The term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. They had large audiences in some popular magazines. In the US, the modern term is investigative journalism—it has different and more pejorative connotations in British English—and investigative journalists in the US today are informally called "muckrakers"; the muckrakers played a visible role during the Progressive Era period, 1890s–1920s. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure's of the publisher S. S. McClure—took on corporate monopolies and political machines while trying to raise public awareness and anger at urban poverty, unsafe working conditions and child labor. Most of the muckrakers wrote nonfiction, but fictional exposes had a major impact as well, such as those by Upton Sinclair. In contemporary American use, the term describes either a journalist who writes in the adversarial or alternative tradition, or a non-journalist whose purpose in publication is to advocate reform and change.
Investigative journalists view the muckrakers as early influences and a continuation of watchdog journalism. In British English the term muckraker is more to mean a journalist who specialises in scandal and malicious gossip about celebrities or well-known personalities and is used in a derogatory sense; the term is a reference to a character in John Bunyan's classic Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake", who rejected salvation to focus on filth. It became popular. While a literature of reform had appeared by the mid-19th century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around 1900. By the 1900s, magazines such as Collier's Weekly, Munsey's Magazine and McClure's Magazine were in wide circulation and read avidly by the growing middle class; the January 1903 issue of McClure's is considered to be the official beginning of muckraking journalism, although the muckrakers would get their label later. Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker published famous works in that single issue.
Claude H. Wetmore and Lincoln Steffens' previous article "Tweed Days in St. Louis" in McClure's October 1902 issue was called the first muckraking article; the muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America to describe the 19th century newspapers that were steered by strong leaders with an editorial voice —and yellow journalism. One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M. Tweed in 1871, uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St. Louis", Lincoln Steffens exposed the graft, a system of political corruption, ingrained in St. Louis. While some muckrakers had worked for reform newspapers of the personal journalism variety, such as Steffens, a reporter for the New York Evening Post under Edwin Lawrence Godkin, other muckrakers had worked for yellow journals before moving on to magazines around 1900, such as Charles Edward Russell, a journalist and editor of Joseph Pulitzer's New York World.
Publishers of yellow journals, such as Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, were more intent on increasing circulation through scandal, crime and sensationalism. Just as the muckrakers became well known for their crusades, journalists from the eras of "personal journalism" and "yellow journalism" had gained fame through their investigative articles, including articles that exposed wrongdoing. Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, fine, but it was not the intent as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers. Julius Chambers of the New York Tribune, could be considered to be the original muckraker. Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, having himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper's city editor, his intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates.
When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and to a change in the lunacy laws. This led to the publication of the book A Mad World and Its Inhabitants. From this time onward, Chambers was invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation and treatment. Nellie Bly, another yellow journalist, used the undercover technique of investigation in reporting Ten Days in a Mad-House, her 1887 exposé on patient abuse at Bellevue Mental Hospital, first published as a series of articles in The World newspaper and as a book. Nellie would go on to write more articles on corrupt politicians, sweat-shop working conditions and other societal injustices. Helen Hunt Jackson –A Century of Dishonor, U. S. policy regarding Native Americans. Henry Demarest Lloyd – Wealth Against Commonwealth, exposed the corruption within the Standard
Fake news or junk news or pseudo-news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. The false information is caused by reporters paying sources for stories, an unethical practice called checkbook journalism. Digital news increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism; the news is often reverberated as misinformation in social media but finds its way to the mainstream media as well. Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity; the relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue.
Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, the popularity of social media the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have been implicated in generating and propagating fake news during elections. Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories. An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U. S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets. Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel; the term is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press.
During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself. In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes." Fake news is a neologism used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are false, have enormous traction in the culture, are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.
He did not include news, "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, by any definition, that's a lie."The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can be fake news; some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but the "character of online circulation and reception". Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news: satire or parody false connection misleading content false context impostor content manipulated content fabricated content In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.
In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons conducted a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news". Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news, negative of his presidency. In November 2017, Claire Wardle announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues, she now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems:'mis-information','dis-information', and'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm. Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody
Music journalism is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music and traditional music. Journalists began writing about music in the eighteenth century, providing commentary on what is now regarded as classical music. In the 1960s, music journalism began more prominently covering popular music like rock and pop after the breakthrough of The Beatles. With the rise of the internet in the 2000s, music criticism developed an large online presence with music bloggers, aspiring music critics, established critics supplementing print media online. Music journalism today includes reviews of songs and live concerts, profiles of recording artists, reporting of artist news and music events. Music journalism has its roots in classical music criticism, which has traditionally comprised the study, discussion and interpretation of music, composed and notated in a score and the evaluation of the performance of classical songs and pieces, such as symphonies and concertos.
Before about the 1840s, reporting on music was either done by musical journals, such as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in London journals such as The Musical Times. An influential English 19th-century music critic, for example, was James William Davison of The Times; the composer Hector Berlioz wrote reviews and criticisms for the Paris press of the 1830s and 1840s. Modern art music journalism is informed by music theory consideration of the many diverse elements of a musical piece or performance, including its form and style, for performance, standards of technique and expression; these standards were expressed, for example, in journals such as Neue Zeitschrift für Musik founded by Robert Schumann, are continued today in the columns of serious newspapers and journals such as The Musical Times. Several factors—including growth of education, the influence of the Romantic movement and in music, among others—led to an increasing interest in music among non-specialist journals, an increase in the number of critics by profession of varying degrees of competence and integrity.
The 1840s could be considered a turning point, in that music critics after the 1840s were not practicing musicians. However, counterexamples include Alfred Brendel, Charles Rosen, Paul Hindemith, Ernst Krenek. In the early 1980s, a decline in the quantity of classical criticism began occurring "when classical-music criticism visibly started to disappear" from the media. At that time, magazines such as Time and Vanity Fair employed classical music critics, but by the early 1990s, classical critics were dropped in many magazines, in part due to "a decline of interest in classical music among younger people". Of concern in classical music journalism was how American reviewers can write about ethnic and folk music from cultures other than their own, such as Indian ragas and traditional Japanese works. In 1990, the World Music Institute interviewed four New York Times music critics who came up with the following criteria on how to approach ethnic music: A review should relate the music to other kinds of music that readers know, to help them understand better what the program was about.
"The performers be treated as human beings and their music be treated as human activity rather than a mystical or mysterious phenomenon." The review should show an understanding of the music's cultural intentions. A key finding in a 2005 study of arts journalism in America was that the profile of the "average classical music critic is a white, 52-year old male, with a graduate degree". Demographics indicated that the group was 74% male, 92% white, 64% had earned a graduate degree. One critic of the study pointed out that because all newspapers were included, including low-circulation regional papers, the female representation of 26% misrepresented the actual scarcity, in that the "large US papers, which are the ones that influence public opinion, have no women classical music critics", with the notable exceptions of Anne Midgette in the New York Times and Wynne Delacoma in the Chicago Sun-Times. In 2007, The New York Times wrote that classical music criticism, which it characterized as "a high-minded endeavor, around at least as long as newspapers", had undergone "a series of hits in recent months" with the elimination, downgrading, or redefinition of critics' jobs at newspapers in Atlanta and elsewhere, citing New York magazine's Peter G. Davis, "one of the most respected voices of the craft, said he had been forced out after 26 years".
Viewing "robust analysis and reportage as vital to the health of the art form", The New York Times stated in 2007 that it continued to maintain "a staff of three full-time classical music critics and three freelancers", noting that classical music criticism had become available on blogs, that a number of other major newspapers "still have full-time classical music critics", including the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Baltimore Sun, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Boston Globe. Music writers only started "treating pop and rock music seriously" in 1964 "after the breakthrough of the Beatles". In their
New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, which uses literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and emphasizing "truth" over "facts", intensive reportage in which reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and wrote them; this was in contrast to traditional journalism where the journalist was "invisible" and facts are reported as objectively as possible. The phenomenon of New Journalism is considered to have ended by the early 1980s; the term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern, Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others. Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.
Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of New Journalism received extensive exploration. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well. Various people and tendencies throughout the history of American journalism have been labeled "new journalism". Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism"; the appearance of the yellow press—papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s—led journalists and historians to proclaim that a "New Journalism" had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, its newspapers entered an era known as that of the'New Journalism.'" John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform.
Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism", Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the preface of the sixth edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, investigative, humanistic, reformist and a few more."The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction, alternative journalism, advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism. Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, changes in the established media. In 1887, Matthew Arnold was credited with coining the term "New Journalism", a term that went on to define an entire genre of newspaper history Lord Northcliffe's turn-of-the-century press empire.
However, at the time, the target of Arnold's irritation was not Northcliffe, but the sensational journalism of Pall Mall Gazette editor, William Thomas Stead. He disapproved of the muck-raking Stead, declared that, under Stead, "the P. M. G. Whatever may be its merits, is fast ceasing to be literature." W. T. Stead called his brand of journalism'Government by Journalism' How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre is not clear. Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form, wrote in at least two articles in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim offered his explanation in 1973. "I'm certain." In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, told me he wanted to write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese and Jimmy Breslin, he never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing.
It was picked up and stuck." But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket. A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would build on in his 1968 convention coverage and in other nonfiction as well. Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story, it began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..." Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, wh
Traffic reporting is the near real-time distribution of information about road conditions such as traffic congestion and traffic collisions. The reports help drivers avoid traffic problems. Traffic reports in cities, may report on major delays to mass transit that does not involve roads. In addition to periodic broadcast reports, traffic information can be transmitted to GPS units and personal computers. There are several methods in use today to gather traffic speed and incident info, ranging from professional reporters, to GPS crowdsourcing to combinations of both methods. INRIX uses its network of over 175 million vehicles and devices to gather speed data from mobile phones, delivery vans, other fleet vehicles equipped with GPS locator devices including smart phones and Ford SYNC and Toyota Entune and much of Europe, South America, Africa. Google Traffic works by crowdsourcing the GPS information from phone users. By calculating the speed of users along a stretch of road, Google is able to generate a live traffic map.
Its subsidiary, Waze allows users to report directly via a smartphone app. TomTom Traffic uses crowd-sourced data from mobile phone users, along with data from traditional sources such as induction loops and traffic cameras. Monitoring police radio frequencies; some radio stations have agreements with states' highway patrol that permit a direct connection with a law enforcement computer. This enables real-time information gathering of the latest accident reports to highway patrol divisions. Many areas have other areas of high traffic volume. For example, by the company Global Traffic Network. Traffic cameras Giditraffic is an online social service which employs crowd sourcing as its primary means of providing real-time traffic updates to subscribers; the service is delivered free of charge. RoadPal uses crowd-sourced data from mobile users as well as the social media to provide users with traffic information of places of interest to them. Roadside speed sensors, either infra-red sensors for spot measurements or automatic number plate recognition for measuring speed between two sites.
GPS units Smartphones Radio via voice RDS, TA Electronic road signs 5-1-1 traffic information phone line or similar. Television and web INRIX develops and distributes INRIX Traffic, a free mobile application, provides reporting services to a variety of local television stations. NAVTEQ provides data used in a wide range of applications, including automotive navigation systems for many car makers. Most clients use Navteq to provide traffic reports in major metropolitan areas throughout North America. NAVTEQ partners with third-party agencies and companies to provide its services for portable GPS devices made by Garmin, Lowrance, NDrive and web-based applications such as Yahoo! Maps, Bing Maps, Nokia Maps. XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio use NAVTEQ data to show traffic information on navigation systems. NAVTEQ's media services was spun out to form Radiate Media in 2011, which subsequently merged with Global Traffic Network in 2016, forming US Traffic Network. Tele Atlas, a subsidiary of TomTom.
Delivers digital maps and other dynamic content for navigation and location-based services, including personal and in-car navigation systems, provides data used in a wide range of mobile and Internet map applications. Google Maps uses a variety of governmental and private traffic reporting organizations to provide information, along with its Waze subsidiary, which uses crowdsourcing to provide observed traffic conditions
News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different media: word of mouth, postal systems, electronic communication, or through the testimony of observers and witnesses to events. Common topics for news reports include war, politics, health, the environment, business and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content; the genre of news as we know it today is associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe. The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new".
In Middle English, the equivalent word was newes, like the German Neues. Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny, the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, Russian novosti – and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion and the Cornish nowodhow. Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s; as its name implies, "news" connotes the presentation of new information. The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines. Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, to exclude discussion of the relationships between them. News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.
To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Relatedly, news addresses aspects of reality which seem unusual, deviant, or out of the ordinary. Hence the famous dictum that "Dog Bites Man" is not news. Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enables new media to disseminate news more quickly,'slower' forms of communication may move away from'news' towards'analysis'. According to some theories, "news" is. Journalism, broadly understood along the same lines, is the act or occupation of collecting and providing news. From a commercial perspective, news is one input, along with paper necessary to prepare a final product for distribution. A news agency supplies this resource "wholesale" and publishers enhance it for retail. Most purveyors of news value impartiality and objectivity, despite the inherent difficulty of reporting without political bias. Perception of these values has changed over time as sensationalized'tabloid journalism' has risen in popularity.
Michael Schudson has argued that before the era of World War I and the concomitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone correcting for it. News is sometimes said to portray the truth, but this relationship is elusive and qualified. Paradoxically, another property attributed to news is sensationalism, the disproportionate focus on, exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption; this news is not unrelated to gossip, the human practice of sharing information about other humans of mutual interest. A common sensational topic is violence. Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. Journalists apply news values to identify a news story. News values determine how much attention a news story is given by a media outlet, the attention it is given by its audience or readers. In some countries and at some points in history, what news media and the public have considered "newsworthy" has met different definitions, such as the notion of news values.
Many news values seem to be common across cultures. People seem to be interested in news to the extent which it has a big impact, describes conflicts, happens nearby, involves well-known people, deviates from the norms of everyday happenings. War is a common news topic because it involves unknown events that could pose personal danger. Evidence suggests that cultures around the world have found a place for people to share stories about interesting new information. Among Zulus, Mongolians and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority. Sufficiently important news would be repeated and and could spread by word of mouth over a large geographic area; as printing presses came into use in Europe, news for the general public travelled orally via monks, town criers, etc. The news is transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths. Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news after telecommunications became available.
The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, introduced in England in 16th century. In th
Science journalism conveys reporting about science to the public. The field involves interactions between scientists and the public. One of the first occasions an article was attributed to a "scientific correspondent" was "A Gale in the Bay of Biscay" by William Crookes which appeared in The Times on January 18, 1871, page 7. Thomas Henry Huxley and John Tyndall were scientists who were involved in journalism and Peter Chalmers Mitchell was Scientific Correspondent for The Times from 1918 to 1935; however it was with James Crowther's appointment as the ‘scientific correspondent’ of The Manchester Guardian by C. P. Scott in 1928 that science journalism took shape. Crowther related that Scott had declared that there was ‘no such thing’ as science journalism, at which point Crowther replied that he intended to invent it. Scott was convinced and employed him. Science values detail, the impersonal, the technical, the lasting, facts and being right. Journalism values brevity, the personal, the colloquial, the immediate, stories and being right now.
There are going to be tensions. The aim of a science journalist is to render detailed and jargon-laden information produced by scientists into a form that non-scientists can understand and appreciate while still communicating the information accurately. One way science journalism can achieve, to avoid an information deficit model of communication, which assumes a top-down, one-way direction of communicating information that limits an open dialogue between knowledge holders and the public. Science journalists have training in the scientific disciplines that they cover; some have earned a degree in a scientific field before becoming journalists or exhibited talent in writing about science subjects. However, good preparation for interviews and deceptively simple questions such as "What does this mean to the people on the street?" can help a science journalist develop material, useful for the intended audience. With budget cuts at major newspapers and other media, there are fewer working science journalists working for traditional print and broadcast media than before.
There are very few journalists in traditional media outlets that write multiple articles on emerging science, such as nanotechnology. In 2011, there were 459 journalists who had written a newspaper article covering nanotechnology, of whom 7 wrote about the topic more than 25 times. In January 2012, just a week after The Daily Climate reported that worldwide coverage of climate change continued a three-year slide in 2012 and that among the five largest US dailies, the New York Times published the most stories and had the biggest increase in coverage, that newspaper announced that it was dismantling its environmental desk and merging its journalists with other departments. News coverage on science by traditional media outlets, such as newspapers, magazines and news broadcasts is being replaced by online sources. In April 2012, the New York Times was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for content published by Politico and The Huffington Post, both online sources, a sign of the platform shift by the media outlet.
Tracking the remaining experienced science journalists is becoming difficult. For example, in Australia, the number of science journalists have decreased to abysmal numbers "you need less than one hand to count them." Due to the decreasing number of science journalists, experiments on ways to improve science journalism are rare. However, in one of the few experiments conducted with science journalists, when the remaining population of science journalists networked online the produced more accurate articles than when in isolation. New communication environments provide unlimited information on a large number of issues, which can be obtained anywhere and with limited effort; the web offers opportunities for citizens to connect with others through social media and other 2.0-type tools to make sense of this information. "After a lot of hand wringing about the newspaper industry about six years ago, I take a more optimistic view these days,” said Cristine Russell, president of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing.
“The world is online. Science writers today have the opportunity to communicate not just with their audience but globally.”Blog-based science reporting is filling in to some degree, but has problems of its own. In 2015, John Bohannon produced a deliberately bad study to see how a low-quality open access publisher and the media would pick up their findings, he worked with a film-maker Peter Onneken, making a film about junk science in the diet industry with fad diets becoming headline news despite terrible study design and no evidence. He invented a fake "diet institute" that lacks a website, used the pen name, "Johannes Bohannon," and fabricated a press release. Science journalists come under criticism for misleading reporting of scientific stories. All three groups of scientists and the public criticize science journalism for bias and inaccuracies. However, with the increasing collaborations online between science journalists there may be potential with removing inaccuracies; the 2010 book Merchants of Doubt by historians of science Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway argues that in topics like the global warming controversy, tobacco smoking, acid rain, DDT and ozone depletion, contrarian scientists have sought to "keep the controversy alive" in the public arena by demanding that reporters give false balance to the minority side.
Such as with climate change, this leaves the public with the impression that disagreement within the scientific community is much