Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 948,406, an increase of 4.8% from the 2010 United States Census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.
The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.
Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.
The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.
It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Contin
New Jersey Route 284
Route 284 is a 7.03-mile state highway in New Jersey, United States, running from Route 23 in Sussex north to the New York state line in Wantage Township. New York State Route 284 continues north to U. S. Route 6 at New York; the route is a connector to Unionville, intersects with an old alignment of its original designation, Route 84. Route 284 was first a part of Route 8 in the 1920s, becoming Route 8N in 1927 and Route 84 in 1942 before being assigned Route 284 in 1966. Route 284 begins at a signaled intersection in Sussex with NJ 23; the route proceeds northward, intersecting with Sussex County Route 643 at less than a half-mile into the highway. Route 284 leaves the borough of Sussex and enters Wantage Township, intersecting with Layton Road, Janice Drive, Possum River Road. Route 284 passes to the south of a lake, crosses over a branch of the Wallkill River and intersects with County Route 642. Just after the intersection with Route 642, the rural highway crosses over Quarryville Brook. At 5.41 miles, Route 284 intersects with an old routing of its original designation, NJ 84.
The original alignment merges in with NJ 284 less than a mile later. After crossing the Wallkill River branch again and the Appalachian Trail, Route 284 leaves New Jersey for New York and becomes NY 284. Route 8, one of the routes assigned before the 1927 renumbering, ran along the present Route 23 corridor, but at Sussex it turned north rather than continuing northwest through High Point State Park; the section from Sussex north to the state line was taken over by the state in 1919. In the 1927 renumbering, the majority of Route 8 became Route 23; the part north of Sussex was proposed to become part of Route 31, but, instead moved to the present Route 94 corridor in the final version of the bill. As Route 8 north of Sussex was not assigned a number, the State Highway Commission appended a suffix of N, forming Route 8N; the connecting route in New York had been numbered New York State Route 8 to match New Jersey, but in the 1930 renumbering it became New York State Route 84, in order to free up the number 8 for a longer route.
New Jersey renumbered its Route 8N to New Jersey Route 84 in March 1942 to match, in part to provide a single number for military caravans during World War II. The final renumbering was made in 1966; as the new I-84 was close to the older Route 84, Route 84 was renumbered in both New York and New Jersey to Route 284. The entire route is in Sussex County. U. S. Roads portal New Jersey portal Interstate 84, the nearby route that changed the designation of NY 284 New Jersey Highway Ends - 284
New Jersey Route 87
Route 87 is a state highway located in Atlantic County in the U. S. state of New Jersey. It runs 1.70 mi, heading north from Atlantic City at an intersection with U. S. Route 30 to Brigantine, where it terminates at the end of the Brigantine Bridge over the Absecon Inlet, continuing as County Route 638. In Atlantic City, the route runs through the Marina District, which contains a few casinos, along Huron Avenue and Brigantine Boulevard. Here, Route 87 intersects with Route 187 and the Atlantic City-Brigantine Connector, the latter providing a limited-access route between Route 87 and the Atlantic City Expressway. Route 87 is the only road to and from Brigantine. What is now Route 87 was proposed as Route S4A in 1927, a spur from Route 4 in Tuckerton, Ocean County, south through Brigantine to Atlantic City; the portion of this route south of Little Beach was to be built by Atlantic County. Despite this, Route S4A was never completed between Brigantine and Little Beach, the portion of the road that existed in Ocean County was removed from the state highway system by 1941.
In 1945, Route S56, a spur of Route 56, was proposed to run from Atlantic City to Brigantine along Brigantine Boulevard. Route 87 was created on its current alignment in 1953 as an unsigned route, replacing Route S4A and the proposed Route S56. Route 87 split into two alignments in Atlantic City along Huron Avenue and Brigantine Boulevard. Route 87 begins at an intersection with U. S. Route 30 in Atlantic City, heading to the northeast on Huron Avenue, an undivided road with two northbound lanes and three southbound lanes. After beginning, it passes under the Atlantic City – Brigantine Connector and comes to a ramp that provides access from southbound Route 87 to the southbound connector. From here, the route widens with two northbound lanes and five southbound lanes, it passes with a ramp from the casino to the northbound direction. The road becomes a four-lane divided highway and passes under a ramp from the Atlantic City – Brigantine Connector to the Borgata before heading under northbound direction of the connector.
Here, a ramp from the connector provides access to Route 87. A short distance the route comes to the northern terminus of Route 187 and turns north to follow Brigantine Boulevard, a four-lane divided highway; the route passes to the west of the Golden Nugget casino and comes to a ramp that provides access from northbound Route 87 to both the Trump Marina and Harrah's Atlantic City casinos before passing under the northbound Atlantic City – Brigantine Connector again. After, the route has a ramp from the southbound direction that provides access to the connector and westbound U. S. Route 30; the northbound Atlantic City – Brigantine Connector parallels Route 87 to the east as it turns northeast and comes to a right-in/right-out in the southbound direction that serves both Harrah's and Borgata. From here, the route passes to the southeast of Harrah's; the northbound Atlantic City – Brigantine Connector merges onto northbound Route 87 before the route comes to a ramp that provides access to the northbound direction of the route from Harrah's.
Past here, the route crosses over the Absecon Channel on the Justice Vincent S. Haneman Memorial Bridge and runs along the border of Atlantic City to the northwest and Brigantine to the southeast. After crossing the Absecon Channel, the route arrives on Brigantine Island and passes through wetlands, with U-turn ramps in both directions. A short distance Route 87 ends and County Route 638 continues along Brigantine Boulevard through Brigantine. In 1927, a spur of Route 4, Route S4A, was proposed as a route running from Route 4 in Tuckerton in Ocean County south to Little Beach. In 1929, this route was to continue south through Brigantine to Atlantic City, with the portion south of Little Beach to be built by Atlantic County; the state of New Jersey took over the proposed extension of Route S4A from Little Beach to Atlantic City in 1938. However, the portion of this route between Brigantine and the Atlantic/Ocean County line was never built, the portion of road that existed in Ocean County was removed from the state highway system by 1941.
In 1945, another route called Route S56, a spur of Route 56, was proposed to run north along Brigantine Boulevard from Atlantic City to Brigantine. In the 1953 New Jersey state highway renumbering, Route 87 was designated as an unsigned route along the former alignment of Route S4A and the proposed Route S56 between U. S. Route 30 in Atlantic City and Brigantine. Following the 1953 renumbering, the southern portion of Route 87 in Atlantic City split into two alignments, with one following Huron Avenue and the other following Brigantine Boulevard; the alignment of Route 87 along Brigantine Boulevard between U. S. Route 30 and Huron Avenue became Route 187. In 2001, the Atlantic City – Brigantine Connector was completed, linking Route 87, the casinos in the Marina District, Brigantine with the Atlantic City Expressway; the entire route is in Atlantic County. U. S. Roads portal New Jersey portal Media related to New Jersey Route 87 at Wikimedia Commons New Jersey Roads: Route 87 NJ State Highways: 75-90 - Route 87 New Jersey Highway Ends: Route 87 Speed Limits for State Roads: Route 87
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
U.S. Route 1 Business (Trenton, New Jersey)
U. S. Route 1 Business is a four-lane surface road that provides an alternate route to the Trenton Freeway northeast of Trenton in Mercer County, New Jersey; the route runs between US 1 in Trenton and Lawrence Township. On the border of Trenton and Lawrence Township, US 1 Bus. intersects the northbound direction of US 206 at the Brunswick Circle. The route was once part of a longer U. S. Route 1 Alternate, which continued southwest through downtown Trenton and into Morrisville, Pennsylvania; the old US 1 Alt. in Trenton is now signed by the New Jersey Department of Transportation as part of US 1 Bus. despite not being recognized as such. Signage in Pennsylvania no longer exists. US 1 Alt. was created in 1953 after US 1 was moved to a freeway between Morrisville and the Brunswick Circle. By the 1980s, when the Trenton Freeway was extended to its current terminus, US 1 Bus. was created onto its current alignment and US 1 Alt. was removed through Trenton and Morrisville. US 1 Bus. begins at a split from the median of the US 1 freeway in Trenton, having access to and from the south along US 1.
The road heads north as a four-lane divided highway before making a turn to the northwest. The route passes through residential areas. At the border of Lawrence Township and Trenton, the road enters the Brunswick Circle, where it junctions with northbound US 206 and CR 645. At the circle, the route turns northeast onto a four-lane divided highway known locally as Brunswick Pike and enters Lawrence Township; the road runs through residential and commercial areas and passes Colonial Lake, with a few intersections controlled by jughandles. US 1 Bus. has an intersection with CR 616, which heads east to provide access to US 1. Further to the northeast, the settings become more commercial before US 1 Bus. merges into northbound US 1 at the northeast end of the Trenton Freeway. Despite the official route beginning at US 1 near the Brunswick Circle, signage has US 1 Bus. begin at the Lower Trenton Bridge over the Delaware River, just north of the Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge. The continuation into Pennsylvania is State Route 2060 to the PA 32 intersection in Morrisville.
From the bridge, US 1 Bus. signage heads northeast on Bridge Street, with the road curving north onto Warren Street into downtown Trenton. At Livingston Street, the road becomes a one-way pair following Warren Street southbound and Broad Street northbound, concurrent with US 206. At the south end of Route 31, the one-way pair becomes Brunswick Avenue northbound and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard southbound, heading northeast; these two roads are two-way, but carry only one direction of US 1 Bus./US 206. The one-way pair continues to the Brunswick Circle, where the official US 1 Bus. continues north. Strawberry Street is signed "to US 1 south" from the circle, as US 1 Business north from US 1. Southbound US 1 Bus. leaves the circle with US 206 southbound on Brunswick Circle Extension, merging with Princeton Avenue. Brunswick Circle Extension is CR 645 and US 206 southbound bypasses the circle via Princeton Avenue, but all signage points US 206 through the circle. Northbound US 1 Business and US 206 enter the circle from Brunswick Avenue.
What is now US 1 Bus. north of the Brunswick Circle was chartered as part of the Trenton and New Brunswick Turnpike in 1803. This turnpike became a public road in 1903. In 1926, the U. S. Highway System was created and US 1 was designated to run through the Trenton area from the Lower Trenton Bridge north to Pre-1927 Route 13, which it followed to New Brunswick. In the 1927 New Jersey state highway renumbering, pre-1927 Route 13 became Route 27 and the Trenton and New Brunswick Turnpike, which ran parallel to pre-1927 Route 13 in Trenton, became Route 26. By the 1930s, US 1 was rerouted to follow Route 26 between Trenton and New Brunswick, with US 206 being designated along Route 27 in Trenton. In December 1952, the Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge and its approaches opened, which included the Trenton Freeway between the Delaware River and the Brunswick Circle. US 1 was rerouted onto the Trenton Freeway. In the 1953 New Jersey state highway renumbering that occurred a month the Route 26 and Route 27 designations were removed through Trenton.
In addition, US 1 Alt. was designated onto the former US 1 in Morrisville and Trenton, running from US 1 on the western end of Morrisville and over the Lower Trenton Bridge into Trenton, where it continued northeast to US 1 at the Brunswick Circle. By the 1980s, an extension of the Trenton Freeway had been completed to Lawrence Township. US 1 was rerouted to this freeway and US 1 Bus. was designated onto the former US 1 between the freeway’s north end and the interchange at Strawberry Street. The US 1 Alt. designation through Trenton and Morrisville was removed. Most of the route in Trenton is now only a part of US 206, despite being signed as US 1 Bus; the former US 1 Alt. in Morrisville became State Route 2060 from the Lower Trenton Bridge to PA 32 and a southern extension of PA 32 south of there. The entire route is in Mercer County. U. S. Roads portal New Jersey portal Media related to U. S. Route 1 Business at Wikimedia Commons New Jersey Roads – US 1 Business
Camden, New Jersey
Camden is a city and the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey, United States. Camden is located directly across the Delaware River from Pennsylvania. At the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 77,344. Camden is the 12th most populous municipality in New Jersey; the city was incorporated on February 13, 1828. Camden has been the county seat of Camden County since the county was formed on March 13, 1844; the city derives its name from 1st Earl Camden. Camden is made up of over twenty different neighborhoods. Beginning in the early 1900s, Camden was a prosperous industrial city, remained so throughout the Great Depression and World War II. During the 1950s, Camden manufacturers began closing their factories and moving out of the city. With the loss of manufacturing jobs came a sharp decline in population numbers; the growth of the interstate highway system played a large role in "white flight." Sub urbanization influenced the drop in population. Civil unrest and crime became common in Camden.
In 1971, civil unrest reached its peak with riots breaking out in response to the death of Horacio Jimenez, a Puerto Rican motorist, killed by two American police officers. The Camden waterfront holds the USS New Jersey; the city is the home of Rutgers University–Camden, founded as the South Jersey Law School in 1926, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, which opened in 2012. Camden houses both Cooper University Hospital and Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center; the "eds and meds" institutions account for 45% of Camden's total employment. There were 23 murders in Camden in 2017, the lowest in the city in three decades, part of a significant decline in violent crime since 2012. In 1626, Fort Nassau was established by the Dutch West India Company in the area, now known as Camden, New Jersey. Europeans settled along the Delaware River. Throughout the 17th century more Europeans arrived in the area, developing it and making improvements. After the restoration period the land was controlled by nobles who served under King Charles II.
Ln 1673, the land was sold off to a group of New Jersey Quakers. The growth of the colony was the result of Philadelphia, a Quaker colony directly across from Camden along the Delaware River. In the Ferry systems were established to facilitate trade between Fort Philadelphia; the ferry system operated along the east side of the Delaware River. The ferry system built by William Royden was located along Cooper Street and was turned over to Daniel Cooper in 1695; the creation of the ferry system resulted in the creation of small settlements along the Delaware River which would develop into Camden. The initial structures and settlements that formed Camden were established by three families: The Coopers, The Kaighns, the Mickels; the Cooper family had the greatest impact on the formation of Camden. In 1773, Jacob Cooper developed some of the land he had inherited through his family into a "townsite." It was Jacob Cooper. The lands that these families owned would be combined to create the future city.
For over 150 years, Camden served as a secondary economic and transportation hub for the Philadelphia area. However, that status began to change in the early 19th century. Camden was incorporated as a city on February 13, 1828, from portions of Newton Township, while the area was still part of Gloucester County; the city derives its name from 1st Earl Camden. One of the U. S.'s first railroads, the Camden and Amboy Railroad, was chartered in Camden in 1830. The Camden and Amboy Railroad allowed travelers to travel between New York City and Philadelphia via ferry terminals in South Amboy, New Jersey and Camden; the railroad terminated on the Camden waterfront, passengers were ferried across the Delaware River to their final Philadelphia destination. The Camden and Amboy Railroad opened in 1834 and helped to spur an increase in population and commerce in Camden. Horse ferries, or team boats, served Camden in the early 1800s; the ferries connected Camden and other Southern New Jersey towns to Philadelphia.
Ferry systems allowed Camden to generate economic growth. "These businesses included lumber dealers, manufacturers of wooden shingles, pork sausage manufacturers, candle factories, coachmaker shops that manufactured carriages and wagons, tanneries and harness makers." The Cooper's Ferry Daybook, 1819–1824, documenting Camden's Point Pleasant Teamboat, survives to this day. A suburban town with ferry service to Philadelphia, Camden evolved into its own city; until 1844, Camden was a part of Gloucester County. In 1840 the city's population had reached 3,371 and Camden appealed to state legislature, which resulted in the creation of Camden County in 1844; the poet Walt Whitman spent his years in Camden. He bought a house on Mickle Street in March 1884. Whitman died in 1892 of a stroke. Whitman was a prominent member of the Camden community at the end of the nineteenth century. Camden became an industrialized city in the half of the nineteenth century. In 1860 Census takers recorded eighty factories in the city and the number of factories grew to 125 by 1870.
Camden began to industrialize in 1891 when Joseph Campbell incorporated his business Campbell's Soup. Through the Civil War era Camden gained a large immigrant population which formed the base of its industrial workforce. Between 1870 and 1920 Camden's population grew by 96,000 people due to the large influx of immigrants. Like other industrial cities, Camden prospered during stro