Poker is a family of card games that combines gambling and skill. All poker variants involve betting as an intrinsic part of play, determine the winner of each hand according to the combinations of players' cards, at least some of which remain hidden until the end of the hand. Poker games vary in the number of cards dealt, the number of shared or "community" cards, the number of cards that remain hidden, the betting procedures. In most modern poker games the first round of betting begins with one or more of the players making some form of a forced bet. In standard poker, each player bets according to the rank they believe their hand is worth as compared to the other players; the action proceeds clockwise as each player in turn must either match the maximum previous bet, or fold, losing the amount bet so far and all further involvement in the hand. A player who matches a bet may "raise" the bet; the betting round ends when all players folded. If all but one player folds on any round, the remaining player collects the pot without being required to reveal their hand.
If more than one player remains in contention after the final betting round, a showdown takes place where the hands are revealed, the player with the winning hand takes the pot. With the exception of initial forced bets, money is only placed into the pot voluntarily by a player who either believes the bet has positive expected value or, trying to bluff other players for various strategic reasons. Thus, while the outcome of any particular hand involves chance, the long-run expectations of the players are determined by their actions chosen on the basis of probability and game theory. Poker has increased in popularity since the beginning of the 20th century and has gone from being a recreational activity confined to small groups of enthusiasts to a popular activity, both for participants and spectators, including online, with many professional players and multimillion-dollar tournament prizes. Poker was developed sometime during the early 19th century in the United States. Since those early beginnings, the game has grown to become an popular pastime worldwide.
In the 1937 edition of Foster's Complete Hoyle, R. F. Foster wrote: "the game of poker, as first played in the United States, five cards to each player from a twenty-card pack, is undoubtedly the Persian game of As-Nas." By the 1990s some gaming historians including David Parlett started to challenge the notion that poker is a direct derivative of As-Nas. Developments in the 1970s led to poker becoming far more popular. Modern tournament play became popular in American casinos after the World Series of Poker began, in 1970. In casual play, the right to deal a hand rotates among the players and is marked by a token called a dealer button. In a casino, a house dealer handles the cards for each hand, but the button is rotated clockwise among the players to indicate a nominal dealer to determine the order of betting; the cards are dealt clockwise around one at a time. One or more players are required to make forced bets either an ante or a blind bet; the dealer shuffles the cards, the player on the chair to his or her right cuts, the dealer deals the appropriate number of cards to the players one at a time, beginning with the player to his or her left.
Cards may be dealt depending on the variant of poker being played. After the initial deal, the first of what may be several betting rounds begins. Between rounds, the players' hands develop in some way by being dealt additional cards or replacing cards dealt. At the end of each round, all bets are gathered into the central pot. At any time during a betting round, if one player bets, no opponents choose to call the bet, all opponents instead fold, the hand ends the bettor is awarded the pot, no cards are required to be shown, the next hand begins; this is. Bluffing is a primary feature of poker, one that distinguishes it from other vying games and from other games that make use of poker hand rankings. At the end of the last betting round, if more than one player remains, there is a showdown, in which the players reveal their hidden cards and evaluate their hands; the player with the best hand according to the poker variant being played wins the pot. A poker hand comprises five cards. Poker variations are played where a "low hand" may be the best desired hand.
In other words, when playing a poker variant with "low poker" the best hand is one that contains the lowest cards. So while the "majority" of poker game variations are played "high hand", where the best high "straight, flush etc." wins, there are poker variations where the "worst hand" wins, such as "low ball, acey-ducey, high-lo split etc. game variations". To summarize, there can be variations that are "high poker", "low poker", "high low split". In the case of "high low split" the pot is divided among low hand. Poker has many variations, all following a similar pattern of play and using the same hand ranking hierarchy. There are four main families of variants grouped by the protocol of card-dealing and betting: Straight A complete hand is dealt to each player, players bet in one round, with raising and re-raising allowed; this is the oldest poker family.
Poker is a popular card game that combines elements of chance and strategy. There are various styles of poker, all of which share an objective of presenting the least probable or highest-scoring hand. A poker hand is a configuration of five cards depending on the variant, either held by a player or drawn from a number of shared, community cards. Players bet on their hands in a number of rounds as cards are drawn, employing various mathematical and intuitive strategies in an attempt to better opponents. Given the game's many different forms and various dynamics, poker strategy becomes a complex subject; this article attempts to introduce only the basic strategy concepts. The fundamental theorem of poker, introduced by David Sklansky, states: Every time you play your hand the way you would if you could see your opponents' cards, you gain, every time your opponents play their cards differently from the way they would play them if they could see your cards, you gain; this theorem is the foundation for many poker strategy topics.
For example and slow-playing are examples of using deception to induce your opponents to play differently from how they would if they could see your cards. There are some exceptions to the fundamental theorem in certain multi-way pot situations, as described in Morton's theorem; the relationship between pot odds and odds of winning is one of the most important concepts in poker strategy. Pot odds are the ratio of the size of the pot to the size of the bet required to stay in the pot. For example, if a player must call $10 for a chance to win a $40 pot, their pot odds are 4-to-1. To have a positive expectation, a player's odds of winning must be better than their pot odds. If the player's odds of winning are 4-to-1, their expected return is to break even. Implied odds is a more complicated concept, though related to pot odds; the implied odds on a hand are based not on the money in the pot, but on the expected size of the pot at the end of the hand. When facing an money situation and holding a strong drawing hand a skilled player will consider calling a bet or opening based on their implied odds.
This is true in multi-way pots, where it is that one or more opponents will call all the way to showdown. By employing deception, a poker player hopes to induce their opponent to act differently from how they would if they could see their cards. David Sklansky has argued that winning at poker is decided by how much one player can force another to change his/her style while maintaining their own strategy. Bluffing is a form of deception where players bet on a weak hand to induce opponents to fold superior hands. Related is the semi-bluff, in which a player who does not have a strong hand, but has a chance to improve it to a strong hand in rounds, bets on the hand in the hopes of inducing other players with weaker "made" hands to fold. Slow-playing is deceptive play in poker, the opposite of bluffing: checking or betting weakly with a strong holding, attempting to induce other players with weaker hands to call or raise the bet instead of folding, to increase the payout. Position refers to the order in which players are seated around the table and the strategic consequences of this.
Players in earlier position need stronger hands to bet/raise or call than players in position. For example, if there are five opponents yet to act behind a player, there is a greater chance one of the yet to act opponents will have a better hand than if there were only one opponent yet to act. Being in late position is an advantage because a player gets to see how their opponents in earlier position act; this information, coupled with a low bet to a late player, may allow the player to "limp in" with a weaker hand when they would have folded the same hand if they'd had to act earlier. Position is one of the most vital elements to understand; as a player's position improves, so too does the range of cards with which they can profitably enter a hand. Conversely this held knowledge can be used to an intelligent poker player's advantage. If playing against observant opponents a raise with any two cards can'steal the blinds,' if executed against passive players at the right time. Unlike calling, raising has an extra way to win: opponents may fold.
An opening bet may be considered a raise from a strategy perspective. David Sklansky gives. To get more money in the pot when a player has the best hand: If a player has the best hand, raising for value enables them to win a bigger pot. To drive out opponents when a player has the best hand: If a player has a made hand, raising may protect their hand by driving out opponents with drawing hands who may otherwise improve to a better hand. To bluff A player raises with an inferior or "trash" hand attempts to deceive other players about the strength of their hand, induce a better hand to fold. To semi-bluff A player with a drawing hand may raise both to bluff and for value. While technically still a bluff, as the player may not end up with a made hand and is trying to drive out players, the player still has the opportunity to make his or her hand and win the pot if the bluff is called. To block Players on drawing hands may put out a "blocking bet" against players who are to bet when checked to, but unlikely to raise when bet into.
Texas hold 'em starting hands
In the poker game of Texas hold'em, a starting hand consists of two hole cards, which belong to the player and remain hidden from the other players. Five community cards are dealt into play. Betting begins before any of the community cards are exposed, continues throughout the hand; the player's "playing hand", which will be compared against that of each competing player, is the best 5-card poker hand available from his two hole cards and the five community cards. Unless otherwise specified, here the term hand applies to the player's two hole cards, or starting hand. There are 1326 distinct possible combinations of two hole cards from a standard 52-card deck in hold'em, but since suits have no relative value in this poker variant, many of these hands are identical in value before the flop. For example, A♥ J♥ and A♠ J♠ are identical in value, because each is a hand consisting of an ace and a jack of the same suit. Therefore, there are 169 non-equivalent starting hands in hold'em, the sum total of: 13 pocket pairs, 13 × 12 / 2 = 78 suited hands and 78 unsuited hands.
These 169 hands are not likely. Hold'em hands are sometimes classified as having one of three "shapes": Pairs, which consist of two cards of the same rank. One hand in 17 will be a pair, each occurring with individual probability 1/221. An alternative means of making this calculation First Step As confirmed above. There are 2652 possible combination of opening hand. Second Step There are 12 different combinations of any given pair; this is worked out in the following manner: For example, there are 4 aces in the deck at the beginning of the hand. You are dealt the first ace. You are left with three remaining aces; therefore 4 * 3 which gives 4 * 3 = 12 To calculate the odds of being dealt a pair 2652 divided by 12 2652/12 = 221 Suited hands, which contain two cards of the same suit. Four hands out of 17 will be suited, each suited configuration occurs with probability 2/663. Offsuit hands, which contain two cards of a different suit and rank. Twelve out of 17 hands will be nonpair, offsuit hands, each of which occurs with probability 2/221.
It is typical to abbreviate suited hands in hold'em by affixing an "s" to the hand, as well as to abbreviate non-suited hands with an "o". That is, QQ represents any pair of queens, KQ represents any king and queen, AKo represents any ace and king of different suits, JTs represents any jack and ten of the same suit. There are 25 starting hands with a probability of winning at a 10-handed table of greater than 1/7; some notable theorists and players have created systems to rank the value of starting hands in limit Texas hold'em. These rankings do not apply to no limit play. David Sklansky and Mason Malmuth assigned in 1999 each hand to a group, proposed all hands in the group could be played similarly. Stronger starting hands are identified by a lower number. Hands without a number are the weakest starting hands; as a general rule, books on Texas hold'em present hand strengths starting with the assumption of a nine or ten person table. The table below illustrates the concept: The "Chen Formula" is a way to compute the "power ratings" of starting hands, developed by Bill Chen.
Highest Card Based on the highest card, assign points as follows: Ace = 10 points, K = 8 points, Q = 7 points, J = 6 points. 10 through 2, half of face value Pairs For pairs, multiply the points by 2, with a minimum of 5 points for any pair. 55 is given an extra point. Suited Add 2 points for suited cards. Closeness Subtract 1 point for 1 gappers 2 points for 2 gappers. 4 points for 3 gappers. 5 points for larger gappers, including A2 A3 A4Add an extra point if connected or 1-gap and your highest card is lower than Q Phil Hellmuth's "Play Poker Like the Pros" book published in 2003. Statistics based on real play with their associated actual value in real bets. In poker communities, it is common for hole cards to be given nicknames. While most combinations have a nickname, stronger handed nicknames are more recognized, the most notable being the "Big Slick" - Ace and King of the same suit, although an Ace-King of any suit combination is less referred to as an Anna Kournikova, derived from the initials AK and because it "looks good but wins."
Hands can be named according to their shapes.
Texas hold 'em
Texas hold'em is a variation of the card game of poker. Two cards, known as hole cards, are dealt face down to each player, five community cards are dealt face up in three stages; the stages consist of a series of three cards an additional single card, a final card. Each player seeks the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards of the five community cards and their two hole cards. Players have betting options to check, raise, or fold. Rounds of betting take place before the flop is dealt and after each subsequent deal; the player who has the best hand and has not folded by the end of all betting rounds wins all of the money bet for the hand, known as the pot. Texas hold'em is the H game featured in HORSE and in HOSE. In Texas hold'em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves; because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based either on the hand they are holding, or on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands. A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; the other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded. The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to make mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, call—or fold. By making such decisions to place influential bets, one can non-verbally represent or suggest holding or not-holding a certain or possible hand by either betting or not-betting pre-flop, by venturing smaller or larger bets or raises at more advantageous times, throughout the stages of the hand being dealt. One's pattern of betting may encourage opponents to bet or to fold, without verbalizing a discouraging or dishonest word; the winning poker players know how to enhance their opponents' betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
Although little is known about the invention of Texas hold'em, the Texas Legislature recognizes Robstown, Texas, as the game's birthplace, dating it to the early 1900s. After the game spread throughout Texas, hold'em was introduced to Las Vegas in 1963 at the California Club by Corky McCorquodale; the game became popular and spread to the Golden Nugget and Dunes. In 1967, a group of Texan gamblers and card players, including Crandell Addington, Doyle Brunson, Amarillo Slim were playing in Las Vegas; this is. Addington said the first time he saw the game was in 1959. "They didn't call it Texas hold'em at the time, they just called it hold'em.… I thought that if it were to catch on, it would become the game. Draw poker, you bet only twice; that meant. This was more of a thinking man's game."For several years the Golden Nugget Casino in Downtown Las Vegas was the only casino in Las Vegas to offer the game. At that time, the Golden Nugget's poker room was "truly a'sawdust joint,' with…oiled sawdust covering the floors."
Because of its location and decor, this poker room did not receive many rich drop-in clients, as a result, professional players sought a more prominent location. In 1969, the Las Vegas professionals were invited to play Texas hold'em at the entrance of the now-demolished Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip; this prominent location, the relative inexperience of poker players with Texas hold'em, resulted in a remunerative game for professional players. After a failed attempt to establish a "Gambling Fraternity Convention", Tom Moore added the first poker tournament to the Second Annual Gambling Fraternity Convention held in 1969; this tournament featured. In 1970, Benny and Jack Binion acquired the rights to this convention, renamed it the World Series of Poker, moved it to their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, in Las Vegas. After its first year, a journalist, Tom Thackrey, suggested that the main event of this tournament should be no-limit Texas hold'em; the Binions agreed and since no-limit Texas hold'em has been played as the main event.
Interest in the main event continued to grow over the next two decades. After receiving only eight entrants in 1972, the numbers grew to over one hundred entrants in 1982, over two hundred in 1991. During this time, B & G Publishing Co. Inc. published Doyle Brunson's revolutionary poker strategy guide, Super/System. Despite being self-published and priced at $100 in 1978, the book revolutionized the way poker was played, it was one of the first books to discuss Texas hold'em, is today cited as one of the most important books on this game. In 1983, Al Alvarez published The Biggest Game in Town, a book detailing a 1981 World Series of Poker event; the first book of its kind, it described the world of professional poker players and the World Series of Poker. Alvarez's book is credited with begin
Betting in poker
In the game of poker, the play centers on the act of betting, as such, a protocol has been developed to speed up play, lessen confusion, increase security while playing. Different games are played using different types of bets, small variations in etiquette exist between cardrooms, but for the most part the following rules and protocol are observed by the majority of poker players. Players in a poker game act in clockwise rotation; when it is a player's turn to act, the first verbal declaration or action they take binds them to their choice of action. Until the first bet is made each player in turn may "check,", to not place a bet, or "open,", to make the first bet. After the first bet each player may "fold,", to drop out of the hand losing any bets they have made. A player may fold by surrendering one's cards. A player may check by making any similar motion. All other bets are made by placing chips in front of the player, but not directly into the pot. In general, the person to the left of the dealer acts first and action proceeds in a clockwise fashion.
If any player has folded earlier, action proceeds to next player. In games with blinds, the first round of betting begins with the player to the left of the blinds. In stud games, action begins with the player showing the strongest proceeds clockwise. If there is a bring-in, the first round of betting begins with the player obliged to post the bring-in. If no one has yet opened the betting round, a player may pass or check, equivalent to betting zero and/or to calling the current bet of zero; when checking, a player declines to make a bet. In games played with blinds, players may not check on the opening round because the blinds are live bets and must be called or raised to remain in the hand. A player who has posted the big blind has the right to raise on the first round, called the option, if no other player has raised. If all players check, the betting round is over with no additional money placed in the pot. A common way to signify checking is to tap the table, either with a fist, knuckles, an open hand or the index finger.
If in any betting round it is a player's turn to act and the action is unopened the player can open action in a betting round by making a bet—the act of making the first voluntary bet in a betting round is called opening the round. On the first betting round, it is called opening the pot, though in variants where blind bets are common, the blind bets "open" the first betting round and other players call and/or raise the "big blind" bet; some poker variations have special rules about opening a round. For example, a game may have a betting structure that specifies different allowable amounts for opening than for other bets, or may require a player to hold certain cards to open. A player makes a bet by placing the chips they wish to wager into the pot. Under normal circumstances, all other players still in the pot must either call the full amount of the bet or raise if they wish remain in, the only exceptions being when a player does not have sufficient stake remaining to call the full amount of the bet or when the player is all-in.
To raise is to increase the size of an existing bet in the same betting round. A player making the second or subsequent raise of a betting round is said to re-raise. A player making a raise after checking in the same betting round is said to check-raise; the sum of the opening bet and all raises is the amount that all players in the hand must call in order to remain eligible to win the pot, subject to the table stakes rules described in the previous paragraph. A bluff is when a player bets or raises when it is they do not have the best hand; when a player bets or raises with a weak hand that has a chance of improvement on a betting round, the bet or raise is classified as a semi-bluff. On the other hand, a bet made by a player who hopes or expects to be called by weaker hands is classified as a value bet. In no-limit and pot-limit games, there is a minimum amount, required to be bet in order to open the action. In games with blinds, this amount is the amount of the big blind. Standard poker rules require that raises must be at least equal to the amount of the previous bet or raise.
For example, if an opponent bets $5, a player must raise by at least another $5, they may not raise by only $2. If a player raises a bet of $5 by $7, the next re-raise would have to be by at least another $7 more than the $12; the primary purpose of the minimum raise rule is to avoid game delays caused by "nuisance" raises (small raises of large bets, such as an extra $1 over a current bet of $50, that have little effect on the action but take time as all others m