, Kyrik Fights the Demon World and the Wizard's Sword and Kyrik and the Lost Queen. Kothar and the Conjurer's Curse was adapted by Marvel Comics as a six-part Conan story starting with Conan the Barbarian #46 with scripter Roy Thomas and artists John Buscema, Joe Sinnott, Dan Adkins, Dick Giordano. Fox's earliest stories for DC Comics featured Speed Saunders with art by Creig Flessel and Fred Guardineer beginning at least with Detective Comics #4. Speed Saunders was credited to "E. C. Stoner," which many believe to be a Fox pseudonym; as the 1930s progressed, Fox added writing credits for Steve Malone and Bruce Nelson for Detective Comics to his workload, as well as Zatara for early issues of Action Comics. During World War II, Fox assumed responsibility for a variety of characters and books of several of his colleagues, drafted.
He worked for numerous companies including Timely Comics. With the waning popularity of superheroes, Fox contributed western, science fiction, humor and funny animal stories. During July 1939, just two issues after debut of the character Batman by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, Fox wrote the first of his several tales for that character, introducing an early villain in the story "The Batman Meets Doctor Death". Alongside Kane and Finger, Fox contributed to the evolution of the character, including the character's first use of his utility belt, which "contain choking gas capsules," as well as writing the first usages of both the Batarang and the Batgyro, an autogyro precursor to the Batcopter, two issues later. Fox returned to the Batman in 1964. During 1939, Fox and artist Bert Christman co-created the character of the Sandman, a gasmask-wearing costumed crime-fighter whose first appearance in Adventure Comics #40 was pre-empted by an appearance in New York World's Fair Comics. Fox is credited with writing the first three of six stories in the inaugural issue of Flash Comics, including the debut of the titular character, The Flash.
Justice Society of America
The Justice Society of America is a superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The Justice Society of America was conceived by writer Gardner Fox; the JSA first appeared in All Star Comics #3, making it the first team of superheroes in comic books. The team was popular, but in the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned, the JSA's adventures ceased with issue #57 of the title. JSA members remained absent from comics until ten years when the original Flash appeared alongside a new character by that name in The Flash #123. During the Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics reinvented several Justice Society members and banded many of them together in the Justice League of America; the Justice Society was established as existing on "Earth-Two" and the Justice League on "Earth-One". This allowed for annual cross-dimensional team-ups of the teams between 1963 and 1985. New series, such as All-Star Squadron, Inc. and a new All-Star Comics featured the JSA, their children and their heirs.
These series explored the issues of aging, generational differences, contrasts between the Golden Age and subsequent eras. The 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series merged all of the company's various alternate realities into one, placing the JSA as World War II-era predecessors to the company's modern characters. A JSA series was published from 1999 to 2006, a Justice Society of America series ran from 2007 to 2011; as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of its entire line of monthly books an unnamed version of the team appears in the Earth 2 Vol 1, Earth 2 World's End, Earth 2: Society. The Justice Society of America first appeared in All Star Comics #3 written by Gardner Fox and edited by Sheldon Mayer during the Golden Age of Comic Books; the team included: Doctor Fate, Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Sandman, the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman. Because some of these characters were published by All-American Publications rather than DC Comics, All-Star Comics #3 is the first inter-company superhero title, as well as the first team-up title.
Comics' historian Les Daniels noted that: "This was a great notion, since it offered readers a lot of headliners for a dime, the fun of watching fan favorites interact."The JSA's adventures were written by Gardner Fox as well as by John Broome and Robert Kanigher. The series was illustrated by a legion of artists including: Martin Nodell, Joe Kubert, Jack Kirby, Harry Lampert, Joe Simon, Alex Toth, Sheldon Moldoff, Carmine Infantino, Joe Giella, Win Mortimer, Bernard Baily, Frank Giacoia, H. G. Peter, Jack Burnley, Lee Elias, Irwin Hasen, Bob Oksner, Paul Reinman, Everett E. Hibbard, Bernard Sachs; the first JSA story featured the team's first meeting, with a framing sequence for each member telling a story of an individual exploit. In the next issue, the team worked together on a common case, but each story from there on still featured the members individually on a mission involving part of the case, banding together in the end to wrap things up. An in-house rule explicitly laid out on the last page of All Star Comics #5, reprinted on page 206 of All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1, required that whenever a member received his or her own title, that character would leave All Star Comics, becoming an "honorary member" of the JSA.
Thus, the Flash was replaced by Johnny Thunder after #6, Green Lantern left shortly thereafter for the same reason. For this reason and Batman were established as being "honorary" members prior to All Star Comics #3. How these two heroes helped found the JSA before becoming honorary members was not explained until DC Special #29 in 1977. Hawkman is the only member to appear in every JSA adventure in the original run of All Star Comics. All Star Comics #8 featured the first appearance of Wonder Woman. Unlike the other characters who had their own titles, she was allowed to appear in the series, but only as the JSA's secretary from #11 onward, did not take part in most adventures until much in the series, she was excluded from the title because of the same rules that had excluded the Flash, Green Lantern and Batman from the title, though in #13 it was claimed she had become an active member. A fan club for the team called the "Junior Justice Society of America" was introduced in All Star Comics #14.
The membership kit included a welcome letter, a badge, a decoder, a four-page comic book, a membership certificate. By All Star Comics #24, a real-world schism between National Comics and All-American Publications—a nominally independent company run by Max Gaines and Jack Liebowitz—had occurred, which resulted in the Detective Comics, Inc. heroes being removed from the title. As a result, the Flash and Green Lantern returned to the team. With issue #27, National Comics bought out Max Gaines' share of All-American and the two companies merged to form Detective Comics, Inc; the JSA roster remained the same for the rest of the series. Gardner Fox left the series with issue #34 with a story that introduced a new super-villain, the Wizard; the Injustice Society first battled the JSA in issue #37 in a tale written by Robert Kanigher. The team's second female member, Black Canary, first helped the group in All Star Comics #38 and became a full member in #41. All Star Comics and the JSA's Golden Age adventures ended with issue #57, the title becoming All-Star Western, with no superheroes.
A good amount of artwork has survived from an unpublishe
Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer and author, recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. In Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity, he demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism separates white light into the colours of the visible spectrum. His work on light was collected in his influential book Opticks, published in 1704, he formulated an empirical law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, classified most of the cubic plane curves. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, he was a devout but unorthodox Christian who rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England.
Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02, he was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society. Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 "an hour or two after midnight", at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire, his father named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. Born prematurely, Newton was a small child; when Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough.
Newton disliked his stepfather and maintained some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them." Newton's mother had three children from her second marriage. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, which taught Latin and Greek and imparted a significant foundation of mathematics, he was removed from school, returned to Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth by October 1659. His mother, widowed for the second time, attempted to make him an occupation he hated. Henry Stokes, master at The King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school. Motivated by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student, distinguishing himself by building sundials and models of windmills. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, on the recommendation of his uncle Rev William Ayscough, who had studied there.
He started as a subsizar—paying his way by performing valet's duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, guaranteeing him four more years until he could get his MA. At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, whom Newton supplemented with modern philosophers such as Descartes, astronomers such as Galileo and Thomas Street, through whom he learned of Kepler's work, he set down in his notebook a series of "Quaestiones" about mechanical philosophy. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his BA degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus and the law of gravitation. In April 1667, he returned in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity.
Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was no