A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating power when combined with a generator or producing thrust. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels, gas and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the unit, typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. Benoit Fourneyron, a student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine. A working fluid contains potential energy and kinetic energy, the fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy, the resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy.
There is no change of the fluid or gas in the turbine blades, as in the case of a steam or gas turbine. Before reaching the turbine, the pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively, Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blades on the rotor. Newtons second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines, Impulse turbines are most efficient for use in cases where the flow is low and the inlet pressure is high. Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluids pressure or mass, the pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the stage or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow. The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept.
For compressible working fluids, multiple stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. Newtons third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines, reaction turbines are better suited to higher flow velocities or applications where the fluid head is low. In practice, modern designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated population of 9.4 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States, Chicagoland is the area that is closely linked to the city through geographic, social and cultural ties. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world’s largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees, the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. The Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was originally designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and it comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, the Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States.
The 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,427,676 and this loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues, and other factors. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows, The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. The Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area combines the areas of Chicago, Michigan City. This area represents the extent of the market pool for the entire region. The CSA has a population of 9,928,312, the Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000. The term “urban agglomeration” refers to the contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It usually incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area, Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area. The term Chicagoland has no definition, and the region is often considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA.
Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, mcCormicks conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states. The first usage was in the Tribunes July 27,1926 front page headline, Chicagolands Shrines, A Tour of Discoveries and he stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area. The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, the Chicago Tribunes usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, and the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage, the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. For example, many residents who live in some of the more distant satellite counties nonetheless refer to themselves as being from Chicago or Chicagoans
Demolition is the tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures. Demolition contrasts with deconstruction, which taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable elements for re-use purposes. For small buildings, such as houses, that are two or three stories high, demolition is a rather simple process. The building is pulled down either manually or mechanically using large hydraulic equipment, elevated platforms, cranes. Larger buildings may require the use of a ball, a heavy weight on a cable that is swung by a crane into the side of the buildings. Wrecking balls are especially effective against masonry, but are easily controlled. Newer methods may use rotational hydraulic shears and silenced rock-breakers attached to excavators to cut or break through wood, the use of shears is especially common when flame cutting would be dangerous. The tallest planned demolition of a building was the 47-story Singer Building in New York City, the typical razing of a building is accomplished as follows, Hydraulic excavators may be used to topple one- or two-story buildings by an undermining process.
The strategy is to undermine the building while controlling the manner, the demolition project manager/supervisor will determine where undermining is necessary so that a building is pulled in the desired manner and direction. The walls are typically undermined at a base, but this is not always the case if the building design dictates otherwise. Safety and cleanup considerations are taken into account in determining how the building is undermined. In some cases a crane with a ball is used to demolish the structure down to a certain manageable height. At that point undermining takes place as described above, however crane mounted demolition balls are rarely used within demolition due to the uncontrollable nature of the swinging ball and the safety implications associated. High reach demolition excavators are often used for tall buildings where explosive demolition is not appropriate or possible. Excavators with shear attachments are used to dismantle steel structural elements. Hydraulic hammers are used for concrete structures and concrete processing attachments are used to crush concrete to a manageable size.
To control dust, fire hoses are used to maintain a wet demolition, hoses may be held by workers, secured in fixed location, or attached to lifts to gain elevation. Loaders or bulldozers may be used to demolish a building and they are typically equipped with rakes that are used to ram building walls
The Times of Northwest Indiana
The Times of Northwest Indiana is a daily newspaper headquartered in Munster, Indiana. It is the second-largest newspaper in Indiana, behind only The Indianapolis Star, the paper was founded on June 18,1906, as The Lake County Times. Its founder, Simon McHie, was a native of a town along the Niagara River in Canada. In 1933, the name was changed to The Hammond Times, and it became an afternoon paper serving Hammond, Whiting, in May 1962, the McHie family sold the publication to Robert S. Howard. The paper expanded to all of northwest Indiana in 1967 and dropped Hammond from its masthead to become simply The Times, offices were moved to Munster in 1989, and the paper began morning delivery and began printing different editions based on distribution region. The Howard papers were bought in April 2002 by Lee Enterprises, the Times prints different editions based on delivery region. There are bureau offices in Crown Point, Portage, list of newspapers in Indiana Post-Tribune Official website Lee Enterprises subsidiary profile of The Times
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum, Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar. The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales. It is used in fluorescent lighting, electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light which causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury, Mercury is a heavy, silvery-white liquid metal. Compared to other metals, it is a conductor of heat. It has a point of −38.83 °C and a boiling point of 356.73 °C. Upon freezing, the volume of mercury decreases by 3. 59%, the coefficient of volume expansion is 181.59 × 10−6 at 0 °C,181.71 × 10−6 at 20 °C and 182.50 × 10−6 at 100 °C.
Solid mercury is malleable and ductile and can be cut with a knife, because this configuration strongly resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves similarly to noble gases, which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell, an f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus. Like silver, mercury reacts with hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which are used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury, Mercury dissolves many other metals such as gold and silver to form amalgams. Iron is an exception, and iron flasks have traditionally used to trade mercury. Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese, other elements that do not readily form amalgams with mercury include platinum. Sodium amalgam is a reducing agent in organic synthesis, and is used in high-pressure sodium lamps. Mercury readily combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact, since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth, even small amounts of mercury can seriously corrode aluminium.
For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft, Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Samuel Insull was a British-born American business magnate, an innovator and investor based in Chicago who greatly contributed to creating an integrated electrical infrastructure in the United States. Insull was notable for purchasing utilities and railroads using holding companies and he was responsible for the building of the Chicago Civic Opera House in 1929. Insull was born on 11 November 1859 in London, the son of Samuel Insull, a tradesman and lay preacher who was active in the Temperance movement and he had a brother, Martin Insull. His career began as a clerk for various local businesses at age 14. He went on to become a stenographer at Vanity Fair, through a newspaper ad, the 19-year-old became the switchboard operator for the London office of Edisons telephone companies. When he learned of a job with Edison in the US, Insull indicated he would be glad to have it, in 1881, at the age of 21, Insull emigrated to the US, complete with side whiskers to make him appear older than his years.
In the decade that followed, Insull took on increasing responsibilities in Edisons business endeavors, with several other Edison Pioneers, he founded Edison General Electric, which became the publicly held company now known as General Electric. Insull rose to become vice-president of General Electric in 1889, but was unhappy at not being named its president, when the presidency went to someone else, Insull moved to Chicago as head of the Chicago Edison Company. Another consideration is that he was caught between opposing factions when J. P. Morgan combined the Thomson-Houston Electric Company and Edison General Electric to form the new company in April 1892. Those loyal to Edison accused Insull of selling out, and in fact he did welcome the infusion of capital from Vanderbilt, J. P. Morgan, Edison quickly forgave him, but others did not, and it seemed a good idea to get out of town. The Western Edison Light Co. was founded in Chicago in 1882, in 1887, Western Edison became the Chicago Edison Co.
Insull left General Electric and moved to Chicago in 1892, where he became president of Chicago Edison that year, Chicago Edison was struggling, losing money, until Insull discovered a way to make it profitable during a Christmas visit to Brighton, England in 1894. To his surprise, he saw that the shops were closed, by 1897, Insull had worked out his formulas enough to offer Chicago electric customers two-tiered electric rates. With the new system, many found their bills lowered by 32 percent within a year. In 1897, he incorporated another electric utility, the Commonwealth Electric Light & Power Co, in 1907, Insulls two companies formally merged to create the Commonwealth Edison Co. As more people connected to the electric grid, Insulls company. By 1920, when it used more than two tons of coal annually, the companys 6,000 employees served about 500,000 customers. During the 1920s, its largest generating stations included one on Fisk Street and West 22nd and one on Crawford Avenue, Insull began purchasing portions of the utility infrastructure of the city
In finance, a high-yield bond is a bond that is rated below investment grade. These bonds have a risk of default or other adverse credit events. Sometimes the company can provide new bonds as a part of yield which can only be redeemed after its expiry or maturity. Interest rate risk refers to the risk of the value of a bond changing due to changes in the structure or level of interest rates or credit spreads or risk premiums. A credit rating agency attempts to describe the risk with a rating such as AAA. In North America, the five agencies are Standard & Poors, Fitch Ratings, Dominion Bond Rating Service. Bonds in other countries may be rated by US rating agencies or by credit rating agencies. Rating scales vary, the most popular scale uses ratings of AAA, AA, A, BBB, BB, B, CCC, CC, C, Bonds rated BBB− and higher are called investment grade bonds. Bonds rated lower than investment grade on their date of issue are called speculative grade bonds, the lower-rated debt typically offers a higher yield, making speculative bonds attractive investment vehicles for certain types of portfolios and strategies.
Many pension funds and other investors, are prohibited in their by-laws from investing in bonds which have ratings below a particular level, as a result, the lower-rated securities have a different investor base than investment-grade bonds. The value of bonds is affected to a higher degree than investment grade bonds by the possibility of default. These bonds are called fallen angels, the investment banker Michael Milken realized that fallen angels had regularly been valued less than what they were worth. His time with speculative grade bonds started with his investment in these, only did he and other investment bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert, followed by those of competing firms, begin organizing the issue of bonds that were speculative grade from the start. Speculative grade bonds thus became ubiquitous in the 1980s as a mechanism in mergers. In a leveraged buyout an acquirer would issue speculative grade bonds to pay for an acquisition. In 2005, over 80% of the amount of high-yield debt issued by U. S. companies went toward corporate purposes rather than acquisitions or buyouts.
The corporate bond market has been developing in line with the trend of capital market. High-yield bonds can be repackaged into collateralized debt obligations, thereby raising the credit rating of the senior tranches above the rating of the original debt
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by tronc, Inc. formerly Tribune Publishing. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, publishing its first edition on June 10,1847. The paper saw numerous changes in ownership and editorship over the eight years. Initially, the Tribune was not politically affiliated but tended to either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was frequently running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners, about this time it became a strong proponent of temperance. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the editor, and Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles. Each purchased one third of the Tribune, under their leadership the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings and became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Press & Tribune, on October 25,1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors pushed an abolitionist agenda and strongly supported Abraham Lincoln, the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics for the song John Browns Body by William W. Patton, Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. Joseph McCarthy, when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicagos eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, by 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald, in 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed war with Hearsts Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922.
The Tribune won the battle, adding 250,000 readers to its ranks, in 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower. The competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, and more than 260 entries were received, the winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood. The newspaper sponsored an attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929
Clifty Creek Power Plant
Clifty Creek Power Plant is a 1. 3-GW coal-fired power station located in Madison, Indiana, USA. Five of its six identical units began operating in 1955, the unit was launched in 1956. It has two of the tallest chimneys in the world, at 300 metres with another recently completed dual-flue chimney that stands at around 285 metres, with the addition of two jet bubbling reactor flue gas desulfurization systems in 2013, 98% of sulfur dioxide is now removed. List of power stations in Indiana Global warming Chimney Diagram Aerial view of the surrounding area
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
F. B. Culley Generating Station
Culley Generating Station is a 369-MWe coal-fired electricity-generating power plant, located southeast of Newburgh in Warrick County. It sits on the bank of Ohio River, immediately adjacent and upstream of the Warrick Power Plant. Culley has two units still in service, a 103. 7-MWe Unit 2 and a larger 265. 2-MWe Unit 3, Unit 1 was a 46 MW coal-fired generation unit established 1955 and closed in 2006. In 1994, Vectren installed a flue-gas desulfurization system on Units 2 and 3 to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, from 2001 to 2005, Vectren installed four selective catalytic reduction devices on the coal-fired units, which successfully cut nitrogen oxide emissions by 80 percent. In 2006, a filter was installed at Unit 3 to further reduce particulate matter emissions. List of power stations in Indiana Global warming Barges hauling coal up the Ohio River with the F. B, culley and Warrick Power Stations in the background