Wind power in Connecticut
The U. S. state of Connecticut has vast wind energy resources onshore as well as offshore although Connecticut is the only state in the United States to block the construction of utility scale wind turbines. Connecticut maintains a Renewable portfolio standard that requires 23% of the state's electricity to come from renewable sources by 2020. Connecticut remains the only state in the United States to disallow the construction of utility-scale wind turbines; the state's two and a half year old ban on wind power was enacted in 2011, ostensibly to provide time for the Siting Council to enact regulations governing the siting of wind turbines in the state. Those regulations were written in 2012 to address health and safety issues related to wind power, such as maximum noise levels and distances from neighboring properties, but the legislative committee tasked with approving state agency regulations has refused to approve the regulations. On November 26, 2013 the Connecticut General Assembly's Regulation Review Committee, for the fourth time since 2012, blocked the Connecticut Siting Council's Regulations that would have ended the state's ban on new wind power projects.
The committee, led by co-chairman State Representative Selim Noujaim, forced the Siting Council to withdraw its proposal. This ban stands in stark contrast to Connecticut’s renewable energy laws requiring utilities to purchase 27% clean electricity by the year 2020. Concerns about the development of regulations were documented at the CT Siting Council’s public forum on October 13, 2011 and its public hearing on July 24, 2012,In its second draft of wind regulations, the CT Siting Council increased the setback distance from 1.1 times to 1.5 times the height of an industrial wind turbine from property lines. Drafts 1, 2 and 3 were each rejected without prejudice by the Regulations Review Committee; the CT Siting Council submitted the third rejected draft again, for a vote of the Regulations Review Committee on November 26, 2013. During that meeting, the CT Siting Council decided to withdraw the rejected third draft instead of putting it to another vote; the fourth draft was set for a vote at the April 22, 2014 meeting of the Regulations Review Committee.
Changes in this draft include a financial assurance for decommissioning and requiring a 3/4 vote of the CT Siting Council for it to waive minimum setback distances and maximum shadow flicker on occupied structures. The CT Siting Council did not increase the setback distance. Estimates by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicate that Connecticut has potential to install 26.5 MW, of onshore wind power using 80 meter high wind turbines. Connecticut has three large scale wind turbines: A Northwind 100 located in New Haven at Phoenix Press; the turbine, rated at 100 kW, is visible from Interstate 95 on the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge. The two GE 2.5 megawatt turbines at Colebrook, which went online on October 16, 2015. Wind Colebrook is a permitted wind farm in Colebrook, developed by BNE Energy, with an expected capacity of 9.6 MW using 3 GE 1.6 MW wind turbines at Wind Colebrook North and 3 identical wind turbines at Wind Colebrook South. Wind Colebrook won a legal battle with their opponent, Fair Wind CT, in Connecticut Superior Court in October 2012, as a judge said that the six turbines would not unduly hurt the environment or harm the neighbors.
The two rulings this week by Judge Henry Cohn, for two separate proposals of three turbines each, leaves BNE Energy Inc. closer to building the 9.6 MW project in Colebrook. The project is halted due to the ban on wind farms in ConnecticutOn February 21, 2014 the CT Supreme Court heard oral arguments in FairWindCT’s appeal against the CT Siting Council and BNE Energy for the approvals of Wind Colebrook South and Wind Colebrook North. A decision is expected sometime in 2014. Wind Colebrook North did not receive the required approval from the U. S. Army Corps; this agency agreed with the CT State Historic Preservation Office that the industrial turbines would have an adverse effect on Rock Hall, an estate designed by Addison Mizner and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Wind Prospect is cancelled wind generation project, developed by BNE Energy, with an expected capacity of 3.2 MW utilizing 2 GE 1.6 MW wind turbines in Prospect, Connecticut. The site is high on a ridge adjacent to and overlooking the New Naugatuck Reservoir.
The predicted wind speeds and physical characteristics of the site are favorable for wind generation due to its elevation and topographical characteristics. The site is located within one hundred yards from the electrical grid. Wind Prospect would meet the annual electric power needs of 25% of the Town’s residential electric users on average over the course of the year, nearly 85% of the Town’s residential electric needs when the turbines are operating at full capacity. Wind Prospect would offset 8 million pounds of carbon dioxide per year relative to conventional electricity generation. That’s equivalent to the estimated annual emissions produced by 1,154 cars or consuming more than 14,046 barrels of oil. Wind Prospect was denied by the CT Siting Council on May 12, 2011, which found ”the visual effects...are in conflict with the policies of the State concerning such effects and are a sufficient reason to deny the petition.” Solar power in Connecticut Wind power in the United States Renewable energy in the United States List of U.
S. states by electricity production from renewable sources New England Wind Forum official webpage
A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of horizontal axis; the smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. One assessment claimed that, as of 2009, wind had the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and... the most favourable social impacts" compared to photovoltaic, geothermal and gas. The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history.
However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Persia, from the 7th century. These "Panemone" were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical drive shafts with rectangular blades. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages; the first historical records of their use in England date to the 11th or 12th centuries and there are reports of German crusaders taking their windmill-making skills to Syria around 1190. By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine delta. Advanced wind turbines were described by Croatian inventor Fausto Veranzio. In his book Machinae Novae he described vertical axis wind turbines with V-shaped blades; the first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.
Some months American inventor Charles F. Brush was able to build the first automatically operated wind turbine after consulting local University professors and colleagues Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and getting the blueprints peer-reviewed for electricity production in Cleveland, Ohio. Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom, electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with scattered populations. In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW; the largest machines were on 24-meter towers with four-bladed 23-meter diameter rotors. By 1908, there were 72 wind-driven electric generators operating in the United States from 5 kW to 25 kW. Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year for water-pumping. By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.
In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, the generators were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931; this was a 100 kW generator on a 30-meter tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 percent, not much different from current wind machines. In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont; the Smith–Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure. The unit was not repaired, because of a shortage of materials during the war; the first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1951 in the Orkney Islands. Despite these diverse developments, developments in fossil fuel systems entirely eliminated any wind turbine systems larger than supermicro size. In the early 1970s, anti-nuclear protests in Denmark spurred artisan mechanics to develop microturbines of 22 kW.
Organizing owners into associations and co-operatives lead to the lobbying of the government and utilities and provided incentives for larger turbines throughout the 1980s and later. Local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain, large investors in the United States in the early 1990s lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. Wind Power Density is a quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location, it is the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, is calculated for different heights above ground. Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of air density. Wind turbines are classified by the wind speed they are designed for, from class I to class III, with A to C referring to the turbulence intensity of the wind. Conservation of mass requires that the amount of air exiting a turbine must be equal. Accordingly, Betz's law gives the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine as 16/27 of the total kinetic energy of the air flowing through the turbine.
The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. If the effective area of the disk is A, the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P = 16
Northwestern United States
The Northwestern United States is an informal geographic region of the United States. The region includes the states of Oregon and Idaho—and Montana and Wyoming; some sources include Southeast Alaska in the Northwest. The related but distinct term "Pacific Northwest" excludes areas from the Rockies eastward; the Northwestern United States is a subportion of the Western United States. In contrast, states included in the neighboring regions and Utah are not considered part of both regions. Like the southwestern United States, the Northwest definition has moved westward over time; the current area includes the old Oregon Territory. The region is similar to Federal Region X, which comprises Oregon, Washington and Alaska, it is home to over 14.2 million people. Some of the fastest growing cities in this region and in the nation include Seattle, Bellevue, Vancouver, Pasco, Portland, Salem, Boise and Billings; as the United States' westward expansion, the country's western border shifted westward, so did the location of the Northwestern and Southwestern United States.
In the early years of the United States, newly colonized lands lying west of the Allegheny Mountains were detached from Virginia and given the name Northwest Territory. During the decades that followed, the Northwest Territory covered much of the Great Lakes region east of the Mississippi River; as of 2016, the Northwestern states have a cumulative population of 14,297,316, with Oregon and Washington accounting for 77% of the entire five-state region's population. As of 2016, there are 25 metropolitan statistical areas in the Northwest with populations of 100,000 or more, none of which are in Wyoming. Since adjacent metropolitan areas function as one combined agglomeration, the U. S. Census Bureau additionally defines nine combined statistical areas across the Northwest, eight of which having populations of 100,000 or more. Lavender, David. Land of Giants: The Drive to the Pacific Northwest, 1750- 1950 online Schwantes, Carlos; the Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History online Warren, Sidney.
Farthest Frontier: The Pacific Northwest online Winther, Oscar Osburn. The great northwest: a history
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat and other products. Many small selective herbivores follow larger grazers which skim off the highest, tough growth of grasses, exposing tender shoots. For terrestrial animals, grazing is distinguished from browsing in that grazing is eating grass or forbs, whereas browsing is eating woody twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs. Grazing differs from predation, it differs from parasitism because the two organisms live together in a constant state of physical externality. Water animals that feed by rasping algae and other micro-organisms from stones are called grazers-scrapers. Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. Graminivory is a form of grazing involving feeding on grass.
Horses, capybara, grasshoppers and giant pandas are graminivores. Giant pandas are 99 % of their diet consisting of sub-alpine bamboo species. Rabbits are herbivores that feed by grazing on grass and leafy weeds, they graze and for about the first half-hour of a grazing period, followed by about half an hour of more selective feeding. If the environment is non-threatening, the rabbit remains outdoors for many hours, grazing at intervals, their diet contains large amounts of cellulose, hard to digest. Rabbits solve this problem by using a form of hindgut fermentation, they pass two distinct types of feces: hard droppings and soft black viscous pellets, the latter of which are known as caecotrophs and are eaten. Rabbits reingest their own droppings to extract sufficient nutrients. Capybara are herbivores that graze on grasses and aquatic plants, as well as fruit and tree bark; as with other grazers, they can be selective, feeding on the leaves of one species and disregarding other species surrounding it.
They eat a greater variety of plants during the dry season. While they eat grass during the wet season, they have to switch to more abundant reeds during the dry season; the capybara's jaw hinge is not perpendicular. Capybara are coprophagous as a means of obtaining bacterial gut flora to help digest the cellulose in the grass that forms their normal diet, to extract the maximum protein and vitamins from their food, they may regurgitate food to masticate again, similar to cud-chewing by a cow. As with other rodents, the front teeth of capybara grow continually to compensate for the constant wear from eating grasses; the hippopotamus is a large, semi-aquatic, mammal inhabiting rivers and mangrove swamps. During the day, they remain cool by staying in the mud, they emerge at dusk to graze on grasses. While hippopotamuses rest near each other in the water, grazing is a solitary activity, their incisors can be the canines up to 50 cm. Hippos rely on their broad, horny lips to grasp and pull grasses which are ground by the molars.
The hippo is considered to be a pseudoruminant. Although grazing is associated with mammals feeding on grasslands, or more livestock in a pasture, ecologists sometimes use the word in a broader sense, to include any organism that feeds on any other species without ending the life of the prey organism. Use of the term varies more than this. Malacologists sometimes apply the word to aquatic snails that feed by consuming the microscopic film of algae and detritus—a biofilm—that covers the substrate and other surfaces underwater; the use of livestock grazing can be dated back to the Civil War. During this time land ownership was not common, ranchers grazed their cattle on the surrounding federal, land. Not having a permanent home, these cowboys would graze an area down, continue on their way. More however, cattle were rotated between summer and winter ranges. Soon the public saw how profitable cattle could be, many tried to get into the cattle business. With the appearance of free, unlimited grass and feed, the land became overcrowded and the forage depleted.
Ranchers tried to put a stop to this by using barbed wire fences to barricade their land, water sources, cattle. After failed attempts, the Taylor Grazing Act was enacted in 1934; this act was put into place to help regulate the use of public land for grazing purposes and allotted ranchers certain paddocks of land. Additionally, "fees collected for grazing livestock on public lands was returned to the appropriate grazing district to be used for range improvements"; the Taylor Grazing Act helped to stabilize ranchers' operations and allow them to continue raising their livestock. In the 19th century, grazing techniques were non-existent. Pastures would be grazed for long periods of time, wi
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Wind power in Arizona
As of 2016, Arizona has 268 megawatts of wind powered electricity generating capacity, producing 0.5% of in-state generated electricity. Utility-scale wind power in Arizona began in 2009 with the commissioning of the first phase of the Dry Lake Wind Power Project in Navajo County; the following table compares the growth in wind power installed nameplate capacity in MW for Arizona and the entire United States since 2005. Arizona has the potential to install up to 10.9 GW of onshore wind power nameplate capacity at 80 meter, 74.4 GW at 110 meter, or 191.0 GW at 140 meter hub height, generating 585 TWh annually. For comparison, Arizona consumed 69.391 TWh of electricity in 2005. S. wind power industry was producing at an annual rate of 50 TWh at the end of 2008. Dry Lake Wind Power Project in Navajo County is Arizona's first utility-scale wind farm. Phase 1 consists of 30 Suzlon 2.1 MW wind turbines, for a total nameplate capacity of 63 MW. Iberdrola Renewables built the wind farm for $100 million, sells the output to Salt River Project.
As of 2012, BP Wind Energy of North America proposes building the Mohave County Wind Farm project comprising up to 258 wind turbines on federally managed lands in Mohave County. The site – about 49,000 acres of public land – is in the White Hills area about 40 miles northwest of Kingman and 20 miles southeast of Hoover Dam; the project should have up to 500 MW of construction may be in phases. Transmission lines are planned to connect to existing Western Area Power Administration lines. Kingman Wind Farm, built in 2011, has 10 MW of wind turbines. Perrin Ranch Wind Farm in Coconino County began operation in 2012 with 62 wind turbines, generating 99.2 MW of electricity. Fort Huachuca has an 850 KW two blade wind turbine installed in 2011. Red Horse 2 Wind and Solar Project has 30 MW of wind turbines installed in 2015. Flagstaff is the home of Southwest Windpower; the ASU School of Sustainability in Tempe, Arizona features an array of small wind turbines on its roof, with real-time data available to the public through the ASU Campus Metabolism web site.
According to the USDOE, each 1000 MW of wind power capacity installed in Arizona will annually save 818 million gallons of water and eliminate 2.0 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. For comparison, Arizona emitted a total of 101,510,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2007. Index of Arizona-related articles List of U. S. states by carbon dioxide emissions List of wind farms in the United States Outline of Arizona Solar power in Arizona
Wind power in Alaska
Wind power in Alaska has the potential to provide all of the electricity used in the U. S. state of Alaska. From its installation, in July 2009 through October 2012, the Pillar Mountain Wind 4.5 MW wind farm has saved the use of nearly 3,000,000 US gallons of diesel fuel in Kodiak, Alaska. In early 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released the first comprehensive update of wind energy potential by state since 1993, showing that Alaska has the potential to install 494,700 MW of wind power, capable of generating 1,620,000 million kWh/year. Alaska used 6,291 million kWh in 2011. Eva Creek Wind Project Fire Island Wind Project Pillar Mountain Wind Project Wind power in the United States Renewable Energy Projects