Wilton House is an English country house at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. It has been the country seat of the Earls of Pembroke for over 400 years; the first recorded building on the site of Wilton House was a priory founded by King Egbert circa 871. Through the munificence of King Alfred, the priory was granted lands and manors until it became wealthy and powerful. However, by the time Wilton Abbey was dissolved in the Dissolution of the Monasteries set in motion by King Henry VIII, its prosperity was on the wane. Following the seizure of the abbey, Henry presented it and its attached estates to William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke c. 1544. William Herbert, the scion of a distinguished family in the Welsh marches, was a favourite of the king. Following a recommendation to King Henry by King Francis I of France, whom Herbert had served as a soldier of fortune, Herbert was granted arms after only two years. In 1538, Herbert married Anne Parr, daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal and sister of the future queen consort Catherine Parr and Sir William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal.
The granting of an estate such as the Abbey of Wilton to Herbert was an accolade and evidence of his position at court. The first grants dated March and April 1542, include the site of the late monastery, the manor of Washerne adjoining the manors of Chalke; these were given to "William Herbert and Anne his wife for the term of their lives with certain reserved rents to King Henry VIII." When Edward VI re-granted the manors to the family, it was explicitly "to the aforenamed Earl, by the name of Sir William Herbert and the Lady Anne his wife and the heirs male of their bodies between them lawfully begotten." Lady Anne had been a joint creator of the enterprise. Herbert began to transform the deserted abbey into a fine house and symbol of his wealth, it had been thought that the old abbey had been demolished. It has long been claimed, without proof, that Hans Holbein the Younger re-designed the abbey as a rectangular house around a central courtyard, the core of the present house. Holbein died in 1543, so his designs for the new house would have had to be speedily executed.
However, the great entrance porch to the new mansion, removed from the house and transformed into a garden pavilion in the 19th century, is to this day known as the "Holbein Porch" — a perfect example of the blending of the older Gothic and the brand-new Renaissance style. If not by Holbein, it is by the hand of a great master. Whoever the architect, a great mansion arose. Today only one other part of the Tudor mansion survives: the great tower in the centre of the east facade. With its central arch and three floors of oriel windows above, the tower is reminiscent of the entrance at Hampton Court. Flanked today by two wings in a loose Georgian style – each topped by an Italianate pavilion tower, this Tudor centrepiece of the facade appears not in the least incongruous displaying the accepted appearance of a great English country house, which has evolved over the centuries; the Tudor house built by William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, in 1551 lasted 80 years. On the succession of the 4th Earl in 1630, he decided to pull down the southern wing and erect a new complex of staterooms in its place.
It is now that the second great name associated with Wilton appears: Inigo Jones. The architecture of the south front is in severe Palladian style, described at the time as in the "Italian Style. While the remainder of the house is on three floors of equal value in the English style, the south front has a low rusticated ground floor suggesting a semi-basement. Three small porches project at this level only, one at the centre, one at each end of the facade, providing small balconies to the windows above; the next floor is the piano nobile, at its centre the great double-height Venetian window, ornamented at second floor level by the Pembroke arms in stone relief. This central window is flanked by four tall sash windows on each side; these windows have low flat pediments. Each end of the facade is defined by "corner stone" decoration giving a suggestion that the single-bay wings project forward; the single windows here are topped by a true pointed pediment. Above this floor is a further mezzanine floor, its small unpedimented windows aligning with the larger below, serve to emphasise the importance of the piano nobile.
The roofline is hidden by a balustrade. Each of the terminating'wings' is crowned by a one-storey, pedimented tower resembling a Palladian pavilion. At the time, his style was an innovation. Just thirty years earlier, Montacute House, exemplifying the English Renaissance, had been revolutionary. Attributing the various architectural stages can be difficult, the degree to which Inigo Jones was involved has been questioned. Queen Henrietta Maria, a frequent guest at Wilton, interrogated Jones about his work there. At the time he was employed by her, it seems at this time Jones was too busy with his royal clients and did no more than provide a few sketches for a mansion, which he delegated for execution to an assistant Isaac de Caus, a Frenchman and landscape gardener from Diepp
A garret is a habitable attic or small and dismal or cramped living space at the top of a house or larger residential building. In the days before lifts this was the least prestigious position in a building. In this era, the garret had sloping ceilings; the word entered Middle English via Old French with a military connotation of a watchtower or something akin to a garrison, in other words a place for guards or soldiers to be quartered in a house. Like garrison it comes from an Old French word garir of Germanic origin meaning to provide or defend. In the 1800s, garrets became one of the defining features of Second Empire architecture in Paris, where large buildings were stratified between different floors, as the number of stairs to climb increased. Garrets were often internal elements of the mansard roof with skylights or dormer windows. A'bow garret' is a two-storey'outhouse' situated at the back of a typical terraced house used in Lancashire for the hat industry in pre-mechanised days.'Bowing' was the name given to the technique of cleaning up animal fur in the early stages of preparation for turning it into hats.
What is now believed to be the last bow garret in existence has now been listed in order to preserve this historical relic. Garratt – a type of steam locomotive Garratt Garet – people Garrett Garrett – history of the name Garret Jarrett Old maid in the garret
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A dining room is a room for consuming food. In modern times it is adjacent to the kitchen for convenience in serving, although in medieval times it was on an different floor level; the dining room is furnished with a rather large dining table and a number of dining chairs. In the Middle Ages, upper class Britons and other European nobility in castles or large manor houses dined in the great hall; this was a large multi-function room capable of seating the bulk of the population of the house. The family would sit at the head table on a raised dais, with the rest of the population arrayed in order of diminishing rank away from them. Tables in the great hall would tend to be long trestle tables with benches; the sheer number of people in a Great Hall meant it would have had a busy, bustling atmosphere. Suggestions that it would have been quite smelly and smoky are by the standards of the time, unfounded; these rooms had large chimneys and high ceilings and there would have been a free flow of air through the numerous door and window openings.
It is true that the owners of such properties began to develop a taste for more intimate gatherings in smaller'parlers' or'privee parlers' off the main hall but this is thought to be due as much to political and social changes as to the greater comfort afforded by such rooms. Over time, the nobility took more of their meals in the parlour, the parlour became, functionally, a dining room, it migrated farther from the Great Hall accessed via grand ceremonial staircases from the dais in the Great Hall. Dining in the Great Hall became something, done on special occasions. Toward the beginning of the 18th Century, a pattern emerged where the ladies of the house would withdraw after dinner from the dining room to the drawing room; the gentlemen would remain in the dining room having drinks. The dining room tended to take on a more masculine tenor as a result. A typical North American dining room will contain a table with chairs arranged along the sides and ends of the table, as well as other pieces of furniture such as sideboards and china cabinets, as space permits.
Tables in modern dining rooms will have a removable leaf to allow for the larger number of people present on those special occasions without taking up extra space when not in use. Although the "typical" family dining experience is at a wooden table or some sort of kitchen area, some choose to make their dining rooms more comfortable by using couches or comfortable chairs. In modern American and Canadian homes, the dining room is adjacent to the living room, being used only for formal dining with guests or on special occasions. For informal daily meals, most medium size houses and larger will have a space adjacent to the kitchen where table and chairs can be placed, larger spaces are known as a dinette while a smaller one is called a breakfast nook. Smaller houses and condos may have a breakfast bar instead of a different height than the regular kitchen counter. If a home lacks a dinette, breakfast nook, or breakfast bar the kitchen or family room will be used for day-to-day eating; this was traditionally the case in Britain, where the dining room would for many families be used only on Sundays, other meals being eaten in the kitchen.
In Australia, the use of a dining room is still prevalent, yet not an essential part of modern home design. For most, it is considered a space to be used during formal celebrations. Smaller homes, akin to the USA and Canada, use a breakfast bar or table placed within the confines of a kitchen or living space for meals. Cafeteria Refectory
Small office/home office
Small office/home office refers to the category of business or cottage industry that involves from 1 to 10 workers. In New Zealand, the Ministry of Business and Employment defines a small office as 6 to 19 employees and a micro office as 1-5. Before the 19th century, the spread of the industrial revolution around the globe, nearly all offices were small offices and/or home offices, with only a few exceptions. Most businesses were small, the paperwork that accompanied them was limited; the industrial revolution aggregated workers to mass-produce goods. In most circumstances, the white collar counterpart—office work—was aggregated as well in large buildings in cities or densely populated suburban areas. Beginning in the mid-1980s, the advent of the personal computer and fax machine, plus breakthroughs in telecommunications, created opportunities for office workers to decentralize. Decentralization was perceived as benefiting employers in terms of lower overheads and greater productivity. Many consultants and the members of such professions like lawyers, real estate agents, surveyors in small and medium-sized towns operate from home offices.
Several ranges of products, such as the armoire desk and all-in-one printer, are designed for the SOHO market. A number of books and magazines have been published and marketed at this type of office; these range from general advice texts to specific guidebooks on such challenges as setting up a small PBX for the office telephones. Technology has created a demand for larger businesses to employ individuals who work from home. Sometimes these people remain as independent businesspersons, sometimes they become employees of a larger company; the small office home office has undergone a transformation since its advent as the internet has enabled anyone working from a home office to compete globally. Technology has made this possible through email, the World-Wide Web, e-commerce, videoconferencing, remote desktop software, webinar systems, telephone connections by VOIP. Due to the increase in small and home offices, web services and standard business software have been created to directly assist smaller businesses in standard business practice In the United States a home office can be claimed as a tax deduction only if office space and supplies are not provided by a corporate office.
Basset, Brian. Bless This Home Office... With tax credits: An Adam Compilation. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing. Johnson, Karen K. ed.. Ortho's All About Home Offices. DesMoines, Iowa: Ortho Publishing Group. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list Manroe, Candace Ord; the Home Office: Setting Up, Furnishing and Decorating Your Own Work Space. Michael Friedman Publishing Group Inc. Zimmerman, Neal. Home Workspace Idea Book. Taunton Press
A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with human beings.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A typical "foursquare house" occurred in the early history of the US where they were built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, connected to other sections of the home. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.
Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offe
A boudoir is a woman's private sitting room or salon in a furnished accommodation between the dining room and the bedroom, but can refer to a woman's private bedroom. The term derives from the French verb bouder or adjective boudeur —the room was a space for sulking in, or one to put away or withdraw to. A cognate of the English "bower" the boudoir formed part of the private suite of rooms of a "lady" or upper-class woman, for bathing and dressing, adjacent to her bedchamber, being the female equivalent of the male cabinet. In periods, the boudoir was used as a private drawing room, was used for other activities, such as embroidery or spending time with one's romantic partner. English-language usage varies between countries, is now historical. In the United Kingdom, in the period when the term was most used, a boudoir was a lady's evening sitting room, was separate from her morning room, her dressing room; as this multiplicity of rooms with overlapping functions suggests, boudoirs were found only in grand houses.
In the United States, in the same era, boudoir was an alternative term for dressing room, favored by those who felt that French terms conferred more prestige. In Caribbean English, a boudoir is the front room of the house where women entertain family and friends; the term boudoir has come to denote a style of furnishing for the bedroom, traditionally described as ornate or busy. The plethora of links available on the Internet to furnishing sites using the term boudoir tend to focus on Renaissance and French inspired bedroom styles. In recent times, they have been used to describe the'country cottage' style with whitewashed-style walls and heavy bed furniture, deep bedding; the term "boudoir" may be ascribed to a genre of photography. Boudoir photography is not a new concept and numerous examples including images of Clara Bow, Mae West and Jean Harlow photographed in a boudoir style from the 1920s through the 1940s. Shot in a photographer's studio or luxury hotel suites, it has become fashionable to create a set of sensual or sexually suggestive images of women in indoor "boudoir style" environments.
The most common manifestation of contemporary boudoir photography is to take variations of candid and posed photographs of the subject clothed or in lingerie. Nudity is more implied than explicit. Commercially the genre is derived from a market for brides to surprise their future husbands by gifting the images on or before their wedding day. Other motivations or inspiration for boudoir photography shoots include anniversaries, Valentine's Day, weight loss regimes, other form of body change or alteration and for servicemen and women overseas. Boudoir photography may, in some cases, be distinguished from other photography genres such as glamour photography, fine art nude photography and erotic photography; the Marquis de Sade in his literary works helped develop a reputation in this small room dedicated to the privacy of female talks. Since the success of his book Philosophy in the Bedroom, the small sitting room or salon has a scandalous reputation combined with those of all exchanges and frolics.
Harem Ladyfinger, which translates as boudoirs in French