State Legislative Assembly (India)

The State Legislative Assembly is a legislative body in the states and union territories of India. In the 22 states and 3 union territories with a unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative body and in 6 states it is the lower house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being State Legislative Council. 5 Union territories are governed directly by the Union Government of India and have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members. A State Legislative Assembly may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the ruling majority party or coalition.

To become a Member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, should be mentally sound, should not be bankrupt, must be enrolled on the voters' list of the state for which he or she is contesting an election. He or she may not be a Member of Parliament, he or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly. If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and her/his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the State Legislative Council, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days.

In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of State Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, State Legislative Council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. In addition to that, twenty-four more seats are reserved for the representatives from Pakistan-administered Kashmir and not counted normally. ‡ – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the members nominated by the Union Government of India. State Legislature Lower house Lok Sabha Central Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012 Bihar State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2015

Agathotoma castellata

Agathotoma castellata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. The length of the shell attains its diameter 2 1⁄2 mm; the white, turreted shell contains 6 to 7 whorls, of which two in the protoconch. This is a elegantly formed shell; the whorls are narrower at the base than above. The plicate ribs are prominent and the penultimate on the body whorl is remote from that which forms the outer lip; as they are rather produced at the upper end the whorls have a somewhat castellated appearance, in all the four examples which I have examined they are continuous up the spire. The aperture is narrow; the siphonal canal is truncate. This species occurs in the Caribbean Sea off Aruba. Rolán E. Fernández-Garcés E. & Redfern C. New description of four new species of the genus Agathotoma in the Caribbean. Novapex 13: 45-62 "Agathotoma castellata". Retrieved 15 January 2019. Tucker, J. K. 2004 "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682:1-1295. MNHN, Paris: Agathotoma castellata


Trailwalker or Oxfam Trailwalker and the related Trailtrekker are fundraising endurance events conducted across the world by Oxfam, in which teams of four competitors must complete a course of 100 kilometres in a set time limit - between 24 and 48 hours. The routes may follow a circular route returning to the start; the event was established in 1981 by Brigadier Mervyn Lee in Hong Kong as a training exercise by the Queen's Gurkha Signals, part of the Brigade of Gurkhas of the British Army, at the time based in the British colony. In 1986, teams of civilians were allowed to take part and Oxfam Hong Kong was invited to co-organise the event. In 1997, with the handover of Hong Kong to China, the Gurkha regiments were relocated to the United Kingdom; the Trailwalker event followed the Gurkhas' relocation and was organised over the South Downs in Sussex, with Oxfam in the UK acting as partner since 2002, alongside the Gurkha Welfare Trust. Oxfam Hong Kong continued to organise the original event without the Gurkhas and the event has grown with 17 events now taking place across 10 countries worldwide.

In 2017, Ian Crawford of Petersfield, continuing his support of the Gurkha Welfare Trust and aged 74 years old, completed a record 19th UK Trailwalker in a time of 29hrs 34mins. There are some common rules across all the Trailtrekker events; each team must have four members, who are required to cross all checkpoints and finish line together, although teams may continue with only three members if one has to retire. The Trailwalker event course, referred to as'the trail,' is 100 kilometres long. Participants should organise a support team and start their training schedule at least three months before the event. All teams must raise a minimum sponsorship amount. Failure to raise the stated amount could mean. Teams failing to meet the required amount approx $1600 are given an opportunity in the next years event with no refunds on entry fees and fund raised. Teams raising over the threshold will take priority in registering for Oxfam Trailwalker next year. In mid-2010, Upward Bound Unlimited, a Macau-based company which organizes sports tourism events in the Pearl River Delta region, Macau's main English-language daily newspaper, the Macau Daily Times, announced that a cross-country hiking event called "Macau TrailWalker" would be held in the year with the support of the local Macau authorities.

The event was held on 9 October 2010 on the outer island of Coloane and consisted of a 30 km category and a 12 km category. Prior to the event, Oxfam Hong Kong issued a press release stating among other things that it was not associated with the event or any of its organizers, that it did not approve nor endorse the event, that no sponsorship money from the event would be used in any Oxfam aid work, that it "reserved the right to take appropriate legal action to protect the Trailwalker name". Oxfam Trailwalker Hong Kong Oxfam Trailwalker Japan UK Oxfam Trailwalker Oxfam Trailwalker Melbourne Oxfam Trailwalker Sydney Oxfam Trailwalker Brisbane New Zealand Oxfam Trailwalker Oxfam Trailwalker France Oxfam Trailwalker Canada Oxfam Novib Trailwalker Netherlands Oxfam Trailwalker Germany Oxfam Trailwalker Belgium Spain - Intermon Oxfam Trailwalker Oxfam Trailwalker India