Joe Jackson (manager)
Joseph Walter Jackson was an American talent manager and patriarch of the Jackson family of entertainers that includes his children Michael and Janet. He was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame as a member of the class of 2014. Joseph Walter Jackson was born to Samuel Jackson, a schoolteacher and Crystal Lee King in Fountain Hill, Arkansas, on July 26, 1928, he was the eldest of five children, was of African and Native American Ancestry. Jackson recalled from his early childhood that his father was domineering and strict, he described himself in his memoir, The Jacksons, as a "lonely child that had only few friends". After his parents separated when he was twelve, his mother, two brothers, sister moved to East Chicago, Indiana, a suburb outside Chicago in Northwest Indiana, he moved with his father to Oakland, California; when he was 18, his father remarried, he moved to East Chicago to live with his mother, two brothers, sister. He soon did not finish high school. While in East Chicago, he began to pursue his dreams of becoming a boxer and found success with the Golden Gloves program.
While he was preparing for a professional boxing career, he met 17-year-old Katherine Scruse, who lived in East Chicago and attended Washington High School. Joe was married to another woman, but was divorced in less than a year before he started dating Katherine. Joseph and Katherine were married on November 5, 1949, in January 1950, they purchased a small two-bedroom home on 2300 Jackson Street near East Chicago in Gary, Indiana; the Jacksons' first child, Maureen Reillette "Rebbie" Jackson, was born four months on May 29, 1950, in the Jackson house. Still employed at Inland Steel, Jackson left his hopes of becoming a professional boxer in order to support his family, began working there as a full-time crane operator, he took a second part-time job at American Foundries in East Chicago. In the meantime, his wife Katherine tended to their growing family. In the late 1950s she started working part-time at Sears in Gary; the Jacksons would go on to have ten children. During the early 1950s, Jackson performed with his own blues band The Falcons, playing guitar.
Despite their efforts, The Falcons did not get a recording deal and subsequently broke up after one of their members, Thornton "Pookie" Hudson, founded his own band in 1952. That band would go on to become a successful doo-wop group named The Spaniels. Joe Jackson began working with his sons' musical group in the early 1960s, first working with his three eldest sons, Jackie and Jermaine. Younger sons Marlon and Michael joined the backing band. Joseph began enforcing intense rehearsals for his sons. At first, the group went under The Jackson Brothers. Following the inclusions of Marlon and Michael in the group and Michael's increased vocal presence within the group, their name was changed to The Jackson 5. After a couple of years performing in talent contests and high school functions, Joseph booked them in more and more respectable venues until they landed a spot at the renowned Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York City. On November 21, 1967, The Jackson 5 were signed by Jackson to their first professional contract with Gordon Keith and first president of Steeltown Records in Gary, Indiana.
The group's first single "Big Boy," with Michael as the lead singer, was released by Keith on January 31, 1968 on the Steeltown label. "Big Boy" became a local hit and the brothers became local celebrities after it was played on radio stations in the Chicago-Gary area. Within the year, Jackson helped to land his sons an audition for Motown Records in Detroit; the Jackson 5 were signed with Motown in March 1969. Jackson moved his family to California and supervised every recording session the group made for Motown; the group began to receive nationwide fame after their first single for Motown, "I Want You Back", hit #1 following its release on October 7, 1969, followed by their first album, Diana Ross Presents The Jackson 5 in December 1969. After the Jackson 5's first four singles, "I Want You Back", "ABC", "The Love You Save", "I'll Be There" sold 10 million copies in 10 months, setting a world record for sales, it became clear to Jackson that his dream to make his sons the first African-American teenagers to become internationally known recording stars had come true.
In 1973, wanting to reassert his control, Jackson had his family, including youngest son Randy, daughters Rebbie, La Toya and Janet perform at casinos and resorts in Las Vegas, inspired by the success of fellow family act, The Osmonds. Joseph had formed his own record label, Ivory Tower International Records and signed artists under his management in which they toured internationally with The Jackson 5 as opening acts in 1974. In 1975, the Jackson 5, with the exception of Jermaine, left Motown and signed a lucrative deal with Epic Records. Michael Jackson had brokered a deal where they could produce their own songs, leading to Motown retaining the Jackson 5 name, so they renamed themselves The Jacksons in 1976. In 1978, Joseph's youngest son, released his solo single "How Can I Be Sure" on Joseph's record label. In 1982, Joseph established Janet Jackson's career at age 16 as a recording artist while managing her, he financed the recording of his daughter's first demo arranged her a recording contract with A&M Records and began recording her debut album, overseen by him.
Control (Janet Jackson album)
Control is the third studio album by American recording artist Janet Jackson, released on February 4, 1986, by A&M Records. Her collaborations with the songwriters and record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis resulted in an unconventional sound: a fusion of rhythm and blues, rap vocals, funk and synthesized percussion that established Jackson and Lewis as the leading innovators of contemporary R&B; the album became Jackson's commercial breakthrough and enabled her to transition into the popular music market, with Control becoming one of the foremost albums of the 1980s and contemporary music. The album is notable for being what originated the style and genre that came to be known as new jack swing. Containing autobiographical themes, a majority of the album's lyrics came as the result of a series of changes in her life: a recent annulment of her marriage to singer James DeBarge, severing her business affairs from her father and manager Joseph and the rest of the Jackson family, hiring the A&M executive John McClain as her new management, her subsequent introduction to Jam and Lewis.
The album has been praised by critics as both an artistic feat and as a personal testament of self-actualization. It has been regarded as a template upon which numerous female artists have modeled their careers black women. Following its release, Control became Jackson's first album to top the Billboard 200 albums chart in the United States and five of its commercial singles—"What Have You Done for Me Lately", "Nasty", "Control", "When I Think of You", "Let's Wait Awhile"—peaked within the top five of the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. Music videos created to promote the singles showcased her dancing ability and became a catalyst for MTV's evolving demographics; the album went on to receive several accolades, including a nomination for the Grammy Award for Album of the Year and winning Producer of the Year, Non-Classical for Jam and Lewis in 1987. It is listed by the National Association of Recording Merchandisers and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as one of the 200 Definitive Albums of All Time, in addition to being included in several publications "best of" album lists.
It has been certified fivefold platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America and has sold more than 10 million copies worldwide. The album made Billboard Hot 100 history, breaking brother Michael's record for longest continuous run on the Hot 100 with singles from one album, a record 65 consecutive weeks. Joseph Jackson, patriarch of the Jackson family of musicians, was known for managing the careers of all nine of his children. After arranging a recording contract with A&M in 1982 for a 16-year-old Janet, he oversaw the entire production of her debut album, Janet Jackson, its follow-up, Dream Street. Best known as a television actress, she was reluctant to begin a recording career, she said, "I was coming off of a TV show that I hated doing, Fame. I didn't want to do. I wanted to go to college, but I did it for my father..." and elaborated that she was in conflict with her producers. Amidst her professional struggles, she rebelled against her family's wishes by marrying James DeBarge of the family recording group DeBarge in 1984.
The Jacksons disapproved of the relationship, citing DeBarge's substance abuse. Jackson left her husband in January 1985 and was granted an annulment that year. Jackson subsequently fired her father as her manager and employed John McClain A&M Records' senior vice president of artists and repertoire and general manager. Commenting on the decision, she stated, "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, one of the most difficult things that I had to do, telling him that I didn't want to work with him again." Joseph Jackson resented John McClain for what he saw as an underhanded attempt to steal his daughter's career out from under him, stating, "I've worked hard for my family. The problem comes, when others come in behind you and try to steal them away; the wheels have been set for Janet Jackson. Anyone who jumps on now will be getting a free ride." McClain responded by saying "I'm not trying to pimp Janet Jackson or steal her away from her father." He subsequently introduced her to the songwriting/production duo of James "Jimmy Jam" Harris III and Terry Lewis, former Prince associates and ex-members of The Time.
When Jam and Lewis agreed to produce Jackson's third studio album, they wanted to appeal to the African American community, in addition to achieving crossover success on the pop music charts. Jam commented in an interview with Rolling Stone magazine, "We wanted to do an album that would be in every black home in America... we were going for the black album of all time." Before their association with Jackson and Lewis had planned to record an album with tracks they wrote for Sharon Bryant, but she found their lyrics and sound to be too "rambunctious". The duo presented the same set of recordings to Jackson, who gave her input and took co-writing and co-production credits for the album's content. Jam and Lewis recalled that in order to collaborate with Jackson on the material, they spent the first week getting to know their new client. Lewis explained, "We got into her head. We saw what she was capable of, what she wanted to say, where she wanted to be, what she wanted to be. We put together some songs to fit her as we saw her.
It was as simple as that." For the song "What Have You Done for Me Lately", penned for one of Jam and Lewis's own records, the l
The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
Spin is an American music magazine founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. The magazine stopped running in print in 2012 and runs as a webzine, owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group division of Valence Media. Spin was established in 1985. In its early years, the magazine was known for its broad music coverage with an emphasis on college rock, indie rock, the ongoing emergence of hip-hop; the magazine was bold, if sometimes haphazard. It pointedly provided a national alternative to Rolling Stone's more establishment-oriented style. Spin prominently placed newer artists such as R. E. M. Prince, Run-D. M. C. Eurythmics, Beastie Boys, Talking Heads on its covers and did lengthy features on established figures such as Bob Dylan, Keith Richards, Miles Davis, Lou Reed, Tom Waits, John Lee Hooker—Bart Bull's article on Hooker won the magazine its first major award. On a cultural level, the magazine devoted significant coverage to punk, alternative country, electronica and world music, experimental rock, jazz of the most adventurous sort, burgeoning underground music scenes, a variety of fringe styles.
Artists such as the Ramones, Patti Smith, Blondie, X, Black Flag, the former members of the Sex Pistols, The Clash, the early punk and New Wave movements were featured in Spin's editorial mix. Spin's extensive coverage of hip-hop music and culture that of contributing editor John Leland, was notable at the time. Editorial contributions by musical and cultural figures included Lydia Lunch, Henry Rollins, David Lee Roth and Dwight Yoakam; the magazine reported on cities such as Austin, Texas, or Glasgow, Scotland, as cultural incubators in the independent music scene. A 1990 article on the contemporary country blues scene brought R. L. Burnside to national attention for the first time. Coverage of American cartoonists, Japanese manga, monster trucks, the AIDS crisis, outsider artists, Twin Peaks, other non-mainstream cultural phenomena distinguished the magazine's dynamic early years. In late 1987, publisher Bob Guccione Jr.'s father, Bob Guccione Sr. abruptly shut the magazine down despite the fact that the two-year-old magazine was considered a success, with a newsstand circulation of 150,000.
Guccione Jr. was able to rally much of his staff, partner with former MTV president and David H. Horowitz, locate additional new investors and offices and after missing a month's publication, returned with a combined November–December issue. During this time, it was published by Camouflage Associates. In 1997, Guccione sold Spin to Miller Publishing. In 1994, two journalists working for the magazine were killed by a landmine while reporting on the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A third, William T. Vollmann, was injured. In February 2006, Miller Publishing sold the magazine to a San Francisco-based company called the McEvoy Group LLC, the owner of Chronicle Books; that company formed Spin Media LLC as a holding company. The new owners replaced editor-in-chief Sia Michel with a former editor at Blender; the first issue to be published under his brief command was the July 2006 issue—sent to the printer in May 2006—which featured Beyoncé on the cover. Pemberton and Spin parted ways the next month, in June 2006.
The following editor, Doug Brod, was executive editor during Michel's tenure. For Spin's 20th anniversary, it published a book chronicling the prior two decades in music; the book has essays on grunge and emo, among other genres of music, as well as pieces on musical acts including Marilyn Manson, Tupac Shakur, R. E. M. Nirvana, Nine Inch Nails, Limp Bizkit, the Smashing Pumpkins. In February 2012, Spin relaunched the magazine in a larger, bi-monthly format and expanded its online presence, which covered reviews, extended editorials and features on up-and-coming talent. In July 2012, Spin was sold to Buzzmedia, which renamed itself SpinMedia; the September/October 2012 issue of Spin was the magazine's last print edition. In December 2016, Eldridge Industries acquired SpinMedia via the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group for an undisclosed amount. In 1995, Spin produced its first book, entitled Spin Alternative Record Guide, it compiled writings by 64 music critics on recording artists and bands relevant to the alternative music movement, with each artist's entry featuring their discography and albums reviewed and rated a score between one and ten.
According to Pitchfork Media's Matthew Perpetua, the book featured "the best and brightest writers of the 80s and 90s, many of whom started off in zines but have since become major figures in music criticism," including Rob Sheffield, Byron Coley, Ann Powers, Simon Reynolds, Alex Ross. Although the book was not a sales success, "it inspired a disproportionate number of young readers to pursue music criticism." After the book was published, its entry on 1960s folk artist John Fahey, written by Byron Coley, helped renew interest in Fahey's music, leading to interest from record labels and the alternative music scene. Contributors to Spin have included: SPIN began compiling year-end lists in 1990. Note: The 2000 album of the year was awarded to "your hard drive", acknowledging the impact that filesharing had on the music listening experience in 2000. Kid A was listed as the highest ranking given to an actual album. 1994 roadside attack on Spin magazine journalists Anon.. "Bibliography". In Ray, Michael.
Alternative, Hip-Hop and More: Music from the 1980s to Today. Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 1615309101. Mazmanian, Adam. "Library Journal". In White, William. Buyer's Guide. Bowker. Johnston, Maura. "Never Mind The Anglophilia, Here's The Queens Brothers". Idolator. Retrieved Jul
The ARIA Charts are the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The charts are a record of the highest selling albums in various genres in Australia. ARIA became the official Australian music chart in June 1988, succeeding the Kent Music Report, Australia's national charts since 1974; the Go-Set charts were Australia's first national singles and albums charts published from 5 October 1966 until 24 August 1974. Succeeding Go-Set, the Kent Music Report began issuing the national top 100 charts in Australia from May 1974; the compiler, David Kent published Australia's national charts from 1940–1974 in a retrospective fashion using state based data. In mid 1983, the Australian Recording Industry Association commenced licensing the Kent Music Report chart; the first printed national top 50 chart available in record stores, branded the Countdown chart, was dated the week ending 10 July 1983. ARIA began compiling its own charts in-house from the chart survey dated 13 June 1988, corresponding with the printed top 50 chart dated week ending 26 June 1988.
Various artists compilation albums were included in the albums chart, as they had been on the Kent Report chart, until 2 July 1989, when a separate Compilations chart was created. The ARIA Report, detailing the top 100 singles and albums charts, was first available via subscription in January 1990; the printed top 50 chart ceased publication in June 1998, but resumed publication in the year. The printed top 50 chart again ceased publication at the end of 2000; the ARIA charts are based on data collected from digital retailers in Australia. Data of physical sales come from retailers such as Sanity and JB Hi-Fi, while data of digital sales come from online retailers such as iTunes. Since 17 February 1997, all physical sales data contributing towards the chart has been recorded electronically at point of sale. In March 1991, "Do the Bartman" by The Simpsons was the first single to reach #1 in Australia, not available on 7 inch vinyl, but cassingle only. Starting from 8 October 2006, due to low physical single sales at the time, the ARIA singles chart included online data as well as physical sales.
In 2006, it was announced that the Brazin retailing group, comprising major retailers HMV, Sanity and Virgin music/DVD stores would no longer contribute sales data to the ARIA charts. However, after a five-month absence, Brazin re-commenced contributing sales figures to the ARIA Charts on 26 November 2006; the ARIA website publishes the top 50 singles and albums charts, top 40 digital tracks chart, top 20 dance singles chart. The ARIA Report is available via paid e-mail subscription each week; these reports are uploaded to the Pandora Archive periodically. On 5 February 2006, the ARIA Chart Show was a radio program launched on the Nova network and broadcast throughout Australia, playing the official ARIA top 50 singles; the live music program was hosted by Jabba each Sunday afternoon at 3:00pm. From 1 June 2013 to 3 September 2016, the Take 40 Australia radio program broadcast the official ARIA top 40 singles on Saturday afternoons from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm, on each state's Hit Network-owned radio station.
The show was aired before the top 50 chart, dated for the following Monday, is published on the ARIA website at 6:00 pm. The charts were published online at 6:00 pm each Sunday. ARIA Top 100 Singles Chart ARIA Top 100 Albums Chart ARIA Top 100 Physical Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Streaming Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Club Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Catalogue Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Singles Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Country Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Music DVDs Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Singles Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Compilation Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Jazz & Blues Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Classical/Crossover Albums Chart ARIA Top 10 Core Classical Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Albums Chart Yearly Top 100 End of Year charts profiling the year in music End of Decade Top 100 charts profiling the decade in music Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2006 to present: Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2016 to present: Music of Australia List of Australian chart achievements and milestones Official website Top 50 chart archives from June 1988 at australian-charts.com Top 100 chart archives from January 2001 at Pandora Archive
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
New jack swing
New Jack Swing or swingbeat is a fusion genre spearheaded by Teddy Riley and Bernard Belle that became popular from the mid 1980s into the early 1990s, the style originated from Janet Jackson's third studio album, Control from 1986. Its influence, along with hip hop, seeped into pop culture and was the definitive sound of the inventive New York club scene, it fuses the rhythms and production techniques of hip hop and dance-pop with the urban contemporary sound of R&B. The new jack swing style developed as many previous music styles did, by combining elements of older styles with newer sensibilities, it used R&B style vocals sung over hip dance-pop style influenced instrumentation. The sound of new jack swing comes from the hip hop "swing" beats created by drum machine, hardware samplers, which were popular during the Golden Age of Hip Hop, with contemporary R&B style singing. Merriam-Webster's online dictionary defines new jack swing as "pop music performed by black musicians that combines elements of jazz, funk and rhythm and blues".
Encyclopædia Britannica calls it the "most pop-oriented rhythm-and-blues music since 1960s Motown", since its "performers were unabashed entertainers, free of artistic pretensions. New jack swing did take up the trend of using sampled beats and tunes, created beats using the then-new SP-1200 sampler and the Roland TR-808 drum machine to lay an "insistent beat under light melody lines and enunciated vocals." The Roland TR-808 was sampled to create distinctive, swung rhythms, with its snare sound being prominent. Two examples would be "Groove Me" by Guy which samples "Funky President", "My Thang" and "The Champ" as well as its own swing drums and "Right or Wrong" by Mind which fuses sharp drum reverb effects and a hidden looped sample of the Funky Drummer; the key producers were Babyface & L. A. Reid, Bernard Belle, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Teddy Riley. A collaboration between former members of Minneapolis music group The Time, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Janet Jackson originated the style that came to be known as new jack swing with Jackson's third studio album, Control.
Jam and Lewis used similar influences with hip-hop influenced drums with smoother R&B stylings in the production. Though Jackson had been popular in R&B music, Control established her crossover appeal in the popular music market. Musicologist Richard J. Ripani PhD, author of The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999, observed that the album was one of the first successful records to influence the rise of new jack swing by creating a fusion of R&B, funk and synthesized percussion; the new jack swing sound is evident in the second single, "Nasty". The success of Control, according to Ripani, bridged the gap between rap music, he asserts that "since Jackson's album was released in 1986 and was hugely successful, it is not unreasonable to assume that it had at least some impact on the new jack swing creations of Teddy Riley." Mantronix's early records in the mid-1980s had new jack elements. The term "new jack swing" was coined in an October 18, 1987, Village Voice profile of Teddy Riley by Barry Michael Cooper.
"New Jack" was a slang term used in a song by Grandmaster Caz of the Cold Crush Brothers, "swing" was intended by Cooper to draw an "analogy between the music played at the speakeasies of F. Scott Fitzgerald's time to the crackhouses of Teddy Riley's time."Teddy Riley's original name for the music was'sophisticated bubblegum music.' The term "new jack swing" describes the sound produced and engineered by R&B/hip hop artist and producer Teddy Riley. Riley is an American R&B and hip hop singer-songwriter and record producer, he led the band Guy in Blackstreet in the 1990s. Riley said, "I define the term as a new kid on the block who's swinging it." The defining feature of Riley's music was the introduction of swingbeats, "a rhythmic pattern using offbeat accented 16th note triplets." In an interview with Revolt TV in 2017, Andre Harrell called Riley the inventor of the sound, hailing him "the king of New Jack Swing, because he invented it."Music website VH1.com notes that while in the 2000s "hip-hop and R&B are kissing cousins," in the early 1980s, "the two genres were mentioned in the same breath."
However, in the late 1980s, "during the era of high-top fades, parachute pants, producer Teddy Riley and label boss Andre Harrell fused and marketed the two sounds in a sexy, exclamatory music that critics termed new jack swing. It sparked a revolution." Riley stated that before new jack swing, "Rappers and singers didn't want anything to do with one another," because "Singers were soft, rappers were street." Riley's new style blended "sweet melody and big beats." The sensibilities of Riley's fusion of the styles would forever change pop music/hip-hop music pairing and was further popularized with Bad Boy's dominance of the late'90s through much of the same techniques. Riley, a 19-year-old kid from Harlem became an A-list producer and commanded big fees to add his sound to major artist projects; the aesthetic of the culture spread to mainstream white audiences through popular groups such as New Kids on the Block. In October 2004, a variety of classic new jack swing tracks are used in the popular video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas.
The songs appear on fictional radio station the soundtrack. Bell Biv DeVoe member Michael Bivins portrays a self-absorbed DJ named Phillip "P. M." Michaels, aspiring to become an actor. New jack swing staged a revival of sorts in the mid-2000s, fueled by the 2