Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc, in French Jeanne d'Arc or Jehanne, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War; the uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims; this long-awaited event paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English, she was handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.
After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte, she was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting and other cultural works since the time of her death, many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created, continue to create, cultural depictions of her; the Hundred Years' War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace.
Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, the English army's use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. The French population had not regained its former size since the Black Death of the mid-14th century, its merchants were isolated from foreign markets. Before the appearance of Joan of Arc, the English had nearly achieved their goal of a dual monarchy under English control and the French army had not achieved any major victories for a generation. In the words of DeVries, "The kingdom of France was not a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype."The French king at the time of Joan's birth, Charles VI, suffered from bouts of insanity and was unable to rule. The king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, the king's cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children; this dispute included accusations that Louis was having an extramarital affair with the queen, Isabeau of Bavaria, allegations that John the Fearless kidnapped the royal children.
The conflict climaxed with the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407 on the orders of the Duke of Burgundy. The young Charles of Orléans succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, the Count of Armagnac, their faction became known as the "Armagnac" faction, the opposing party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the "Burgundian faction". Henry V of England took advantage of these internal divisions when he invaded the kingdom in 1415, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt on 25 October and subsequently capturing many northern French towns. In 1418 Paris was taken by the Burgundians, who massacred the Count of Armagnac and about 2,500 of his followers; the future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen, after all four of his older brothers had died in succession. His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419; this ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection.
The new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles for the murder and entered into an alliance with the English. The allied forces conquered large sections of France. In 1420 the queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, signed the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the succession of the French throne to Henry V and his heirs instead of her son Charles; this agreement revived suspicions that the Dauphin may have been the illegitimate product of Isabeau's rumored affair with the late duke of Orléans rather than the son of King Charles VI. Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, acted as regent. By the time Joan of Arc began to influence events in 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under Anglo-Burgundian control; the English controlled Paris and Rouen while the Burgundian faction controlled Reims, which had served as the traditional coronation site for French kings since 816.
This was an important consideration since neither claimant to the throne of France had been crowned yet. In 1428 the English had begun the siege of Orléans, one of the few remaining cities still loyal to Charles VII and an important objective since it held a strategic position along the Loire River, which ma
University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria. Melbourne is a sandstone university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21 and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university. There are 10 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Melbourne comprises 11 separate academic units and is associated with numerous institutes and research centres, including the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research and the Grattan Institute.
Amongst Melbourne's 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School and the Melbourne Medical School are well regarded. Times Higher Education ranked Melbourne 32nd globally in 2017-2018, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 38th in the world, in the QS World University Rankings 2019 Melbourne ranks 39th globally and ranked sixth in the world according to the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings. Four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from the University of Melbourne. Ten Nobel laureates have been the most of any Australian university; the University of Melbourne was established by Hugh Childers, the Auditor-General and Finance Minister, in his first Budget Speech on 4 November 1852, who set aside a sum of £10,000 for the establishment of a university. The university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music; the act provided for an annual endowment of £9,000, while a special grant of £20,000 was made for buildings that year.
The foundation stone was laid on 3 July 1854, on the same day the foundation stone for the State Library Classes commenced in 1855 with three professors and sixteen students. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham, on 3 October 1855; the first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880. The inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victoria's gold rush; the institution was designed to be a "civilising influence" at a time of rapid settlement and commercial growth. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the more conservative ruling council; the university's 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003. The Melbourne School of Land and Environment was disestablished on the first of January, 2015, its agriculture and food systems department moved alongside veterinary science to form the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, while other areas of study, including horticulture, forestry and resource management, moved to the Faculty of Science in two new departments.
As of May 2009 the university "suspended" the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. A 2005 heads of agreement over the merger of the VCA and the university stated that the management of academic programs at the VCA would ensure that "the VCA continues to exercise high levels of autonomy over the conduct and future development of its academic programs so as to ensure their integrity and quality" and that the college's identity will be preserved. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the university's plan for the college in early April 2009; as a result, it is now being called into question. Staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA. Former Victorian arts minister Race Mathews has weighed in on the debate expressing his hope that, "Melbourne University will not proceed with its proposed changes to the Victorian College of the Arts", for'good sense' to prevail.
In 2011, the Victorian State Government allocated $24 million to support arts education at the VCA and the faculty was renamed the Faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts and the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music. The Parkville Campus is the primary campus of the university. Established in a large area north of Grattan Street in Parkville, the campus has expanded well beyond its boundaries, with many of its newly acquired buildings located in the nearby suburb of Carlton; the university is undertaking an'ambitious infrastructure program' to reshape campuses. Melbourne University has 10 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the cricket oval at the northern edge of the campus, known as College Crescent; the other three are located outside of university grounds. The residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Most of the university's residential colleges admit students from RMIT University and Monash University, Parkville campus, with selected colleges accepting students from the Australian Catholic University and Victoria University.
Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, feature period architecture. The new Wilson Hall replaced th
John Pascoe Fawkner
John Pascoe Fawkner was an early Australian pioneer and politician of Melbourne, Australia. In 1835 he financed a party of free settlers from Van Diemen's Land, to sail to the mainland in his ship, Enterprize. Fawkner's party sailed to Port Phillip and up the Yarra River to found a settlement which became the city of Melbourne. John Pascoe Fawkner was born near Cripplegate London in 1792 to John Fawkner and his wife Hannah née Pascoe, whose parents were Cornish; as a 10-year-old, he accompanied his convict father, sentenced to fourteen years gaol for receiving stolen goods, being transported on HMS Calcutta—alongside his mother and younger sister Elizabeth— as part of a two ship fleet to establish a new British colony in Bass Strait in 1803. The colony landed at Sullivan Bay, near modern-day Sorrento, the next day Fawkner turned 11. For several months the colony struggled to survive. There were some 27 convict escape attempts, including that of William Buckley. Lack of wood and fresh water persuaded Lieutenant-Governor David Collins to abandon the colony in 1804 with the settlers and convicts departing for the new town of Hobart in Van Diemen's Land.
In 1806 the family obtained a farm, upon which he worked without horses, without capital, with scarcely any other appliances than a spade and a hoe. At eighteen years of age he apprenticed himself to a builder and a sawyer, laboured for some years in a saw-pit. In Hobart the young Fawkner assisted his father in his bakery, timber business and brewery and soon afterwards fell into trouble. A letter dated 19 October 1814 from Lieut.-governor Davey to Lieutenant Jeffreys instructs him that he is to receive on board John Fawkner, "one of those persons who absconded from the settlements after committing some most atrocious robberys and depredations, is under sentence of transportation for five years. This gives a misleading account of. Fawkner's account of this incident, which appears to have been true, was that "a party of prisoners, determined to escape, sought his assistance and that in a moment of foolish sympathy he undertook to help them". In December 1819 transported convict, Eliza Cobb, John Pascoe Fawkner loaded up a cart and moved to Launceston.
They were married on 5 December 1822, with a permit from Governor George Arthur. They established a bakery, timber business, bookshop, a newspaper The Launceston Advertiser in 1829, nursery and orchard. Soon after Eliza had received a pardon, Fawkner obtained a licence to run the Cornwall Hotel in 1826. In April 1835, John Pascoe Fawkner purchased the topsail schooner, Enterprize, to search for a suitable settlement site in the Port Phillip District. John Batman led an exploring party to Port Phillip District in May 1835, on board the schooner Rebecca, he explored a large area in what is now the northern suburbs of Melbourne, as far north as Keilor, saw it as ideal country for a sheep run, before returning to Launceston. When the Enterprize was ready to leave in August 1835, at the last moment creditors prevented Fawkner from joining the voyage. On board the Enterprize as it departed George Town, were Captain John Lancey, Master Mariner. On 15 August 1835, Enterprize entered the Yarra River. After being hauled upstream, she moored at the foot of the present day William Street.
On 30 August 1835 the settlers disembarked to build their store and clear land to grow vegetables. The Fawkners arrived in the Port Phillip District, on Friday, 16 October 1835, on the second trip of the Enterprize. Fawkner's diary reads:'Warped up to the Basin, landed 2 cows, 2 calves and the 2 horses.' Fawkner was keen to secure his place in history. He opened Melbourne's first hotel on the corner of Flinders Lane, he published the Melbourne Advertiser on 1 January 1838, the district's first newspaper. The Advertiser's first nine or ten weekly editions were handwritten in ink; the old wooden printing press brought to Tasmania by Lt. Governor David Collins in 1803, some worn typeface were obtained from Launceston and the first printed edition appeared on 5 March 1838, it was to last for a further 17 editions when it was closed down on 23 April 1838 for want of a newspaper licence from Sydney. The Port Phillip Patriot and Melbourne Advertiser was commenced on 6 February 1839 by newly licensed John Pascoe Fawkner.
It was published daily commencing on 15 May 1845. Fawkner acquired a property in 1839 as one of eleven lots in the subdivision of the Coburg district by the government surveyor, Robert Hoddle; the property was called Pascoeville, was bounded by the Moonee Ponds Creek, Gaffney Street, Northumberland Road and the western prolongation of Boundary Road. He lived at his farmhouse and at his town-house in Collingwood between 1840 and 1855. In 1842 Fawkner was elected one of the Market Commissioners, in 1843 a town councillor, an office which he held for many years. On 18 September 1851 Fawkner was elected to the first Victorian Legislative Council for Talbot and Angelsey, held the seat until the original Council was abolished in March 1856. In November 1856 Fawkner was elected to the first Parliament of the self-governing colony of Victoria, as a m
Swanston Street, Melbourne
Swanston Street is a major thoroughfare in the centre of Melbourne, Australia. It is one of the main streets of the Melbourne central business district and was laid out in 1837 as part of the original Hoddle Grid; the street vertically bisects Melbourne's city centre and is famous as the world's busiest tram corridor, for its heritage buildings and as a shopping strip. Swanston Street runs north-south in-between Russell Street to the east and Elizabeth Street to the west. To the south it becomes St Kilda Road after the intersection with Flinders Street, whilst the road's northern end is in the suburb of Carlton at Melbourne Cemetery; this northern section was named Madeline Street. The street is named after merchant and politician Charles Swanston. Swanston Street was one of the main north–south streets laid out in the 1837 Hoddle Grid. Carrying pedestrians and horse-drawn cart traffic, the street resembled many typical European avenues of the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century it was carrying one of the major tram lines through the city.
With the advent of the automobile in the early 20th century, the street became a major thoroughfare, carrying automobile traffic between areas north of the city and St Kilda Road throughout most of the 20th century. The southern half of the street had problems with heavy traffic and carbon monoxide pollution and loitering, a plethora of discount stores, fast food outlets, sex shops and strip joints, throughout the half of the 20th century. In March 1992 the street was closed to daytime private through-traffic between Flinders and La Trobe Streets half its length; this section is known. Swanston Street was redeveloped in 1992 with a number of public sculptures being established through the Percent for Art Program; the most famous of these statues is of a small bronze dog called Larry La Trobe by Melbourne artist, Pamela Irving. By the turn of the 21st century, the street carried nine tram routes, with the frequency of trams being the highest in Melbourne. In November 2008, newly elected Lord Mayor of Melbourne Robert Doyle proposed to return private vehicle traffic to the street.
The move attracted opposition from the Public Transport Users Association, Australian Greens and Bicycle Victoria. This proposal was rejected and by January 2010, plans to make the entire length of Swanston Street in the city car-free, were announced by the Lord Mayor himself, representing a complete reversal on the issue. Many of Melbourne's most noteworthy precincts and prominent buildings face Swanston Street as the city's historic main avenue, including: Flinders Street railway station Federation Square Young and Jackson Hotel Melbourne Town Hall Capitol Theatre City Square Manchester Unity Building Curtin House QV Village State Library of Victoria Melbourne Central Shopping Centre City BathsBoth the University of Melbourne and RMIT University have campus buildings fronting Swanston Street. Tram routes 1, 3, 5, 6, 16, 64, 67 and 72 run along the street, with the frequency of trams making Swanston Street the world's busiest tram corridor. Two of the busiest railway stations in Melbourne are located near the street, with the suburban railway network hub Flinders Street station at its southern end and, further north, the underground Melbourne Central station at the intersection of La Trobe Street.
Swanston Street is a major route for commuting cyclists to and through the city, with bike lanes from the northern suburbs and from St Kilda Road in the south, the Capital City Trail on the Southbank of the Yarra River. The parking of tour buses along the street caused controversy in September 2008 when a young cyclist was killed by a bus as it turned out of a parking spot. There had been calls to the council to relocate the large buses from the street where there was little space between buses and trams. Swanston Street was served by bus services to Gardenvale and Middle Brighton; when Melbourne-Brighton Bus Lines' licence periodically came up for review, the Melbourne City Council and Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board always opposed. The buses were removed from Swanston Street in October 1989, by which time they were operated by the Public Transport Corporation. Many marches and protests involve the use of Swanston Street, resulting in planned and unexpected road closures, it is used for many annual events, including the Moomba parade, the Anzac Day parade, which passes through much of the city centre, but uses Swanston Street as a centrepiece on its way to the Shrine of Remembrance in St Kilda Road, as well as the AFL Grand Final parade, Melbourne Cup parade and others.
Swanston Street was one of the busiest roads in Melbourne, carrying large private automobile volumes, before being converted to a restricted traffic strip in 1992. The street was made car-free, with limited exemptions for small freight and private automobiles during certain times of the day. Since the 1990s, proposals for the street to become car-free have continuously gained support and momentum. On 27 January 2010, it was announced that the entire length of Swanston Street would become car-free; the $25.6 million proposal included plans for several city squares along the street and several large tram stops. Aside from trams, the only motorised vehicular access is for small-scale freight at certain times, emergency vehicles; the construction program commenced in late 2011 and was completed in late 2012. Swanston Street was the shooting location for the 1976 video for AC/DC's song "It's a Long Way to the Top", it led to a nearby street being renamed ACDC Lane in honour of the music video. It is referenced in The Distillers' song "Dismantle Me", as singer B
Melbourne City Centre
Melbourne City Centre is an area of Melbourne, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria's Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne, it is not to be confused with the larger local government area of the City of Melbourne. It is the core central activities district of Melbourne's inner suburbs and the major central business district of Greater Melbourne's metropolitan area, is a major financial centre in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region; the Hoddle Grid in the City Centre is home to Melbourne's famed alleyways and arcades and is renowned for its distinct blend of contemporary and Victorian architecture as well as expansive parks and gardens which surround its edges. The City Centre is home to five of the six tallest buildings in Australia. In recent times, it has been placed alongside New York City and Berlin as one of the world's great street art meccas, designated a "City of Literature" by UNESCO in its Creative Cities Network.
In April 1835, John Batman, a prominent grazier and a member of the Geelong and Dutigalla Association, sailed from Launceston on the island of Van Diemen's Land, aboard the schooner Rebecca, in search of fresh grazing land in the south-east of the Colony of New South Wales. He sailed across Bass Strait, into the bay of Port Phillip, arrived at the mouth of the Yarra River in May. After exploring the surrounding area, he met with the elders of the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wurundjeri of the Kulin nation alliance, negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres which became known as Batman's Treaty; the transaction, believed to have taken place on the bank of Merri Creek, consisted of an offering of: blankets, mirrors and other such items. The last sentence of Batman's journal entry on this day became famous as the founding charter of the settlement. So the boat went up the large river. And, I am glad to state about six miles up found the river all good water and deep; this will be the place for a village.
— Journal of John Batman. Upon returning to Van Diemen's Land, Batman's treaty was deemed invalid by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, under the Proclamation of Governor Bourke in August 1835, it was the belief of Governor Bourke, as well as the Governor of Van Diemen's Land, Sir George Arthur, that the Aboriginal people did not have any official claims to the lands of the Australian continent. The proclamation formally declared, under the doctrine of terra nullius, that The Crown owned the whole of the Australian continent and that only it alone could sell and distribute land, it therefore voided any contracts or treaties made without the consent of the government, declared any person attempting to rely on such a treaty to be trespassing. However, at the time the proclamation was being drawn up, a prominent businessman from Van Diemen's Land, John Pascoe Fawkner, had funded an expedition to the area. At the same time, the Port Phillip Association had funded a second expedition.
The settlement party aboard the Enterprize entered the Yarra River, anchored close to the site chosen by Batman, on 29 August. The party went ashore the following day and landed their stores and began to construct the settlement; the Association party aboard the Rebecca arrived in September after spending time at a temporary camp at Indented Head, where they encountered William Buckley – an escaped convict, believed dead, living for 32 years with the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wathaurong of the Kulin nation alliance. Batman was dismayed to discover the settlers of the Enterprize had established a settlement in the area and informed the settlers that they were trespassing on the Association's land. However, according to the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, both the parties were in fact trespassing on Crown land; when Fawkner arrived in October, following tense arguments between the two parties, negotiation were made for land to be shared equally. As Fawkner had arrived after the two parties, he was aware of the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, which had gained approval from the Colonial Office in October.
He knew. Land was divided, the settlement existed peacefully, but without a formal system of governance, it was referred to by a number of names, including: "Batmania" and "Bearbrass" of which the latter was agreed upon by Batman and Fawkner. Fawkner assumed a leading role in the establishment of Bearbrass; the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Charles Grant, recognised the settlement's fait accompli that same year, authorised Governor Bourke to transfer Bearbrass to a Crown settlement. Batman and the Port Phillip Association were compensated £7,000 for the land. And, in March 1837, it was renamed "Melbourne" by Governor Bourke in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb; the City Centre is bordered by
Bates Smart is an architectural firm with studios in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1853 by Joseph Reed it is known as one of Australia's oldest architectural firms, has been responsible for numerous landmark buildings. Joseph Reed established his firm on arrival in Melbourne in 1853 and won important commissions such as the Public Library. In 1863 he joined with Frederick Barnes to become Barnes. In 1883 Barnes retired, A. Henderson and F. Smart joined Joseph Reed as partners to create Henderson & Smart. In 1890 Reed died, Henderson withdrew and W Tappin joined creating Reed Smart & Tappin, retaining the deceased partner's great name. In 1907 N. G. Peebles joined creating Smart Tappin & Peebles, but with the rapid departure of Tappin, addition of E Bates, became Bates Pebble & Smart the next year. After Peebles died in 1923, the firm became Bates Smart McCutcheon in 1926 when Osborn McCutcheon became a partner. After 1995 the firm has been known as Bates Smart. Bates Smart website
St Kilda Road, Melbourne
St Kilda Road is a street in Melbourne, Australia. It is part of the locality of Melbourne which has the postcode of 3004, along with Swanston Street forms a major spine of the city. St Kilda Road begins at Flinders Street, in the central business district and crosses Princes Bridge, which spans the Yarra River and connects the central business district of Melbourne with the suburb of St Kilda, ending at Carlisle Street, St Kilda; the road continues as Brighton Road, which becomes Nepean Highway, forming a major arterial connecting the bayside suburbs and Mornington Peninsula to the city. The east side of the road to High Street, Prahran is in the municipality of the City of Melbourne while the west side of the road and the road south of High Street is in the municipality of the City of Port Phillip; the first sale of Crown lands in St. Kilda took place on 7 December 1842. Within a few years, St Kilda became a fashionable area for wealthy settlers, with the high ground above the beach offering a cool fresh breeze during Melbourne's hot summer months.
St Kilda Road was a dirt track. The road was impassable by carriage after rains. Prior to the building of the first bridge spanning the Yarra River in 1844, traffic crossed the river by operated punts. In 1844, a built wooden trestle toll bridge was built across the river at Swanston Street. In 1850, a government-built sandstone free bridge replaced the wooden bridge. In 1853, the Immigrants' Aid Society established the Immigrant's Home in St Kilda Road, which accommodated'neglected' and orphaned children and had a reformatory for children; the Home existed until 1902. In 1854, Kings Domain garden was established. In the same year the government offered four religious groups land on, it offered the Wesleyan Methodist Church 10 acres facing St Kilda Road. It took a while to find sufficient funds to build the actual school; the foundation stone of Wesley College was laid on 4 January 1865 and the school was opened on 11 January 1866. In 1855, the government granted 15 acres on St Kilda Road to the Anglican Church on which Melbourne Grammar School was built.
The foundation stone was laid on 30 July 1856 and the school was opened on 7 April 1858. During the early 1850s, St Kilda Road was the scene of frequent hold-ups by armed bandits and bushrangers which collectively became known as the St Kilda Road robberies. Victoria Barracks were built between 1856 and 1872. In the 1860s, St Kilda was a major bayside resort village. St Kilda Road was a main arterial connecting it with Melbourne, was planned as a wide European-style boulevard to accommodate horse-drawn traffic. Fawkner Park was created in 1862. In 1865 the government made a grant of land on the corner of St. Kilda Road and High Street, Prahran, to the Victorian Deaf and Dumb Institution, which built a blue-stone building which opened in 1866; the Alfred Hospital was established in 1871. From the 1870s, some of Melbourne's wealthiest residents erected grand mansions on significant lots along the street. In 1877, Cooper and Bailey's Great American International Circus set up on the site of the present Arts Centre.
The present Princes Bridge was built in 1888 to replace the 1850 structure, cable trams commenced running from Swanston Street over the bridge along St Kilda Road to Toorak and St Kilda. At this time, the beautiful elm trees were planted along the road; the Prince Henry's Hospital was opened in St Kilda Road in 1885, existed until 1991. Until the end of the 19th century, the Yarra River was subject to regular flooding. A new channel for the Yarra River was dug from 1896 to 1900 to widen the river; the spoil was used to fill the swampy lagoons and brickmakers pits and raise the height of the river bank where Alexandra Gardens now stands. The Gardens were opened in 1901. In 1901 the Arts Centre site became home to a permanent circus, built by the Fitzgerald Brothers' Circus. In 1904, the area of the site not occupied by Fitzgerald's was developed as a fashionable meeting place called Prince's Court; this area featured a Japanese Tea House, open-air theatre, miniature train, water chute and a 15-member military band.
In 1907, Wirth Brother's Circus took over the entire site from Fitzgerald's and remained there for the next 50 years. By 1911 they had built a new circus Hippodrome and a roller skating rink, had leased the original Olympia as a cinema. During World War I some of the buildings were used as nursing homes for nurses. During the 1920s a new Green Mill Dance Hall replaced Olympia Dancing Palace. In 1925, electric trams along St Kilda Road and the side streets replaced cable trams, Prince's Bridge was reinforced to take the extra weight of the new trams; the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation opened a 1300-seat synagogue on the corner of Toorak Road in 1930. During the depression of the 1930s, many of the mansions on St Kilda Road were subdivided into units with extensions to the rear of the buildings, resulting in only a few of them remaining today; the Shrine of Remembrance was completed in September 1934. The Repatriation Commission Outpatient Clinic, the only example of an Art Deco building on St Kilda Rd north of Toorak Rd, was opened on 15 November 1937.
In the 1950s, an effort was made to introduce higher-density residential living to the area. Housing Commission of Victoria flats, like the Stanhill Flats were erected along nearby Queens Road. In the 1960s, local planning agencies changed the zoning from residential to commercial, in an effort to create more office space for a growing loc