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State supreme court

In the United States, a state supreme court is the highest court in the state judiciary of a U. S. state. On matters of state law, the judgment of a state supreme court is considered final and binding in both state and federal courts. Decisions on state supreme court cases can be appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States if they involve a point of federal law; the state supreme court, like most appellate tribunals, is for hearing appeals of legal issues. It does not make any finding of facts, thus holds no trials. In the case where the trial court made an egregious error in its finding of facts, the state supreme court will remand to the trial court for a new trial; this responsibility of correcting the errors of inferior courts is the origin of a number of the different names for supreme courts in various state court systems. The court consists of a panel of judges selected by methods outlined in the state constitution. State supreme courts are distinct from any United States federal courts located within the geographical boundaries of a state's territory, or the federal-level Supreme Court.

Under American federalism, a state supreme court's ruling on a matter of purely state law is final and binding and must be accepted in both state and federal courts. Where applicable, state supreme courts apply federal law. Federal appellate review of state supreme court rulings on federal matters may be sought by way of a petition for writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States; as the U. S. Supreme Court recognized in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins, no part of the federal Constitution grants federal courts or the federal Congress the power to directly dictate the content of state law. Clause 1 of Section 2 of Article Three of the United States Constitution describes the scope of federal judicial power, but only extended it to "the Laws of the United States" and not the laws of the several or individual states, it is this silence on that latter issue that gave rise to the American distinction between state and federal common law not found in other English-speaking common law federations like Australia and Canada.

One of the informal traditions of the American legal system, derived from the common law, is that all litigants are guaranteed at least one appeal after a final judgment on the merits. However, appeal is a privilege provided by statute in 47 states and in federal judicial proceedings. S. Supreme Court has ruled that there is no federal constitutional right to an appeal. Since a few states lack intermediate appellate courts, the state supreme court may operate under "mandatory review", in which it must hear all appeals from the trial courts; this was the case, for example, in Nevada. Such judicial systems are very congested. Most state supreme courts have implemented "discretionary review," like their federal counterpart. Under such a system, intermediate appellate courts are entrusted with deciding the vast majority of appeals. Intermediate appellate courts focus on the mundane task of what appellate specialists call "error correction," which means their primary task is to decide whether the record reflects that the trial court applied existing law.

For certain limited categories of cases, the state supreme court still operates under mandatory review with regard to cases involving the interpretation of the state constitution or capital punishment. But for the vast majority, the state supreme court possesses the discretion to grant certiorari; these cases pertain to issues which different appellate courts within its jurisdiction have decided differently, or controversial cases involving a new legal issue never seen in that state. In other words, once the state supreme court is able to offload the tedious burden of error correction to intermediate courts, it can focus on the long-term task of developing a coherent body of case law for the people of its state. Iowa and Nevada have a unique procedure for appeals. In those states, all appeals are filed with the appropriate Supreme Court which keeps all cases of first impression for itself to decide, it forwards the remaining cases – which deal with points of law it has addressed – to the intermediate Court of Appeals.

Under this so-called "push-down" or "deflection" model of appellate procedure, the state supreme court can establish final statewide precedents on important issues of first impression as soon as they arise, rather than waiting several months or years for the intermediate appellate court to make a first attempt at resolving the issue. Notably, the Supreme Court of Virginia operates under discretionary review for nearly all cases, but the intermediate Court of Appeals of Virginia hears appeals as a matter of right only in family and administrative cases; the result is that there is no first appeal of right for the vast majority of civil and criminal cases in that state. Appellants are still free to petition for review, of course, but such petitions are subject to severe length constraints and are more narrowly targeted than a long opening appellate brief to an intermediate appellate court. In turn, the vast majority of decisions of Virginia circuit courts in c

Ibn al-Jazari

Abu al-Khayr Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Yusuf al-Jazari was a distinguished and prolific scholar in the field of the qira'at of the Qur'an, whom al-Suyuti regarded as the "ultimate authority on these matters". His works on tajwid and qira'at are considered classics; the nisba, denotes an origin from Jazirat ibn'Umar. Al-Jazari was born in Damascus on Friday 26 November 1350, at a time where his parents were long past the age of having children, yet his father, had not given up all hope of having a child after 40 years of marriage, it is said. He completed the memorization of the Qur'an at the age of 13 and learned the art of Qur'anic recitation at an early age. In Damascus, al-Jazari founded and headed Dar al-Qur'an, a school that specialized in Qur'anic sciences, he travelled to Mecca, Medina and Alexandria where he took knowledge from its scholars and in 774 AH, he was authorized by his teacher Ibn Kathir to issue verdicts in Islamic law. He served as a qadi of Damascus in 793 AH and in Shiraz where he died.

Al-Jazri died at the age of 79 on Friday 2 December 1429 in Iran. Al-Jazari compiled more than 90 works on qira'at, hadith and other disciples; these include: Taḥbīr al-taysīr fī qirāʼāt al-ʻashr Taqrīb al-Nashr fī al-qirāʼāt al-ʻashr Al-Tamhīd fī ʻilm al-tajwīd Ṭayyibat al-nashr fī al-qirāʼāt al-ʻashr Munjid al-Muqriʼīn wa-murshid al-ṭālibīn

Shōchō Hagami

Shōchō Hagami was a great acharya of Tendai Buddhism and one of the most prominent Japanese Buddhists of the 20th century. He served as President of the Japanese Religious Committee for World Federation and advocated the need for the cooperation of religious leaders, which transcends religious and denominational boundaries. Hagami was a professor of German philosophy at Taisho University and in turn served as a journalist for the Sanyo Shimbun. However, the untimely death of his wife as well as the defeat of Japan at WWII triggered him to pursue religious life, whereby to help Japan restore itself from the postwar devastation. In 1946, he entered the Buddhist monastery at Mount Hiei, the headquarters of the Tendai school and the Mother Mountain of Japanese Buddhism. Hagami was the 39th monk in history who completed the ordeal of endurance and both physical and mental strength, known as Sennichi Kaihōgyō in Japanese, or “thousand-day around-the-peaks training.” He completed other ordeals such as a thousand days of Unshin Kaihōgyō and a thousand days of Hokke Zanmaigyō.

While fostering new generations of Japan for lives of influence and service, Hagami was engaged in promoting reconciliation and peaceful coexistence across the world. He appealed to Pope Paul VI and other religious leaders of the world to create an International League of all religious people of the whole world in order to end all the wars among religions as well as all the conflicts caused in the name of religions. Hagami once noted: “It is said that the root of all evil is human pride, human ego, class ego, racial ego, national ego, yet religion, supposed, above all, to teach the casting away of ego, itself has the egoism of sects and religious institutions. And this is what makes me dislike religionists.... True religion is born from the abyss of despair. I believe that when it becomes a question of whether mankind will survive or not religion will return to a purer position, will set out in a great new direction.”Hagami maintained that for the advancement of world peace, Judaism and Islam must be reconciled, that Japanese Buddhists—as religious people of the first victim of nuclear attack in human history—must serve as mediators for that reconciliation.

Accordingly, he visited Egypt and the Vatican many times and established close friendships with the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat as well as with Cardinal Sergio Pignedoli of the Vatican. In July 1977, Hagami urged him to make peace with Israel; this was one of the triggers that led Sadat's dramatic journey to the Knesset in Israel. Sadat himself mentioned Hagami's impact on this initiation in his letter of gratitude to Hagami. At Hagami's suggestion, Sadat sponsored a communal service in November 1979, gathering representatives of Islam and Christianity at the foot of Mount Sinai on the occasion of the transfer of the Sinai Peninsula from Israel to Egypt. In October 1981, when Hagami learned about the assassination of Sadat, he felt responsible for Sadat's death. Sadat was said to have been killed for shaking hands with Jews. In March 1984, as a way, in part, to commemorate Sadat's death, Hagami organized a joint prayer meeting for world peace on Mount Sinai, by appealing to religious leaders in the US and Egypt.

130 people assembled there to represent Judaism, Islam and Shintoism, from the US, Egypt and Japan, prayed for the speedy end of the Middle East War and performed different religious ceremonies according to the respective styles of rituals. In August 1987, Hagami invited prominent leaders of various religions of the world to hold the first Religious Summit Meeting on Mount Hiei, Japan. Hagami thereby advanced peaceful coexistence, interfaith dialogue, acceptance of others, he visited Israel in 1988 and was acquainted with a variety of religious leaders and scholars such as André Chouraqui, R. J. Zwi Werblowsky, Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu. To further advance interfaith dialogue, Hagami planned to hold a Religious Summit Meeting in Jerusalem but died before its fruition. Media related to Shōchō Hagami at Wikimedia Commons