An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. 3 Sutton Place, New York City Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Kiriri Presidential Palace Unity Palace Palácio Presidencial Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Kinshasa Presidential Palace Palais de la Nation Palais du mont Ngaliema Palais de Marbre Brazzaville Presidential Palace Le Palais de la Présidence Presidential Palace Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Koubbeh Palace Montaza Palace Ras el-Tin Palace Government Building Asmara President's Office National Palace Imperial Palace Presidential Palace State House Osu Castle formal residence Golden Jubilee House current residence Peduase Lodge retreat Presidential Palace Villa Syli Belle Vue Presidential Palace State House Royal Palace State House Executive Mansion Al-Sikka, Tripoli Al Nasr Convention Centre Dar al-Salam Hotel Abusita Navy Base Royal Palace of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Iavoloha Ambohitsorohitra Sanjika Palace New State House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Clarisse House Mechouar Essaid, Rabat Dâr-al-Makhzen, Fes Dâr-al-Makhzen, Meknes Marchane Palace, Tangier Bahia Palace, Marrakech El Badi Palace, Marrakech Palácio da Ponta Vermelha State House Presidential Palace Aso Rock Villa Rivers State:Government House Urugwiro Presidential Palace Palais de la Republique State House State House Villa Somalia Mahlamba Ndlopfu, Genadendal Residence, Cape Town Leeuwenhof Cape Province:Government House Transvaal:Government House Natal:Government House Orange Free State:Government House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Lozitha Palace State House The Palace of the Governors Carthage Palace State House State House State House Government House Government House Government House Ilaro Court Palace of the Revolution Presidential Palace Government House Palacio Nacional, Dominican Republic Government House National Palace King's House Government House Jamaica House Vale Royal Government House Government House Government House President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence Whitehall Official residence Belize House Government House Rideau Hall Citadelle of Quebec 24 Sussex Drive Harrington Lake Stornoway The Farm, Gatineau Park 7 Rideau Gate British Columbia:Government House Manitoba:Government House New Brunswick:Old Government House Nova Scotia:Government House Prince Edward Island:Government House Newfoundland and Labrador:Government House Quebec:Édifice Price/Price Building *The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec no longer have official residences for their lieutenant governors, but do provide them with accommodations.
Casa Presidencial, Costa Rica Casa Presidencial called Casa Blanca Casa Presidencial National Palace Palacio José Cecilio del Valle None. The President uses own private residence. Los Pinos National Palace Castillo de Chapultepec *In every state of the Mexico the Palacio de Gobierno, or Government Palace, was the official residence the governor, they are now maintained as the relevant governor's offices. Querétaro Casa de la Corregidora Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Palacio de las Garzas White House Camp David Number One Observatory Circle Blair House Presidential Townhouse Trowbridge House Waldorf Astoria New York (Ambassador to
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A queen regnant is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, as opposed to a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead. An empress regnant is a female monarch. A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, whereas a queen consort shares her husband's rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband; the husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wife's title or sovereignty. However, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in both classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king. A queen mother is a queen dowager, the mother of a reigning sovereign. In Ancient Africa, Ancient Persia and Pacific cultures, in some European countries, female monarchs have been given the title king or its equivalent, such as pharaoh, when gender is irrelevant to the office, or else have used the masculine form of the word in languages that have grammatical gender as a way to classify nouns.
The Byzantine Empress Irene sometimes called herself basileus,'emperor', rather than basilissa,'empress' and Jadwiga of Poland was crowned as Rex Poloniae, King of Poland. Among the Davidic Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judah, there is mentioned a single queen regnant, though the Hebrew Bible regards her negatively as a usurper; the much Hasmonean Queen Salome Alexandra was popular. Accession of a queen regnant occurs as a nation's order of succession permits. Methods of succession to queendoms, tribal chiefships, such include nomination and ultimogeniture; the scope of succession may be patrilineal, or both. The right of succession may be limited to men only or to women only; the most typical succession in European monarchies from the Late Middle Ages until the late 20th century was male-preference primogeniture: the order of succession ranked the sons of the monarch in order of their birth, followed by the daughters. Many realms forbade succession by women or through a female line in accordance with the Salic law, some still do.
No queen regnant ruled France, for example. Only one woman, Maria Theresa, ruled Austria; as noted in the list below of widely-known ruling queens, many reigned in European monarchies. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark and the UK amended their laws of succession to absolute primogeniture. In some cases, the change does not take effect during the lifetimes of people in the line of succession at the time the law was passed. In 2011, the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms agreed to remove the rule of male-preference primogeniture. Once the necessary legislation was passed, this means that had Prince William had a daughter first, a younger son would not become heir apparent. In 2015, Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in world history. In 2016, she became the longest serving head of state and longest reigning monarch. In China, Wu Zetian became the Chinese empress regnant and established the Zhou Dynasty after dismissing her sons.
The Empress Wu used the title huangdi and in many European sources, is referred to as a female emperor rather than an empress regnant. A few decades earlier in Korea, Queen Seondeok of Silla and Jindeok of Silla developed the term yeowang to refer to themselves, using the title instead of wangbi, translated as "queen consort" and refers to the wife of a king or emperor. Although the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan is barred to women, this has not always been the case. Again, the Japanese language uses the term josei tennō for the position which would be "empress regnant" in English, with kōgō being the term reserved for an empress consort; the Japanese succession debate became a significant political issue during the early 2000s, as no male children had been born to the Imperial House of Japan since 1965. Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi pledged to present parliament with a bill to allow women to ascend the Imperial Throne, but he withdrew this after the birth of Prince Hisahito in 2006 Queens regnant portal Monarch List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government Order of succession Queen consort Rani Regent Salic law Sultana Women in government Monter, William.
The Rise of Female Kings in Europe, 1300-1800. Yale University Press. P. 271. ISBN 9780300173277.. Media related to Queens regnant at Wikimedia Commons
White House Chief Calligrapher
The White House Chief Calligrapher is responsible for the design and execution of all social and official documents at the White House, the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States. The Chief Calligrapher works in the East Wing of the White House in the Graphics and Calligraphy Office with two deputy calligraphers. Projects of the Chief Calligrapher range from official invitations to state dinners, official greetings from the president, military commissions, service awards, place cards; the current White House Chief Calligrapher is Patricia "Pat" Blair. In 2018, Blair made $104,200. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85799-5. Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5. Hawkes Patterson, Bradley; the White House Staff: Inside the West Wing and Beyond. Brookings Institution Press: 2000. ISBN 978-0-8157-6950-7. Official White House website The White House Historical Association, with historical photos, online tours and exhibits and facts
A seating plan is a diagram or a set of written or spoken instructions that determines where people should take their seats. It is used on diverse occasions. Seating plans have a wide range of purposes. At formal dinners, they are used to avoid chaos and confusion upon entrance and to follow the etiquette. In this case, it is customary to arrange the host and hostess at the opposite sides of the table, alternate male and female guests throughout. Place cards can be used to direct guests. State dinners have their own protocol and arrangements are made so that the most distinguished guests can have the possibility to engage in conversation. Plans are made for airplanes, where the objective is to differentiate passengers between the various travel classes and ensure everybody has a place. Theatres or cinemas may allow spectators to choose their seats beforehand. A seating plan is of crucial importance for musical ensembles or orchestras, where every type of instrument is allocated a specific section.
President of India
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of India and the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories, who themselves are all directly elected. Although the Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the president can exercise his powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive powers vested in the president are, in practice, exercised by the prime minister with the help of the Council of Ministers; the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet as long as the advice is not violating the constitution. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 as a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of B.
R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a new constitution for the country; the Constitution of India was enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as its first incumbent; the Indian constitution accords with the president, the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the Constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after the President's assent; the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature; the role of the judiciary in upholding the Constitution of India is the second line of defence in nullifying any unconstitutional actions of the executive and legislative entities of the Indian Union.
Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive, he does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation, his place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known. The primary duty of the president is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath; the president is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the president to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is constitutionally vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head, to facilitate the lawmaking process per the constitution; the president prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha; the president inaugurates parliament by addressing it after the general elections and at the beginning of the first session every year per Article 87.
The Presidential address on these occasions is meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the president per Article 111. After a bill is presented to him, the president shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it; as a third option, he can return a bill to parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. President may be of the view that a particular bill passed under the legislative powers of parliament is violating the constitution, he can send back the bill with his recommendation to pass the bill under the constituent powers of parliament following the Article 368 procedure. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the president, with or without amendments, the president cannot withhold his assent from it; the president can withhold his assent to a bill when it is presented to him thereby exercising a pocket veto on the advice of prime minister or council of ministers per Article 74 if it is inconsistent to the constitution.
Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the supreme court about the constitutional validity of an issue. The president shall assent to constitutional amendment bills without power to withhold the bills per Article 368; when either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, if the government feels the need for an immediate procedure, the president can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as an act passed by parliament under its legislative powers. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under Article 123, the president as the upholder of the constitution shall be satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the union cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the parliament needed for the passing of the ordin
White tie called full evening dress or a dress suit, is the most formal in traditional evening Western dress codes. For men, it consists of a black dress tailcoat worn over a white starched shirt, marcella waistcoat and the eponymous white bow tie worn around a standing wingtip collar. High-waisted black trousers and patent leather oxford or optionally court shoes complete the outfit. Orders insignia and medals can be worn. Acceptable accessories include a top hat, white gloves, a white scarf, a pocket watch and a boutonnière. Women wear full length ball or evening gowns and, jewellery, tiaras, a small handbag and evening gloves; the dress code's origins can be traced back to the end of the 18th century, when high society men began abandoning breeches, lacy dress shirts and richly decorated justaucorps coats for more austere cutaway tailcoats in dark colours, a look inspired by the country gentleman and their frocks and riding coats. By early 19th century Regency era, fashionable dandies like Beau Brummell popularised this more minimalist style, favouring dark blue or black tailcoats with trousers, plain white dress shirts and shorter waistcoats.
By the 1840s the black and white had become the standard colours for evening wear for upper class men. Despite the emergence of the shorter dinner jacket in the 1880s as a less formal but more comfortable alternative, full evening dress tailcoats remained the staple. Around the turn of the 20th century, white bow ties and waistcoats became the standard for full evening dress, known as white tie, contrasting with black bow ties and waistcoats for the dinner jacket, an ensemble which became known as black tie. From around mid-20th century onwards, white tie was replaced by black tie as default evening wear for more formal events. By the 21st century white tie had become rare. White tie nowadays tends to be reserved for special, traditional ceremonies, such as state dinners and audiences, in addition to balls and galas such as the Vienna Opera Ball in Austria, the Nobel Prize banquet in Stockholm, Mardi Gras balls in New Orleans, the Al Smith Memorial Dinner in New York. White tie still occurs at traditional weddings and church celebrations, at certain societies, as well as around some traditional European universities and colleges.
Throughout the Early Modern period, western European male courtiers and aristocrats donned elaborate clothing at ceremonies and dinners: coats and lacy shirts and breeches formed the backbone of their most formal attire. As the 18th century drew to a close, high society began adopting more austere clothing which drew inspiration from the dark hues and simpler designs adopted by country gentlemen. By the end of the 18th century, two forms of tail coat were in common use by upper class men in Britain and continental Europe: the more formal dress coat and the less formal morning coat, which curved back from the front to the tails. From around 1815, a knee-length garment called the frock coat became popular and was established, along with the morning coat, as smart daywear in Victorian England; the dress coat, became reserved for wear in the evening. The dandy Beau Brummell adopted a minimalistic approach to evening wear—a white waistcoat, dark blue tailcoat, black pantaloons and striped stockings.
Although Brummell felt black an ugly colour for evening dress coats, it was adopted by other dandies, like Charles Baudelaire, black and white had become the standard colours by the 1840s. Over the course of the 19th century, the monotone colour scheme became a codified standard for evening events after 6 p.m. in upper class circles. The styles evolved and evening dress consisted of a black dress coat and trousers, white or black waistcoat, a bow tie by the 1870s; the dinner jacket emerged as a less formal and more comfortable alternative to full evening dress in the 1880s and, by the early 20th century, full evening dress meant wearing a white waistcoat and tie with a black tailcoat and trousers, the tuxedo incorporated a black bow tie and waistcoat: white tie had become distinct from black tie. Despite its growing popularity, the dinner jacket remained the reserve of family dinners and gentlemen's clubs during the late Victorian period. By the turn of the 20th century, full evening dress consisted of a black tailcoat made of heavy fabric weighing 16-18 oz per yard.
Its lapels were medium width and the white shirt worn beneath it had a starched, stiff front, fastened with pearl or black studs and either a winged collar or a type called a "poke", consisting of a high band with a slight curve at the front. After World War I, the dinner jacket became more popular in the US, informal variations sprang up, like the soft, turn-down collar shirt and the double-breasted jacket. According to The Delineator, the years after World War I saw white tie "almost abandoned", but it did still have a place: the American etiquette writer Emily Post stated in 1922 that "A gentleman must always be in full dress, tail coat, white waistcoat, white tie and white gloves" when at the opera, yet she called the tuxedo "essential" for any gentleman, writing that "It is worn every evening and nearly everywhere, whereas the tail coat is necessary only at balls, formal dinners, in a box at the opera."It continued to evolve. White tie was worn with slim-cut trousers in the early 1920s.
The Duke of Windsor wore a midnight blue tailcoat, trousers and w