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The starost or starosta is a Slavic term denoting a community elder whose role was to administer the assets of a clan or family estates. The Slavic root of starost translates as "senior". Since the Middle Ages, it has meant an official in a leadership position in a range of civic and social contexts throughout the Slavic world. In terms of a municipality, a starosta was a senior royal administrative official, equivalent to the County Sheriff or the outdated Seneschal, analogous to a gubernator. In Poland, a starosta would administer a delineated district called a starostwo. In the early Middle Ages, the starosta could head a settled urban or rural community or other communities, such as a church starosta, or an artel starosta, etc; the starosta functioned as the master of ceremonies in traditional Carpatho-Rusyn and Polish weddings, similar to the stari svat at Serbian weddings. In the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Starosta was from the 15th century the office of a territorial administrator conferred on a local landowner and member of the nobility, Szlachta.

Until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, there were two types of Starosta: Castle Starosta, Starosta grodowy as local representative of the king, would supervise fiscal, judicial administration and matters of crime in a district, termed starostwo, Land-Starosta, Starosta niegrodowy, capitaneus sine iurisdictione, whose role was as overseer of crown land tenants and of the land tenure without any real obligations. The absence of an Interdict against the accumulation of thus administered districts resulted in some nobles becoming immensely rich and earning the Sobriquet, magnates. There were general starosts who were provincial governors. All starosts disappeared after the Kosciuszko Insurrection in 1794 and were not reinstated until after World War I when their role was altered. In contemporary Poland, starosta designates a district administrator, who heads the district administration starostwo and manages a powiat district, akin to the leader of a town or rural council. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia starosta is the title of a mayor of a town or village.

Mayors of major cities use the title primátor. The term corresponds to the German Bürgermeister; the title "Starost" was used in parts of the Holy Roman Empire but was not tied to ownership of land. The German word Starostei referred to the crown land district of a Starost. In German, the title starost/starosta is translated as Hauptmann and analogous to a gubernator. In Ruthenia it was a lower government official. In Lithuania since 1991, seniūnas is the title of the head of a province. In Galicia and Bukovina under Austrian rule a starosta supervised the county administration. In Russia the word was used until the early 20th century to denote the elected leader of obshchina. In Ukraine during 1918 it was a post of an appointed official who represented the central government in regions. From 2015 is an official of a village, a part of the united commune. Offices in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Seniūnija Starets Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Starosta Starosta in the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine


Spymob is an American alternative rock band from Minneapolis, Minnesota. Best known for their appearance on the 2003 Star Trak Entertainment compilation The Neptunes present Clones, with the song "Half Steering..." they provided backing instruments for N. E. R. D.'s 2002 debut In Search Of.... Their major label debut, Sitting Around Keeping Score, was the first rock album to be released on The Neptunes Star Trak label. In 2014, the band released Memphis independently. Additionally, all four members have provided session work and touring support for other artists including N. E. R. D, Snoop Dogg and Mike Doughty. Singer/keyboardist John Ostby, bassist Christian Twigg, guitarist Brent Paschke, drummer Eric Fawcett formed in Minneapolis in the early 90s as "Reno." Playing staples such as 2040 and Kissing the Neighborhood Houses Goodbye in local venues such as the 400 Bar, the band recorded several demo songs. In 2001, the band was hired to provide studio work for N. E. R. D's In Search Of... album after a copy of their demo was discovered by Pharrell Williams and Chad Hugo.

Townhouse Stereo Basement Tapes Sitting Around Keeping Score Spymob EP Memphis Wanderland Kelis, 2001 In Search Of... N. E. R. D, 2002 Haughty Melodic Mike Doughty, 2005 Seeing Sounds N. E. R. D, 2008 SoundCloud Facebook Template:US-alernative-rock-band-stub


Chashitsu in Japanese tradition is an architectural space designed to be used for tea ceremony gatheringsThe architectural style that developed for chashitsu is referred to as the sukiya style, the term sukiya may be used as a synonym for chashitsu. Related Japanese terms are chaseki, broadly meaning "place for tea", implying any sort of space where people are seated to participate in tea ceremony, chabana, "tea flowers", the style of flower arrangement associated with the tea ceremony. Typical features of chashitsu are shōji windows and sliding doors made of wooden lattice covered in a translucent Japanese paper; the ideal floor size of a chashitsu is 4.5 tatami mats. In Japanese, free-standing structures designed for exclusive tea ceremony use, as well as individual rooms intended for tea ceremony, are both referred to as chashitsu; the term may be used to indicate the tea room itself where the guests are received, or that room and its attached facilities extending to the roji garden path leading to it.

In English, a distinction is made between free-standing structures for tea, referred to as tea houses, rooms used for tea ceremony incorporated within other structures. Tea houses are small, simple wooden buildings, they are located in the grounds of private homes. Other common sites are the grounds of temples and parks; the smallest tea house will have two rooms: the main room where the host and guests gather and tea is served, a mizuya, where the host prepares the sweets and equipment. The entire structure may have a total floor area of only three tatami mats. Large tea houses may have several tea rooms of different sizes. Tea rooms are purpose-built spaces for holding tea gatherings, they may be located within larger tea houses, or within private homes or other structures not intended for tea ceremony. A tea room may have a floor area as small as 1.75 tatami mats. A tea room will contain a tokonoma and a sunken hearth for preparing tea in the winter; the term chashitsu came into use after the start of the Edo period.

In earlier times, various terms were used for spaces used for tea ceremony, such as chanoyu zashiki, sukiya such as chanoyu), kakoi. According to Japanese historian Moriya Takeshi in his article "The Mountain Dwelling Within the City", the ideal of wabi-style tea ceremony had its roots in the urban society of the Muromachi period, took form in the tea houses that townspeople built at their residences and which affected the appearance of thatched huts in mountain villages. Before this, tea ceremony was enjoyed in rooms built in the shoin-zukuri architectural style, a style employed in tea rooms built today. Tea houses first appeared in the Sengoku period, a time in which the central government had no practical power, the country was in chaos, wars and uprisings were commonplace. Seeking to reclaim Japan, samurai were busy acquiring and defending territories, promoting trade and overseeing the output of farms and mines as de facto rulers, many of the poor were eager to seek the salvation of the afterlife as taught by Buddhism.

Tea houses were built by Zen monks or by daimyōs, merchants who practiced tea ceremony. They sought tranquility -- central tenets of Zen philosophy; the acknowledgment of simplicity and plainness, a central motivation of the tea house, continued to remain as a distinct Japanese tradition in the periods. The Golden Tea Room was a portable gilded chashitsu constructed during the 16th century Azuchi–Momoyama period for the Japanese regent Lord Toyotomi Hideyoshi's tea ceremonies; the original room is lost. The Golden Tea Room was constructed to impress guests with the power of the regent; this was in contrast to the rustic aesthetics codified under his tea master Sen no Rikyū, although it is speculated that Rikyū might have helped in the design. The room's opulence was unusual and may have been against wabi-sabi norms. At the same time, the simplicity of the overall design with its clean lines could be seen as within the canon; the extent of teamaster Rikyū's involvement in the design of the room is not known, however he was in attendance on a number of occasions when tea was being served to guests in the room.

The ideal free-standing tea house is surrounded by a small garden having a path leading to the tea room. This garden is called roji. Along the path is a waiting bench for a privy. There is a stone water-basin near the tea house, where the guests rinse their hands and mouths before entering the tea room through a small, square door called nijiriguchi, or "crawling-in entrance", which requires bending low to pass thr

Buxton University

Buxton University was an unaccredited vendor of distance education that used a postal address in the United Kingdom. It is associated with the website. The institution did not hold a Royal Charter, required for an institution in the United Kingdom to call itself a "university", per the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. However, the institution does not advertise itself as a university in the UK and uses a commercial internet domain name - The domain, however, is registered to a "Camford Institute Subang Jaya" in Singapore. Buxton claimed accreditation by the World Online Education Accrediting Commission, as well as the Board of Online Universities Accreditation, but neither agency is recognized as a higher education accreditor by the United States Department of Education or the Council on Higher Education Accreditation. Buxton University is on the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board list of "Institutions Whose Degrees are Illegal to Use in Texas".

On its website, Buxton University stated that it was established in 1991 and had awarded a total of 54,000 degrees by 2002. In August 2004, a San Antonio, television station investigating bogus academic credentials had an employee order a degree from the website. The station reported that the employee received a Buxton University master's degree, summa cum laude, by mail within a few days after submitting an order. In November of that year, a Knoxville, television station reported a similar experience in which an employee ordered a Ph. D. from and received a back-dated Buxton University diploma by mail just five days after paying $160. Both stations reported that the university was identified as being in London, but the mail had come from Portugal. In 2004, The Washington Post reported that a hypnotist, William R. Runnells Jr. had called himself "Doctor" and that his degree was from the American Institute of Hypnotherapy and Buxton University. In that article, the Post wrote, "...repeated Web searches and several calls to overseas operators did not turn up a listing for a Buxton University."On November 29, 2006, the web version of NBC 4 in Columbus, posted a transcript of a Target 4 Investigates program in which Kyle Anderson stated that "Five days after placing that order, I received this in the mail - global priority mail from Portugal.

Inside, two sealed diplomas from Buxton University in London, England. So for a few hundred bucks, I've got a Ph. D. in counseling, a master's of divinity in religion, some pretty official-looking letters from Buxton University, their prospectus, which looks like it's printed on an ink-jet printer."As of 2011 Buxton University has no web presence and appears to have ceased trading. According to the Higher Education Degree Datacheck website, Buxton University is not a valid UK degree awarding body. Diploma mill List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning Buxton University official website

Saurya Airlines

Saurya Airlines Pvt. Ltd is an airline based in Nepal; as of August 2017, the airlines serves to five destinations across three provinces of Nepal from its hub at Tribhuvan International Airport. Saurya Airlines operates a fleet of CRJ 200 aircraft. Saurya Airlines was the first airline to introduce Canadair Regional Jet in Nepal becoming the second airlines in Nepal after Cosmic Air to operate a jet engine aircraft on the domestic routes. Saurya Airlines brought its first aircraft "9N-ALE", a CRJ 200 on 18 August 2014; the airline commenced its first operation on 17 November 2014 by conducting a mountain flight and a round trip to Biratnagar Airport after it was forced to keep its new plane grounded for nearly three months due to lengthy paperworks. The company added a daily service to Chandragadhi Airport making its second southeastern destination. On 22 June 2015, Saurya Airlines launched one daily flights to Nepalgunj Airport. On the beginning of 2016, Saurya Airlines was constrained to operate charter flights as per the regulations of Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal after the company failed to meet the minimum required number of aircraft needed to operate as a scheduled passenger carrier.

However, the company managed to provide the service to the passengers by operating scheduled charter flights. In 2016, Saurya Airlines served 90,205 passengers with the growth rate of 3.76 percent from the previous year. In March 2017, Saurya Airlines added second CRJ 200 aircraft, "9N-AME" on its fleet and regained the certificate to operate the scheduled flights again; the "9N-AME" aircraft was painted with "Tata Tiago livery" as per the agreement with Sipradi Trading, making the airline-first Nepalese fixed wing aircraft company to wear the international trademark on aircraft livery. In 2018, the airline was grounded by Tribhuvan International Airport, as it owed Nepali rupees 30 million in service charges to the airport. In March 2019, the airline restarted its flight operations. In 2018, the airline was sold to a group of Non Resident Nepalis for 320 million Nepali rupees. However, in 2019, the ownership changed again, when the Indian Kuber Group acquired the airline for 630 million Nepali rupees.

The Saurya Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: Saurya Airlines serves to these destinations as of March 2019: Official website

Bipinnatin J

Bipinnatin J is a diterpene isolated from the bipinnate sea plume Antillogorgia bipinnata, a sea fan found in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It is one of the structurally simplest of the furanocembrenolides, is speculated to be a biosynthetic precursor to a wide array cembrenolides along with the dehydroxylated analog, rubifolide. Although the exact biosynthesis of bipinnatin J has not been formally studied, the biosynthesis the core cembrane skeleton, neo-cembrene, has been extensively studied. Starting from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, the pyrophosphate leaves, creating the allyl carbocation. A type A cyclization yields the 14-membered cembrane ring with the isopropyl cation outside the ring. Proton elimination yields neo-cembrene. From this point, the biosynthesis of bipinnatin J is speculative. Oxidation, most utilizing P450 monooxygenases, followed by ring closure creates both the furan and butenolide within the 14-membered ring. ∆ double bond isomerization of the C7-C8 olefin occurs to afford the Z conformation, yielding rubifolide.

Another oxidation of C2 yields bipinnatin J