William Hubbs Rehnquist was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism, the court, for the first time since the 1930s, struck down an act of Congress as exceeding its power under the Commerce Clause. Born in Shorewood, Rehnquist pursued a legal career in Phoenix, Arizona after graduating from Stanford Law School, he clerked for Associate Justice Robert H. Jackson during the Supreme Court's 1952–1953 term and served as a legal adviser for Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in the 1964 election. In 1969, President Richard Nixon appointed Rehnquist as Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Legal Counsel. In 1971, Nixon nominated Rehnquist to succeed Associate Justice John Marshall Harlan II, Rehnquist won Senate confirmation that same year.
Rehnquist established himself as the most conservative member of the Burger Court. In 1986, President Ronald Reagan nominated Rehnquist to succeed retiring Chief Justice Warren Burger, Rehnquist again won Senate confirmation. Rehnquist served as Chief Justice for nearly 19 years, making him the fourth-longest-serving Chief Justice, the eighth-longest-serving Justice, he became an intellectual and social leader of the Rehnquist Court, earning respect from the Justices who opposed his opinions. Though he remained a member of the conservative wing of the court, Associate Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas were regarded as more conservative; as Chief Justice, Rehnquist presided over the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. Rehnquist wrote the majority opinions in United States v. Lopez and United States v. Morrison, holding in both cases that Congress had exceeded its power under the Commerce Clause, he opposed the court's Roe v. Wade decision and continued to argue that Roe had been incorrectly decided in Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
In Bush v. Gore, he voted with the court's majority to end the Florida recount. Rehnquist grew up in the Milwaukee suburb of Shorewood, his father, William Benjamin Rehnquist, was a sales manager at various times for printing equipment and medical supplies and devices. His paternal grandparents immigrated from Sweden. Rehnquist graduated from Shorewood High School in 1942, he attended Kenyon College, in Gambier, for one quarter in the fall of 1942, before entering the U. S. Army Air Forces, he served from March 1943 – 1946 in assignments in the United States. He was put into a pre-meteorology program and assigned to Denison University until February 1944, when the program was shut down, he served three months at Will Rogers Field in Oklahoma City, three months in Carlsbad, New Mexico, went to Hondo, for a few months. He was chosen for another training program, which began at Chanute Field and ended at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; the program was designed to teach the repair of weather instruments. In the summer of 1945, Rehnquist went overseas as a weather observer in North Africa.
After the war, Rehnquist attended Stanford University with assistance under the provisions of the G. I. Bill. In 1948, he received both a Master of Arts degree in political science. In 1950, he attended Harvard University, where he received another Master of Arts, this time in government, he returned to Stanford, graduated from the Stanford Law School in the same class as Sandra Day O'Connor, with whom he would serve on the Supreme Court. They dated at Stanford and Rehnquist proposed marriage, though O'Connor declined as she was by dating her future husband. Rehnquist graduated first in his class. Rehnquist went to Washington, D. C. to work as a law clerk for Justice Robert H. Jackson of the United States Supreme Court during the court's 1952–1953 term. There, he wrote a memorandum arguing against federal court-ordered school desegregation while the court was considering the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education, decided in 1954. Rehnquist's 1952 memo, entitled "A Random Thought on the Segregation Cases", defended the "separate-but-equal" doctrine.
In that memo, Rehnquist said: I realize that it is an unpopular and unhumanitarian position, for which I have been excoriated by "liberal" colleagues, but I think Plessy v. Ferguson was right and should be reaffirmed. To the argument that a majority may not deprive a minority of its constitutional right, the answer must be made that while this is sound in theory, in the long run it is the majority who will determine what the constitutional rights of the minority are. In both his 1971 Senate confirmation hearing for associate justice and his 1986 hearing for chief justice, Rehnquist testified that the memorandum reflected the views of Justice Jackson rather than his own views. Rehnquist said, "I believe that the memorandum was prepared by me as a statement of Justice Jackson's tentative views for his own use." Elsie Douglas, long-time secretary and confidante of Justice Jackson, stated during Rehnquist's 1986 hearings that his allegation was "a smear of a great man, for whom I served as secretary for many years.
Justice Jackson did not ask law clerks to express his views. He expressed his own and they express
United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner and by the name of the respondent, other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially; the Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the standard reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following The Bluebook, a accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as: Brown v. Bd. of Educ.
347 U. S. 483. This citation indicates that the decision of the Court in the case entitled Brown v. Board of Education, as abbreviated in Bluebook style, was decided in 1954 and can be found in volume 347 of the United States Reports starting on page 483; the early volumes of the United States Reports were published by the individual Supreme Court Reporters. As was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them: Dallas's Reports, Cranch's Reports, etc; the decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the second volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution.
This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. When the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government moved, in 1791, from New York City to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial, unpaid, Supreme Court Reporter. Dallas continued to publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports; when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports, with West v. Barnes. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter; when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, although the publication of the Reports remained a private enterprise for the reporter's personal gain.
The reports themselves were the subject of an early copyright case, Wheaton v. Peters, in which former reporter Henry Wheaton sued current reporter Richard Peters for reprinting cases from Wheaton's Reports in abridged form. In 1874, the U. S. government began creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. Therefore, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms: one for the volume number of the United States Reports. For example, the complete citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S. 316. Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume National Reporter System United States Supreme Court: Information About Opinions United States Supreme Court: Bound Volumes – Lists of PDFs Torrents of United States Reports 502–550
Gasoline, gas or petrol is a colorless petroleum-derived flammable liquid, used as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-U. S.-gallon barrel of crude oil yields about 19 U. S. gallons of gasoline after processing in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil assay. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating. Tetraethyl lead and other lead compounds are no longer used in most areas to increase octane rating. Other chemicals are added to gasoline to improve chemical stability and performance characteristics, control corrosiveness and provide fuel system cleaning. Gasoline may contain oxygen-containing chemicals such as ethanol, MTBE or ETBE to improve combustion. Gasoline used in internal combustion engines can have significant effects on the local environment, is a contributor to global human carbon dioxide emissions.
Gasoline can enter the environment uncombusted, both as liquid and as vapor, from leakage and handling during production and delivery. As an example of efforts to control such leakage, many underground storage tanks are required to have extensive measures in place to detect and prevent such leaks. Gasoline contains other known carcinogens. "Gasoline" is a North American word. The Oxford English Dictionary dates its first recorded use to 1863 when it was spelled "gasolene"; the term "gasoline" was first used in North America in 1864. The word is a derivation from the word "gas" and the chemical suffixes "-ol" and "-ine" or "-ene". However, the term may have been influenced by the trademark "Cazeline" or "Gazeline". On 27 November 1862, the British publisher, coffee merchant and social campaigner John Cassell placed an advertisement in The Times of London: The Patent Cazeline Oil, safe and brilliant … possesses all the requisites which have so long been desired as a means of powerful artificial light.
This is the earliest occurrence of the word to have been found. Cassell discovered that a shopkeeper in Dublin named Samuel Boyd was selling counterfeit cazeline and wrote to him to ask him to stop. Boyd did not reply and changed every ‘C’ into a ‘G’, thus coining the word "gazeline"; the name "petrol" is used in place of "gasoline" in most Commonwealth countries. "Petrol" was first used as the name of a refined petroleum product around 1870 by British wholesaler Carless, Capel & Leonard, who marketed it as a solvent. When the product found a new use as a motor fuel, Frederick Simms, an associate of Gottlieb Daimler, suggested to Carless that they register the trademark "petrol", but by this time the word was in general use inspired by the French pétrole, the registration was not allowed. Carless registered a number of alternative names for the product, but "petrol" nonetheless became the common term for the fuel in the British Commonwealth. British refiners used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline.
When Carless was denied a trademark on "petrol" in the 1930s, its competitors switched to the more popular name "petrol". However, "motor spirit" had made its way into laws and regulations, so the term remains in use as a formal name for petrol; the term is used most in Nigeria, where the largest petroleum companies call their product "premium motor spirit". Although "petrol" has made inroads into Nigerian English, "premium motor spirit" remains the formal name, used in scientific publications, government reports, newspapers; the use of the word gasoline instead of petrol outside North America can be confusing. Shortening gasoline to gas, which happens causes confusion with various forms of gaseous products used as automotive fuel like compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas ). In many languages, the name is derived from benzene, such as Benzin in benzina in Italian. Argentina and Paraguay use the colloquial name nafta derived from that of the chemical naphtha.
The first internal combustion engines suitable for use in transportation applications, so-called Otto engines, were developed in Germany during the last quarter of the 19th century. The fuel for these early engines was a volatile hydrocarbon obtained from coal gas. With a boiling point near 85 °C, it was well-suited for early carburetors; the development of a "spray nozzle" carburetor enabled the use of less volatile fuels. Further improvements in engine efficiency were attempted at higher compression ratios, but early attempts were blocked by the premature explosion of fuel, known as knocking. In 1891, the Shukhov cracking process became the world's first commercial method to break down heavier hydrocarbons in crude oil to increase the percentage of lighter products compared to simple distillation; the evolution of gasoline followed the evolution of oil as the dominant source of energy in the industrializing world. Prior to World War One, Britain was the world's greatest industrial power and depended on its navy to protect the shipping of raw materials from its colonies.
Germany was industrializing and, like Britain, lacked many natural resources which had to be shipped to the home country. By the 1890s, Germany
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was a United States antitrust law, passed by Congress under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison, which regulates competition among enterprises. The Sherman Act broadly prohibits anticompetitive agreements and unilateral conduct that monopolizes or attempts to monopolize the relevant market; the Act authorizes the Department of Justice to bring suits to enjoin conduct violating the Act, additionally authorizes private parties injured by conduct violating the Act to bring suits for treble damages. Over time, the federal courts have developed a body of law under the Sherman Act making certain types of anticompetitive conduct per se illegal, subjecting other types of conduct to case-by-case analysis regarding whether the conduct unreasonably restrains trade; the law attempts to prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of supply. "Innocent monopoly", or monopoly achieved by merit, is legal, but acts by a monopolist to artificially preserve that status, or nefarious dealings to create a monopoly, are not.
The purpose of the Sherman Act is not to protect competitors from harm from legitimately successful businesses, nor to prevent businesses from gaining honest profits from consumers, but rather to preserve a competitive marketplace to protect consumers from abuses. In Spectrum Sports, Inc. v. McQuillan 506 U. S. 447 the Supreme Court said: According to its authors, it was not intended to impact market gains obtained by honest means, by benefiting the consumers more than the competitors. Senator George Hoar of Massachusetts, another author of the Sherman Act, said the following: At Apex Hosiery Co. v. Leader 310 U. S. 469, 310 U. S. 492-93 and n. 15: At Addyston Pipe and Steel Company v. United States, 85 F.2d 1, affirmed, 175 U. S. 175 U. S. 211. The Sherman Act is divided into three sections. Section 1 delineates and prohibits specific means of anticompetitive conduct, while Section 2 deals with end results that are anti-competitive in nature. Thus, these sections supplement each other in an effort to prevent businesses from violating the spirit of the Act, while technically remaining within the letter of the law.
Section 3 extends the provisions of Section 1 to U. S. territories and the District of Columbia. Section 1: Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal. Section 2: Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony The Clayton Antitrust Act, passed in 1914, proscribes certain additional activities, discovered to fall outside the scope of the Sherman Antitrust Act. For example, the Clayton Act added certain practices to the list of impermissible activities: price discrimination between different purchasers, if such discrimination tends to create a monopoly exclusive dealing agreements tying arrangements mergers and acquisitions that reduce market competition.
The Robinson–Patman Act of 1936 amended the Clayton Act. The amendment proscribed certain anti-competitive practices in which manufacturers engaged in price discrimination against equally-situated distributors; the federal government began filing cases under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. Some cases were successful and others were not. Notable cases filed under the act include: United States v. Workingmen's Amalgamated Council of New Orleans, the first to hold that the law applied to labor unions. Chesapeake & Ohio Fuel Co. v. United States, in which the trust was dissolved Northern Securities Co. v. United States, which reached the Supreme Court, dissolved the company and set many precedents for interpretation. Hale v. Henkel reached the Supreme Court. Precedent was set for the production of documents by an officer of a company, the self-incrimination of the officer in his or her testimony to the grand jury. Hale was an officer of the American Tobacco Co. Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, which broke up the company based on geography, contributed to the Panic of 1910–11.
United States v. American Tobacco Co. which split the company into four. Federal Baseball Club v. National League in which the Supreme Court ruled that Major League Baseball was not interstate commerce and was not subject to the anti-trust law. United States v. National City Lines, related to the General Motors streetcar conspiracy. United States v. AT&T Co., settled in 1982 and resulted in the breakup of the company. United States v. Microsoft Corp. was settled in 2001 without the breakup of the company. Congress claimed power to pass the Sherman Act through its constitutional authority to regulate interstate commerce. Therefore, federal courts only have jurisdiction to apply the Act to conduct that restrains or affects either interstate commerce or trade within the District of Columbia; this requires that the plaintiff must show that the conduct occurred during the flow of interstate commerce or had an appreciable effect on some activity that occurs during interstate commerce. A Section 1 violation has three elements: an agreement.
A Section 2 monopolization violation has two
Stephen Gerald Breyer is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. A lawyer by occupation, he became a professor and jurist before President Bill Clinton appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1994. After a clerkship with Supreme Court Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg in 1964, Breyer became well known as a law professor and lecturer at Harvard Law School, starting in 1967. There he specialized in administrative law, writing a number of influential textbooks that remain in use today, he held other prominent positions before being nominated for the Supreme Court, including special assistant to the United States Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust and assistant special prosecutor on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. He served on the First Circuit Court of Appeals from 1980 to 1994. In his 2005 book Active Liberty, Breyer made his first attempt to systematically lay out his views on legal theory, arguing that the judiciary should seek to resolve issues in a manner that encourages popular participation in governmental decisions.
Breyer was born in San Francisco, the son of Anne A. and Irving Gerald Breyer, raised in a middle-class Jewish family. Irving Breyer was legal counsel for the San Francisco Board of Education. Both Breyer and his younger brother, a federal district judge, are Eagle Scouts of San Francisco's Troop 14. Breyer's paternal great-grandfather emigrated from Romania to the United States, settling in Cleveland, where Breyer's grandfather was born. In 1955, Breyer graduated from Lowell High School. At Lowell, he was a member of the Lowell Forensic Society and debated in high school tournaments, including against future California governor Jerry Brown and future Harvard Law School professor Laurence Tribe. Breyer received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from Stanford University, a Bachelor of Arts from Magdalen College, Oxford in PPE as a Marshall Scholar, a Bachelor of Laws from Harvard Law School, he is fluent in French. In 1967, he married Joanna Freda Hare, a psychologist and member of the British aristocracy, as the youngest daughter of John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham.
The Breyers have three adult children: an Episcopal priest and author of The Close. Breyer served as a law clerk to Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg during the 1964 term, served as a fact-checker for the Warren Commission, he was a special assistant to the United States Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust from 1965 to 1967 and an assistant special prosecutor on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. Breyer was a special counsel to the U. S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary from 1974 to 1975 and served as chief counsel of the committee from 1979 to 1980, he worked with the chairman of the committee, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, to pass the Airline Deregulation Act that closed the Civil Aeronautics Board. Breyer was a lecturer, assistant professor, law professor at Harvard Law School starting in 1967, he taught there until 1994 serving as a professor at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government from 1977 to 1980. At Harvard, Breyer was known as a leading expert on administrative law.
While there, he wrote two influential books on deregulation: Breaking the Vicious Circle: Toward Effective Risk Regulation and Regulation and Its Reform. In 1970, Breyer wrote "The Uneasy Case for Copyright", one of the most cited skeptical examinations of copyright. Breyer was a visiting professor at the College of Law in Sydney, the University of Rome, the Tulane University Law School. From 1980 to 1994, Breyer was a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. In the last days of President Jimmy Carter's administration, on November 13, 1980, Carter nominated Breyer to the First Circuit, to a new seat established by 92 Stat. 1629, the United States Senate confirmed him on December 9, 1980, by an 80–10 vote. He received his commission on December 10, 1980, he served as Chief Judge from 1990 to 1994. He served as a member of the Judicial Conference of the United States between 1990 and 1994 and the United States Sentencing Commission between 1985 and 1989. On the sentencing commission, Breyer played a key role in reforming federal criminal sentencing procedures, producing the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which were formulated to increase uniformity in sentencing.
His service on the First Circuit terminated on August 2, 1994, due to his elevation to the Supreme Court. In 1993, President Bill Clinton considered him for the seat vacated by Byron White that went to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Breyer's appointment came shortly thereafter, following the retirement of Harry Blackmun in 1994, when Clinton nominated Breyer as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on May 17, 1994. Breyer was confirmed by the Senate on July 29, 1994, by an 87 to 9 vote, received his commission on August 3, he was the second-longest-serving junior justice in the history of the Court, close to surpassing the record set by Justice Joseph Story of 4,228 days. Breyer's pragmatic approach to the law "will tend to make the law more sensible". In 2006, Breyer said that in assessing a law's constitutionality, while some of his colleagues "emphasize language, a more literal reading of the text and tradition", he looks more to the "purpose a
Antonin Gregory Scalia was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing. Scalia was born in New Jersey, he attended Xavier High School in Manhattan and college at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C, he obtained his law degree from Harvard Law School and spent six years in a Cleveland law firm before becoming a law school professor at the University of Virginia. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations as an Assistant Attorney General, he spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society. In 1982, Ronald Reagan appointed him as judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1986, Reagan appointed him to the Supreme Court.
Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. He served on the Court for nearly thirty years until his death on February 13, 2016. Scalia espoused a conservative jurisprudence and ideology, advocating textualism in statutory interpretation and originalism in constitutional interpretation, he was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, believing presidential power should be paramount in many areas. He believed that the Constitution permitted the death penalty and did not guarantee the right to abortion or same-sex marriage, that affirmative action and most other policies that afforded special protected status to minority groups were unconstitutional; these positions earned him a reputation as one of the most conservative justices on the Court. He filed separate opinions in many cases castigating the Court's majority using scathing language. Scalia's most significant opinions include his lone dissent in Morrison v. Olson, his majority opinion in Crawford v. Washington, his majority opinion in District of Columbia v. Heller.
Scalia was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2018. Antonin Scalia was an only child, his father, Salvatore Eugene Scalia, an Italian immigrant from Sommatino, graduated from Rutgers University and was a graduate student at Columbia University and clerk at the time of his son's birth. The elder Scalia would become a professor of Romance languages at Brooklyn College, where he was an adherent to the formalist New Criticism school of literary theory, his mother, Catherine Louise Scalia, was born in Trenton to Italian immigrant parents and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1939, Scalia and his family moved to the Elmhurst section of Queens, New York, where he attended P. S. 13. After completing eighth grade in public school, he obtained an academic scholarship to Xavier High School, a Jesuit military school in Manhattan, where he graduated first in the class of 1953 and served as valedictorian, he stated that he spent much of his time on schoolwork and admitted, "I was never cool".
While a youth, he was active as a Boy Scout and was part of the Scouts' national honor society, the Order of the Arrow. Classmate and future New York State official William Stern remembered Scalia in his high school days: "This kid was a conservative when he was 17 years old. An archconservative Catholic, he could have been a member of the Curia. He was the top student in the class, he was brilliant, way above everybody else."In 1953, Scalia enrolled at Georgetown University, where he graduated valedictorian and summa cum laude in 1957 with a Bachelor of Arts in history. While in college, he was a champion collegiate debater in Georgetown's Philodemic Society and a critically praised thespian, he took his junior year abroad at the University of Switzerland. Scalia studied law at Harvard Law School, he graduated magna cum laude in 1960. The fellowship enabled him to travel in Europe during 1960 and 1961. Scalia began his legal career at the international law firm Jones, Day and Reavis in Cleveland, where he worked from 1961 to 1967.
He was regarded at the law firm and would most have been made a partner but said he had long intended to teach. He became a professor of law at the University of Virginia in 1967, moving his family to Charlottesville. After four years in Charlottesville, Scalia entered public service in 1971. President Richard Nixon appointed him general counsel for the Office of Telecommunications Policy, where one of his principal assignments was to formulate federal policy for the growth of cable television. From 1972 to 1974, he was chairman of the Administrative Conference of the United States, a small independent agency that sought to improve the functioning of the federal bureaucracy. In mid-1974, Nixon nominated him as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel. After Nixon's resignation, the nomination was continued by President Gerald Ford, Scalia was confirmed by the Senate on August 22, 1974. In the aftermath of Watergate, the Ford administration was engaged in a number of conflicts with Congress.
Scalia testified before congressional committees, defending Ford administration assertions of executive privilege regarding its refusal to turn over documents. W