Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge is located in the fertile Willamette Valley of northwestern Oregon, 12 miles south of Salem. The valley was once a rich mix of wildlife habitats. Valley wetlands were once extensive, with meandering vast seasonal marshes. Today, the valley is a mix of farmland and growing cities, with few areas remaining for wildlife; the refuge is situated in open farmland near the confluence of the Santiam and Willamette rivers in the middle of the broad Willamette Valley. Elevations range between 180 and 290 feet MSL; the Willamette Valley, with its mild, rainy winter climate, is an ideal environment for wintering waterfowl. The refuge consists of 1,765 acres of cropland, which provide forage for wintering geese, 600 acres of riparian zone forests, 500 acres of shallow water seasonal wetlands; as with the other refuges within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Complex, the primary management goal of Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge is to provide high quality wintering habitat for geese the dusky Canada goose, to ensure healthy, viable goose populations while minimizing goose browse damage to crops on private agricultural lands.
Unlike most other Canada geese, dusky Canada geese have limited winter ranges. They nest on Alaska's Copper River Delta and winter exclusively in the Willamette Valley. Habitat loss and hunting caused a decrease in their population; the Willamette Valley refuges incorporate an intensive cooperative farming program in order to provide high protein browse for seven subspecies of wintering Canada geese, with primary emphasis on the dusky subspecies. Under cooperative agreements, area farmers plant refuge fields; some fields are planted annually and others are mowed or burned to produce the tender, nutritious grasses preferred by geese. The geese need water for resting and foraging habitat. Many refuge wetlands occur naturally. In some low-lying areas of the refuge, wetlands that were drained or channelized by previous owners have been restored to increase diversity and desirability of habitat for wildlife; the majority of wetlands are being managed as moist soil units, to promote growth of wetland food plants used as food by waterfowl and other wildlife.
By resting in undisturbed areas on the refuges, wintering geese regain energy reserves required for migration and nesting. This sanctuary reduces depredation problems on neighboring private lands by encouraging waterfowl to use refuge resources; because of their need for a quiet resting area, waterfowl habitat is closed to public entry while the geese are in residence in order to minimize human disturbance. The refuge has increased efforts to restore and expand riparian forest and wet prairie habitats. Ankeny NWR provides habitat for a wide variety of other bird species, as well as mammals and amphibians. Wildlife and wild-lands observation, photography and environmental education and interpretation are the major public use activities allowed on the refuge. Visitor facilities include Ankeny Hill Overlook on Ankeny Hill Road and Eagle Marsh Kiosk on Buena Vista Road. Trails include the Rail Trail, both on Wintel Road. Provide winter habitat for the dusky Canada goose and other migratory waterfowl protect and enhance populations of threatened and endangered species maintain habitats for indigenous species and perpetuate natural diversity provide for environmental education and wildlife oriented recreation Hiking Wildlife observation Environmental education Photography List of National Wildlife Refuges "Welcome".
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. FWS. "Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge Overview". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Willamette National Forest
The Willamette National Forest is a National Forest located in the central portion of the Cascade Range of the U. S. state of Oregon. It comprises 1,678,031 acres. Over 380,000 acres are designated wilderness. There are several National Wild and Scenic Rivers within the forest; the forest is named for the Willamette River. The forest headquarters are located in the city of Springfield. There are local ranger district offices in McKenzie Bridge, Sweet Home, Westfir; the forest is famous for being at the center of the controversy between the logging industry and the endangered species status of the northern spotted owl. Environmentalists maintain that the forest was aggressively clear-cut for many years threatening a federally listed endangered species; the timber industry contends that the forest can provide lumber jobs and wildlife habitat. Since April 1994, the forest is governed by the Northwest Forest Plan, which restricts, but does not eliminate, logging in potential spotted owl habitat; the forest stretches for over 100 miles along the western slopes of the Cascade Range in Western Oregon.
It extends from the Mount Jefferson area east of Salem to the Calapooya Ridge which divides the watersheds of the Willamette and Umpqua rivers. Most of the forest is located in Lane County, but there are large areas in Linn and Douglas counties, as well as much smaller areas in Clackamas and Jefferson counties; the elevation of the forest ranges from about 1,500 feet above sea level on the western edge of the forest to 10,500 feet at the top of Mount Jefferson, Oregon's second highest peak. Seven major peaks of the Cascades—Mount Jefferson, Mount Washington, Three Fingered Jack, Diamond Peak, North and South Sisters—as well as numerous high mountain lakes are within these wilderness areas; the McKenzie River and the North Fork Middle Fork Willamette River are Scenic rivers. The Willamette National Forest receives 80 to 150 inches of precipitation each year from moist onshore Pacific Ocean flow which encounters adiabatic cooling rising over the Cascades. Much of the precipitation is received in the form of snow which accumulates in higher elevations from October through April.
The rain and snow melt drain into the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, which flow from the forest and provide high-quality drinking water to Eugene, Salem and Albany. There streams in the forest and over 375 lakes; the forest's dominant tree species is the state tree of Oregon. Douglas-fir is a valuable timber species in the United States; the forest contains some stands of old-growth forest, some of which are over 300 feet tall, among the tallest trees in the world, with tree diameters ranging from 3 to 8 feet.. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Over one dozen other conifer species are common on the forest, including western redcedar, incense-cedar, western white pine, ponderosa pine, Pacific yew, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, several species of fir; the Willamette National Forest is home to over 300 species of fish and wildlife, including the northern spotted owl, mule deer, bald eagle, Chinook salmon, black-tailed deer, bull trout, black bear, southern red-backed vole, elk and several other sensitive and threatened species.
This section includes edited text from the Willamette National Forest website, in the public domain. The Cascade Forest Reserve was created in September 1893 by proclamation of President Grover Cleveland; this proclamation was in response to numerous petitions from local citizens requesting protection of the Cascade mountain range. The Cascade Forest Reserve stretched from the Columbia River to the California border. From 1893 to 1897, the Cascade Forest Reserve was managed as a preserve; the Sundry Civil Appropriations Act of June 1897 appropriated funds for management of the national forest reserves and mandated management goals. Those management goals included: "…securing favorable conditions of water flows, to furnish a continuous supply of timber for the use and necessities of the citizens of the United States", protection of the forests from destruction by fire and depredations, development of mineral resources, among other provisions; the Organic Act led to establishment of forest reserve boundaries, forest supervisors, forest ranger patrol districts.
Addie Morris and Cy Bingham were noteworthy early rangers in areas that would become the Willamette National Forest. In 1908, the Cascade Forest Reserve was divided into the Oregon National Forest, the Cascade National Forest, the Umpqua National Forest and the Crater National Forest. In 1911, the Santiam National Forest was created from parts of the Oregon National Forest and the Cascade NF; the Deschutes National Forest was created from the portions. In 1933, the Santiam National Forest and the Cascade National Forest were combined to form the Willamette National Forest; the period of 1905 to 1933 featured decentralized administration for the forests of the western Cascades. Forest and district administrative boundaries were further refined; the Forest Service made efforts to establish relationships with local communities and with the forest users. This was a time of extensive recreation planning in the western Cascades. A fire control organization was built. Mining claims were established, the first large timber sales were sold near Detroit and Oakridge.
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
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Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuge
Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the Oregon Coast. It is one of six National Wildlife Refuges in the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Located on Cape Meares, the refuge was established in 1938 to protect a remnant of coastal old-growth forest and the surrounding habitat used by breeding seabirds; the area provides a home for a threatened bird species, the marbled murrelets. Peregrine falcons, once at the brink of extinction, have nested here since 1987; the refuge, with the exception of the Oregon Coast Trail, was designated a Research Natural Area in 1987. The Cape Meares Light, which marked the cape at night from 1890 until 1963, is now open to the public. Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge and Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge are seen from the cape, it is the only point in the United States. The Oregon Coast Trail passes through the center of this headland and interpretive displays along the trail describe the varied wildlife. From this trail, it is possible to see migrating gray whales, three species of scoters, western grebes, common loons.
A wildlife viewing deck, part of the Cape Meares State Scenic Viewpoint, provides views of the refuge's sea cliffs and inshore islands. In season, visitors can see the aerie of a nesting peregrine falcon pair; each spring thousands of seabirds return to nest on the cliffs. Species that can be seen are brants, pelagic cormorants, common murres, tufted puffins, pigeon guillemots, western gulls, black oystercatchers; this state park has 3 miles of hiking trails and a 1-mile walking trail through the forest of sitka spruce and western hemlock. Some of the trees on the refuge are hundreds of years more than 200 feet tall; the Cape Meares Giant, a sitka spruce, is of special interest. After the Great Coastal Gale of 2007 killed the Klootchy Creek Giant, once considered the largest sitka spruce in the world, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service granted a special use permit to Ascending the Giants, a Portland based organization, which allowed them to climb and measure the Cape Meares Giant. Based on the results, the FWS issued a press release in February 2008 that announced that the tree is the largest known Sitka spruce in the state and that it was designated an Oregon Heritage Tree.
Oregon's actual largest Sitka Spruce, using a point system, is Falcon's Tower and measured by Certified Arborist M. D. Vaden. Cape Meares Giant Spruce had only 743 points, whereas Falcon's Tower was documented at 750 points by M. D. Vaden. Falcon's Tower is between Cannon Beach and Manzanita, Oregon. List of National Wildlife Refuges
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is a protected area in the northern Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon in the United States. The 4,554-acre park, including the marble cave, is 20 miles east of Cave Junction, on Oregon Route 46; the protected area, managed by the National Park Service, is in southwestern Josephine County, near the Oregon–California border. Elijah Davidson, a resident of nearby Williams, discovered the cave in 1874. Over the next two decades, private investors failed in efforts to run successful tourist ventures at the publicly owned site. After passage of the Antiquities Act by the United States Congress, in 1909 President William Howard Taft established Oregon Caves National Monument, to be managed by the United States Forest Service; the growing popularity of the automobile, construction of paved highways, promotion of tourism by boosters from Grants Pass led to large increases in cave visitation during the late 1920s and thereafter. Among the attractions at the remote monument is the Oregon Caves Chateau, a six-story hotel built in a rustic style in 1934.
It is a National Historic Landmark and is part of the Oregon Caves Historic District within the monument. The NPS, which assumed control of the monument in 1933, offers tours of the cave from mid-April through early November. In 2014, the protected area was expanded by about 4,000 acres and re-designated a National Monument and Preserve. At the same time, the segment of the creek that flows through the cave was renamed for the mythological Styx and added to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Oregon Caves is a solutional cave, with passages totaling about 15,000 feet, formed in marble; the parent rock was limestone that metamorphosed to marble during the geologic processes that created the Klamath Mountains, including the Siskiyous. Although the limestone formed about 190 million years ago, the cave itself is no older than a few million years. Valued as a tourist cave, the cavern has scientific value. Activities at the park include cave touring, hiking and wildlife viewing. One of the park trails leads through the forest to Big Tree, which at 13 feet is the widest Douglas fir known in Oregon.
Lodging and food are available in Cave Junction. Camping is available in the preserve at the Cave Creek Campground, at a local USFS campground, private sites in the area. Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is in the Siskiyou Mountains, a coastal range, part of the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon; the monument consists of 484 acres in the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest, about 6 miles north of the Oregon–California border in Josephine County. Elevations within the monument range from 3,680 to 5,480 feet. Mount Elijah in the preserve rises to 6,390 feet. In December 2014, the U. S. Congress enlarged the protected area that includes the cave and changed its name from Oregon Caves National Monument to Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve; the preserve covers 4,070 acres, both it and the monument, which abuts the preserve, are administered by the same staff. By highway, Oregon Caves is 55 miles southwest of Grants Pass, 300 miles south of Portland and 450 miles north of San Francisco.
The caves are 20 miles east of the small city of Cave Junction via Oregon Route 46 off U. S. Route 199; the main cave has known passages totaling about 15,000 feet in length. Eight separate smaller caves have been discovered in the monument. Runoff from the wooded monument forms small headwater streams of the Illinois River, a major tributary of the Rogue River. One of five small springs in the monument becomes Upper Cave Creek, which flows on the surface before disappearing into its bed and entering the cave. Supplemented by water entering the cave from above, the stream emerges from the main entrance as Cave Creek. Within the cave, Cave Creek is known as the River Styx, named for the river Styx of Greek mythology connecting Earth to the Underworld. In late 2014, Congress added the River Styx to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, which added a level of protection aimed at keeping the stream free-flowing in perpetuity, it is the only subterranean river in the Wild Rivers system. Archeologists believe the first humans to inhabit the Rogue River region were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
Radiocarbon dating suggests. At least 1,500 years before the first contact with whites, the natives established permanent villages along streams. So, no evidence has been found to suggest that any of the native peoples, such as the Takelma who lived along the Rogue and Applegate rivers in the 19th century, used the cave. Bypassed by the early non-native explorers, fur traders, settlers because of its remote location, the region attracted newcomers in quantity when prospectors found gold near Jacksonville in the Rogue River valley in 1851; this led to the creation of Jackson County in 1852 and, after gold discoveries near Waldo in the Illinois River valley, the creation of Josephine County, named for the daughter of a gold miner. With an influx of miners and of settlers who farmed donation land claims, Josephine County's population was only 1,204 in 1870. Elijah Jones Davidson, who discovered the cave in 1874, had emigrated from Illinois to Oregon with his parents, who settled along Williams Creek in Josephine County.
Williams, as the community came to be called, is about 12 miles northeast of the cave. Only a few people visited the cave during the next de
Malheur National Forest
The Malheur National Forest is a National Forest in the U. S. state of Oregon. It contains more than 1.4 million acres in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. The forest consists of high desert grasslands, juniper, pine and other tree species. Elevations vary from about 4,000 feet to the 9,038-foot peak of Strawberry Mountain; the Strawberry Mountains extend east to west through the center of the forest. U. S. Route 395 runs south to north through the forest, while U. S. Route 26 runs east to west; the forest was established by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 13, 1908, is named after the Malheur River, from the French, meaning "misfortune". It is managed by the United States Forest Service for timber extraction, cattle grazing, gold mining and wilderness use. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. In descending order of land area, the forest is located in parts of Grant, Harney and Malheur counties. There are three ranger districts in the forest, with offices in John Day, Prairie City, Hines.
The Malheur National Forest contains the largest known organism in the world: an Armillaria solidipes that spans 2,200 acres. There are two wilderness areas in the Malheur National Forest. Strawberry Mountain Wilderness at 68,700 acres Monument Rock Wilderness at 19,620 acres, located within the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Vinegar Hill-Indian Rock Scenic Area, a high-elevation scenic area in the northeast portion of the forest Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, a federally protected refuge to the south of the forest Malheur National Forest home page Cedar Grove Botanical Area