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State of the art

State-of-the-art refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time. However, in some contexts it can refer to a level of development reached at any particular time as a result of the common methodologies employed at the time; the term has been used since 1910, has become both a common term in advertising and marketing, a significant phrase with respect to both patent law and tort liability. In advertising, the phrase is used to convey that a product is made with the best or latest available technology, but it has been noted that "the term'state-of-the-art' requires little proof on the part of advertisers", as it is considered mere puffery; the use of the term in patent law, by contrast, "does not connote superiority, let alone the superlative quality the ad writers would have us ascribe to the term". The origin of the concept of "state-of-the-art" took place in the beginning of the twentieth century; the earliest use of the term "state-of-the-art" documented by the Oxford English Dictionary dates back to 1910, from an engineering manual by Henry Harrison Suplee, an engineering graduate, titled Gas Turbine: progress in the design and construction of turbines operated by gases of combustion.

The relevant passage reads: "In the present state-of-the-art this is all that can be done". The term "art" refers to technics, rather than performing or fine arts. Over time, use of the term increased in all fields. In this relation it has been quoted by the author that "Although eighteenth century writers did not use the term, there was indeed in existence a collection of scientific and engineering knowledge and expertise that can be identified as the state-of-the-art for that time". Despite its actual meaning, which does not convey technology, ahead of the industry, the phrase became so used in advertising that a 1985 article described it as "overused", stating that "t has no punch left and sounds like a lie". A 1994 essay listed it among "the same old tired clichés". In the context of European and Australian patent law, the term "state of the art" is a concept used in the process of assessing and asserting novelty and inventive step, is a synonym of the expression "prior art". In the European Patent Convention, " state-of-the-art shall be held to comprise everything made available to the public by means of a written or oral description, by use, or in any other way, before the date of filing of the European patent application" according to Article 54 EPC.

Due account should be taken of Article 54 EPC as well, but for the examination of novelty. The expression "background art" is used in certain legal provisions, such as Rule 42 and EPC, has the same meaning; the state-of-the-art is important in the law of tort liability in the areas of negligence and products liability. With respect to negligence, "an engineer may defend against a claim of negligence by contending that he met the standards of his profession and the state-of-the-art". With respect to products liability, manufacturers have strict liability for any injury caused by defects in their products. However, in some jurisdictions a manufacturer may raise as a legal defense the assertion that their product represents the "state-of-the-art", that the manufacturer therefore could not have made the product any safer in light of the knowledge available at the time. For example, "nder German law, the producer can raise the state-of-the-art defense: general tort law does not hold him liable if he could not know or discover the defect for lack of fault, the Product Liability Statute expressly provides for this defense".

This defense is available throughout the European Community under the Product Liability Directive, art. 7. Pursuant to this article: The state-of-the-art defense allows a defendant to be absolved of liability if he can prove that the state of technical and scientific knowledge, at the time when he put the product into circulation, was not such as to enable the existence of the defect to be discovered; the Directive allows Member States to eliminate the state-of-the-art defense, but only Luxembourg, which has little manufacturing industry, has done so. In the United States, in those states that follow the common law, the state of an industry is "merely evidence of due care rather than a controlling factor", but a number of states have State-of-the-Art statutes that "make a manufacturer's compliance with technological feasibility an absolute defense to a products liability suit"; because the state-of-the-art is advancing, the ability of manufacturers to claim that their products are "state-of-the-art" tracks their potential liability when these products are defective.

As an industry journal explained in the 1980s: Remote control rear view mirrors, disc brakes, automatic slack adjusters for drum brakes and sealed lighting systems are just a few examples of products that have advanced the state-of-the-art. When one of these gains a degree of industry acceptance, it begins to bridge a legal gap between what is state-of-the-art from a design standpoint, what is state-of-the-art from a usage standpoint; this could place a carrier in a vulnerable position in the not too distant future. Bleeding edge High end Innovation Regarding the patent law concept, see for example: Guidelines for Examination in the EPO, section g-iv: "State of the art" Legal Research Service for the Boards of Appeal, European Patent Office, Case Law of the Boards of Appeal of the EPO, i.c.2

Amber Mote in the Black Vault

Amber Mote in the Black Vault is an EP by the American grindcore band Full of Hell. It was released on January 8, 2016 through Bad Teeth Recordings; the first pressing went out of print and was re-issued through Closed Casket Activities a year in February 2017. Full of Hell began promoting the EP with an online stream of the opening track "Halogen Bulb" in November 2015. Amber Mote in the Black Vault was released while Full of Hell was on tour with Tombs and 1349; the track "Amber Mote" includes an excerpt from Thomas Wolfe's 1940 novel, You Can't Go Home Again. Amber Mote in the Black Vault is noted for Full of Hell's cover of sludge metal/grunge band Melvins' song "Oven", receiving a wide release on their 1989 second album, Ozma and a limited release as a single in 1987. Full of Hell had always been inspired by Melvins' ability to be a "totally unique and uncompromising band that has always worked their asses off" and that "with past covers that we've done, we've always deviated from the source material, but this time we chose to stick close to the original sound and tempo."

Writing for Scene Point Blank, Zachary Watt gave the EP a 9/10 rating, stating: "Though it is fair to say the album is less an exercise in noise than most of the band's previous efforts. The final track is an unexpected treat: a faithful cover of the Melvins song'Oven' from their 1989 release OZMA." Writing for Vice's music blog Noisey, Kim Kelly praised the band's cover, stating: "Full of Hell and the Melvins have a lot in common. They both revel in abrasion, pushing the limits of their own abilities as well as their audience's tolerance for noise, harbor a certain endearingly trollish disposition. They're both entrenched within their respective scenes, with the Melvins revered as elder statesmen and Full of Hell hailed as one of extreme music's most promising young acts, and, as it turns out, they complement one another's sounds—at least as far as we can tell from Full of Hell's grinding, pained cover of the Melvins' golden oldie'Oven.'" "Halogen Bulb" – 0:50 "Amber Mote" – 2:02 "Barb and Sap" – 1:33 "Oven" – 1:32 Amber Mote in the Black Vault on Bandcamp

Economica

Economica is a peer-reviewed academic journal of generalist economics published on behalf of the London School of Economics by Wiley-Blackwell. Established in 1921, it is edited by Nava Ashraf, Oriana Bandiera, Tim Besley, Francesco Caselli, Maitreesh Ghatak, Stephen Machin, Ian Martin, Gianmarco Ottaviano. Two influential papers in economics were published in Economica and have inspired a lecture series held annually at the London School of Economics: Coase, R. H.. "The Nature of the Firm". Economica. 4: 386–405. Doi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.1937.tb00002.x. Phillips, A. W.. "The Relation Between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wage Rates in the United Kingdom, 1861?1957". Economica. 25: 283–299. Doi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.1958.tb00003.x. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2018 impact factor of 1.500, ranking it 149th out of 363 journals in the category "Economics". List of economics journals Official website

Sōka

Sōka is a city in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 247,165, a population density of 9,000 persons per km², its total area is 27.46 square kilometres. Situated in the southeast corner of Saitama Prefecture 30 kilometers away from Tokyo. Sōka is surrounded to the east by the cities of Yashio and Yoshikawa, to the west by Kawaguchi. To the north is Koshigaya and to the south Adachi Ward of Metropolitan Tokyo. Sōka, once a peaceful agricultural area surrounded by water and greenery, lies in the Nakagawa-ayase basin, an area referred to as the Nakagawa-teichi district; this alluvial plain spreads over the central part of the Kanto Plain. As a result of urbanization, the once abundant greenery and clean water was adversely affected. Now, Sōka is promoting a "town of greenery and water based on history and the natural features of the area". Creation of areas of greenery reflecting the changes of the four seasons, the restoration of waterways and environs is being advanced.

Saitama Prefecture Koshigaya Kawaguchi Misato Yashio Yoshikawa Tokyo Adachi-ku During the Edo period, Sōka-shuku developed as a post station on the Nikkō Kaidō highway. The town of was Sōka created within Kitaadachi District, Saitama with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889, it annexed the neighboring villages of Yatsuka and Shinden on January 1, 1955, followed by the village of Kawayanagi on August 1, 1955. On November 1, 1955, Sōka was elevated to city status. Following this, rapid population expansion and urbanization took hold due to strong economic growth, fueled by its proximity to Tokyo; the city was proclaimed a tokureishi on April 2004 with increased local autonomy. Sōka traditionally is known for the Sōka senbei; however and food processing form a minor portion of the local economy, industrialized. Dokkyo University Sōka has 21 elementary schools, 11 junior high schools, four high school, one special education school. Tobu Railway - Tobu Skytree Line Yatsuka - Sōka - Dokkyodaigakumae - Shinden Tokyo Gaikan Expressway National Route 4 National Route 298 Sōka is twinned with: Carson, United States, since November 19, 1985 Shōwa, Japan, friendship city since 1985 Anyang, China, since November 1, 1988 Sōka Matsubara Hiroshi Imai, politician Yōko Honna, voice actress Yumi Kawai, actress Kenta Kobayashi, wrestler Tatsuya Yamaguchi, musician Official Website

Lascaris War Rooms

The Lascaris War Rooms are an underground complex of tunnels and chambers in Valletta, Malta that housed the War Headquarters from where the defence of the island was conducted during the Second World War. The rooms were used by NATO and are now open to the public as a museum; the British started work on the secret underground in 1940, during the siege of Malta, when a series of tunnels under the Upper Barrakka Gardens and the Saluting Battery, used as slave quarters during the Hospitaller period began to be expanded. The complex was completed in early 1943; the site takes its name from the nearby Lascaris Battery, itself named after Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, a Grandmaster who had built a garden on the site occupied by the battery. The Lascaris War Rooms contained operations rooms for each of the fighting services, from where both the defence of Malta and other operations in the Mediterranean were coordinated; the Operation Headquarters at Lascaris communicated directly with radar stations around the Maltese islands, it was equipped with Type X machines.

The fleets were led from the Navy Plotting Room, while the Anti-Aircraft Guns Operations Room was responsible for the air defence of the island. In the Coast Defence Room, defensive operations in the case of an amphibious invasion were planned; the Filter Room displayed information received from various places, including the naval station at Auberge de Castille. Lascaris was the advance Allied HQ from where General Eisenhower and his Supreme Commanders Admiral Cunningham, Field Marshal Montgomery and Air Marshal Tedder directed the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943. Throughout the war, around 1000 people worked including 240 soldiers. After the war, Lascaris became the Headquarters of the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet, they played an active part during the Suez Crisis of 1956, were put into full alert during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when a Soviet missile strike against Malta was feared. In 1967, the complex was taken over by NATO to be used as a strategic Communication Centre for the interception of Soviet submarines in the Mediterranean.

The war rooms continued to serve this function until they were closed down in 1977. The complex was leased to a private venture in 1992, it was refurbished and open to the public; the rooms closed down in 2005, but were acquired by Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna and the Malta Heritage Trust in 2009 and are once again open to the public. Restoration began soon after, it is nearly complete; when ready, it is planned that the rooms will form part of a Military Heritage Park, including both the war rooms and the NATO Command Centre, as well as the SS Peter and Paul Counterguard, the Saluting Battery, the crypt of the former Garrison Chapel. Guillaumier, Alfie. Bliet u Rħula Maltin. Volume 2. Klabb Kotba Maltin. P. 949-950. ISBN 99932-39-40-2, ISBN 99932-39-41-0. Official website National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands

Clarkia

Clarkia is a genus within the flowering plant family Onagraceae. Over 40 species are classified in Clarkia. Clarkias are annual plants, growing to a height of less than 1.5 metres. Their leaves are simple, from 1 to 10 cm in length depending on the species, their flowers have four petals. Several members of the genus are sometimes referred to by the common name "godetia", including Clarkia amoena, Clarkia affinis, Clarkia lassenensis; this is because they were classified in a genus called Godetia, no longer recognised since its members have been absorbed into the genus Clarkia. Older sources may still use Godetia as a genus name; the genus was named in honour of the explorer Captain William Clark. The Royal Navy had a warship called HMS Clarkia, a Flower-class corvette; some species are popular garden plants, for example the mountain garland, Clarkia unguiculata, the redspot clarkia, Clarkia speciosa, Farewell to Spring, Clarkia amoena and Clarkia bottae. There are cultivated varieties of some of these species.

Selected species Clarkia affinis Clarkia amoena Clarkia arcuata Clarkia australis Clarkia biloba Clarkia borealis Clarkia bottae Clarkia breweri Clarkia concinna Clarkia cylindrica Clarkia davyi Clarkia delicata Clarkia dudleyana Clarkia epilobioides Clarkia exilis Clarkia franciscana Clarkia gracilis Clarkia heterandra Clarkia imbricata Clarkia jolonensis Clarkia lassenensis Clarkia lewisii Clarkia lingulata Clarkia mildrediae Clarkia modesta Clarkia mosquinii Clarkia prostrata Clarkia pulchella Clarkia purpurea Clarkia rhomboidea Clarkia rostrata Clarkia rubicunda Clarkia similis Clarkia speciosa Clarkia springvillensis Clarkia stellata Clarkia tembloriensis Clarkia tenella Clarkia unguiculata Clarkia virgata Clarkia williamsonii Clarkia xantiana Data related to Clarkia at Wikispecies Media related to Category: Clarkia at Wikimedia Commons Jepson Manual treatment of the genus