Somalia is a federal republic consisting of five states divided into eighteen administrative regions, which in turn are subdivided into districts. The regions of northeastern state of Puntland formed in 1998. Galmudug is another regional administration. Jubaland in the far south is a fourth state region within Somalia. In November 2014, a new South West Somalia was established. In October 2016, a formation conference was launched for a new Hirshabelle state; the Federal Parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the autonomous regional states within the Federal Republic of Somalia. To this end, the legislature in December 2014 passed a law establishing the Boundary and Federalization Commission; the body is mandated with determining the boundaries of the country's constituent Federal Member States, as well as arbitrating between these regional states on their respective jurisdiction. As of 2016, Somalia is divided into 6 federal member states: South West State of Somalia Somaliland Puntland Jubaland Hirshabelle Galmudug Below are the regions of Somalia, along with their capitals shown in brackets: Bakool Banadir Bari Bay Galgaduud Gedo Hiiraan Lower Juba Lower Shabelle Middle Juba Middle Shebelle Mudug Nugal defunct Khatumo, claiming: Sanaag Sool Ayn Note: Khatumo State is not recognised by Puntland, the Somali government, or Self Declared Republic of Somaliland.
Ahl al-Bayt is a phrase meaning "People of the House", "People of the Household" or "Family of the House". Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, to a lesser extent, his ancestor Ibrahim,In Shia Islam, the Ahl al-Bayt are central to Islam and interpreters of the Quran and Sunnah. Shias believe they are successors of Muhammad and consist of Muhammad, his daughter Fatimah, his son-in-law Ali, their children Hasan and Husayn, known collectively as the Ahl al-Kisa, in addition to the Twelve Imams of Muhammad's grandchildren children. In Sunni Islam, Muhammad's Ahl al-Bayt refers to Muhammad himself. In the interpretation of certain traditions, the term may be extended to include the descendants of Muhammad's paternal uncles, Abu Talib and al-'Abbas, or according to Malik ibn Anas and Abu Hanifa, all of the Banu Hashim. In this topic, the word ahl al-bayt is treated base on the Quranic verse, in line with the commentary. To sum up, the meaning of ahl al-bayt in the Quran follows the accepted usage of the term in pre- and post-Islamic Arab society.
It denotes blood relations as well as a noble and leading "house" of the tribe. The term Ahl signifies the members of a household of a man, including his fellow tribesmen, relatives, wife or wives and all those who share a family background, housing and country with him. Bayt refers to dwelling, whether tented or built, it can be translated as "household". The ahl al-bayt of a person refers to all those who live in his house. Ahl al-Bayt is the polite form of addressing the members and wife of the family; the Qur'an uses the term Ahl al-Bayt many times as a term of respect for Prophet's family, to the Prophet Muhammad's blood relations. According to the Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, "The term ahl al-bayt is used in the Qur'an as a term of respect for wives, referring to Abraham's wife Sarah, for example, to the Prophet Muhammad's wives, who are declared to be purified by divine act:'God's wish is to remove uncleanness from you'."According to some interpretations, the Qur'an implicitly refers to Ahl al-Bayt in 42:23, using the term al-qurbā.
There has been much debate concerning. According to the Wahhabi site Islam Question and Answer, There are several views among the scholars... concerning the definition of Ahl al-Bayt. Some said that the members of the Prophet’s family are his wives, his children, Banu Haashim, Banu al-Muttalib and their freed slaves; some said. Some said. With regard to the wives of the Prophet, the most correct view is that they are included among the members of the family of the Prophet, because Allaah says, after commanding the wives of the Prophet to observe hijaab: “Allaah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, to purify you with a thorough purification” (al-Ahzaab 33:33] Although there have been many disagreements, there is a consensus amongst Sunni and Shi'a Muslims that the "Ahl al-Kisa" hadith refers to Ali, Fatimah and Husayn. Mention of the ahl al-bayt, Muhammad's household, is present in a verse of the Qur'an as follows: O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women.
And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a purifying. And keep to mind what is recited in your houses of the communications of Allah and the wisdom; the precise definition of the term in this verse has been subject to varying interpretations. In one tradition, according to which Muhammad's companion Salman al-Farsi is included as a member, it is used to distinguish from the muhajirun and ansar. According to Sunni doctrine, the term includes the wives and dependants of Muhammad, as it addresses them in the preceding verse – an interpretation, attributed to'Abd Allah ibn'Abbas and Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, both of whom were companions of Muhammad; this is supported by various traditions attributed to Muhammad wherein he addresses each of his wives as Ahl al-Bayt. Further members of the household, according to the Sunni perspective, include Ali, Fatimah,Hasan and Husayn, who are mentioned in the tradition of the mantle.
Some versions of this tradition recognise Umm Salamah, a wife of Muhammad, as a part of the household. Thus, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, "the current orthodox view is based on a harmonizing opinion, according to which the term ahl al-bayt includes the ahl al-ʿabāʾ, i.e. the Prophet, ʿAlī, Fāṭima, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥussain, together with the wives of the Prophet." According to Laura Veccia Vaglieri in Encyclopaedi
Prince Chitcharoen, the Prince Narisara Nuwattiwong, Prince Naris for short, né Chitcharoen, was a member of the royal family of Siam, minister and scholar. A polymath, he became known as "the great craftsman of Siam" and "the prince master"; the anniversary of his birth, 28 April, is celebrated in Thailand as "Prince Naris Day". Prince Narisara Nuwattiwong was born on 28 April 1863 in Thailand, he was the son of Pannarai and King Rama IV. Prince Nuwattiwong was educated by Western missionaries who encouraged his interest in the fine arts. Prince Narisara Nuwattiwong was appointed as the Director of Public Works and Country Planning for the Ministry of the Interior, he worked on Thailand's early urban planning and became an Art Advisor for the Royal Institute of Thailand. His other jobs included working for the Ministry of the Treasury, the Ministry of War, the Ministry of the Palace. From 1892 to 1894, he served as Minister of the Treasury. From 1894 to 1899, he was the Minister of War. During his tenure, the former Kalahom department was radically modernised based on Western models.
From 1896 to 1899, Prince Naris—who was both a general of the army and an admiral—additionally held the position of the Commander of the Department of Military Operation, the highest military position in the Siamese Army of that time. From 1898 to 1899 he was the Commander of the Navy Department and therefore commanding officer of the Siamese Navy. Prince Naris served as Regent of Siam from 1934 to 1935, substituting for his nephew King Prajadhipok who resided in England during the treatment of an eye condition. After Prajadhipok's definite abdication in 1935 and the choice of 9-year-old Ananda Mahidol as the new king, Naris declined the request to continue as regent, pointing to his old age; when Prince Naris began his art endeavours, there was no Siamese concept of design. Thailand had no art museum, the arts were not taught at universities. Prince Naris worked with Siamese craftsmen and Italian artists on royal commissions to create Siamese "art"; as Thailand began to modernize, it created its first European-style government ministries.
Narisara was assigned to design the crest for these newly created ministries. Each crest he designed was different. Wat Benchamabophit was the first temple in Thailand to use marble in its construction; this temple has been described as a defining example of a modern Buddhist temple by the Western Ministries of Architecture. The Wat Benchamabophit School is next to Wat Benjamabophit. Unlike the temple, the school was built in Western style. Phraubosotwatrachativas is another temple made of marble, but the style of this building combines Western and Thai styles; the temple contains oil paintings. "Sansoen Phra Barami" or Royal Anthem "Khamen Sai Yok" Prince Naris was married three times. His first wife was Mom Rachavongse Pluem Sirivongse, with whom he had one daughter: Prince Pluemchit Chitrabongse After the death of his first wife, Prince Naris married Mom Malai Chitrabongse Na Ayudhaya, with whom he had two sons: Prince Ai Chitrabongse Prince Charoenchai Chitrabongse After the death of his second wife, the prince remarried one last time, marrying Mom Rachavongse To Ngon-rot.
They had a total of six children, of whom five were male: Prince Sam Chitrabongse Princess Pralomchit Chitrabongse Princess Duangchit Chitrabongse Prince Yachai Chitrabongse Prince Phlao-rot Chitrabongse Princess Konnika Chitrabongse His official title was "สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้าจิตรเจริญ กรมพระยานริศรานุวัดติวงศ์", which can be translated as "His Royal Highness Prince Chitcharoen, the Prince Narisara Nuwattiwong". His full ceremonial title was "สมเด็จพระเจ้าบรมวงศ์เธอ เจ้าฟ้ากรมพระนริศรานุวัดติวงศ์ มหามกุฏพงศ์นฤบดินทร ปรมินทรานุชาธิเบนทร์ ปรเมนทรราชปิตุลา สวามิภักดิ์สยามวิชิต สรรพศิลปสิทธิวิทยาธร สุรจิตรกรศุภโกศล ประพนธปรีชาชาญโบราณคดี สังคีตวาทิตวิธีวิจารณ์ มโหฬารสีตลัธยาศรัย พุทธาทิไตรรัตนสรณานุวัติ ขัตติยเดชานุภาพบพิตร". Naris died on 10 March 1947 from a stroke, his funeral was held publicly at Sanam Luang. His cremation pyre was similar to the royal funeral pyre of Ananda Mahidol. Chitrabongs, M. L. Chittawadi. PRINCE NARIS: A Siamese Designer. Chicago: Serindia Publications. ISBN 9781932476859.
The Prince Narisara Nuvadtivongs
The Lillian G. Carter Nursing Center known as the Wise Sanitarium in Plains, was a hospital, it is a nursing care facility, but was the birthplace of former United States President James Earl Carter Jr., born there on October 1, 1924 when his mother was working there as a registered nurse. Built in 1921 by Doctors Samuel and Bowman Wise, children of early Plains settlers Dr. Burr T. Wise and Laura Addy Wise, the 60-bed sanitarium was one of the first small hospitals in Georgia to be recognized by the American College of Surgeons and the American Medical and Hospital Association, it served as a training center for nurses. A separate building was attached to the sanitarium for the treatment of African Americans. In 1976, Wise Sanitarium was transformed into Rehabilitation; the facility is a 100-bed skilled nursing facility that provides skilled care including physical and speech therapies. The center is still in use as of 2017
Intellectual rights to magic methods refers to the legal and ethical debate about the extent to which proprietary or exclusive rights may subsist in the methods or processes by which magic tricks or illusions are performed. It is a subject of some controversy. On one side, many magicians argue that methods represent "intellectual property" and that publication or sharing of methods should be subject to strict codes developed by magicians' organizations. On the other side, a range of people argue that publication of information about methods should not be subject to restrictions because knowledge should be available; the sharing of magic methods with non-magicians or the open publication of methods is referred to in the magic community as "exposure" and many magicians react angrily to it. While many magic tricks rely on traditional methods, there is a continuing development and progress within the genre; those who are performers and amateurs tend to take a defensive stance against all "exposure", while those who are creators and originators tend to care more about recent works – works with living and identifiable creators.
There are a number of areas of law that might provide a basis for magicians to claim ownership of certain pieces of knowledge and to prevent exposure. Copyright, trade secret and trademark law, are the primary sources of legal protection at issue on the topic; each type of protection has its own loopholes. Under the Berne Convention, member states are free to prescribe in their national legislation that copyright is automatically granted to a work only when it is "fixed", that is, written or recorded on some physical medium. In the U. S. copyright law only protects works. Accordingly, some argue, the processes or movements required for a trick are not copyrightable within the U. S, but recordings, written descriptions, or photographs of such a performance may be copyrightable themselves; the idea–expression dichotomy specifies that mere ideas are not entitled to copyright. For example, if a magician writes a description of how a trick works, the description will be subject to copyright. Another potential area of copyright protection for magic creators is through a choreography or pantomime copyright.
This was employed by Teller in 2014 in a case against Belgian entertainer Gerard Dogge, who had posted a YouTube video of an illusion called The Rose & Her Shadow. Magic illusion inventor and magician Hessel Bos registered a magic trick as a copyright with the United States Copyright Office. Bos registered his tricks by describing every movement of the magic tricks via text and photographs and submitted these documents to the copyright office, they were approved under the Performance Art section and a certificate of registration was granted. In September 2008 Bos filed a complaint under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act against America Online to remove a video from their website. An invention or process which facilitates the performance of a magic trick is patentable in the U. S. However, applying for patent protection requires the public release of information about how the device or process works. Furthermore, when a patent is obtained, it can only be used to prevent a third party from making or using the subject matter of the patent.
This prevents other magicians from performing the trick but cannot be used to prevent anyone from revealing how the trick works. Notably, in 1938, R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company was sued by magician Horace Goldin over an ad campaign which revealed one method for a Sawing a woman in half trick; the case was dismissed by a federal court and Goldin gave up on patenting his methods. Examples of patented inventions for conjuring include: The Svengali card deck, patented by Burling Hull in 1909 A device to perform the quick-change magic trick under U. S. Patent 6,308,334 The theatrical effect of Pepper's ghost from the 1800s John Gaughan's levitation apparatus, filed in 1993 David Merlini escape artist's Hyberna -frozen in ice- effect, patent filed in 2001, for the method of "freezing" an alive being in a tank of water. Horace Goldin applied for a patent for Sawing a woman in half in September 1921 and was awarded U. S. patent number 1,458,575 on 12 June 1923. Although the patent blocked other magicians using his ideas it aided people seeking to expose the method to the trick.
Magic methods are forms of trade secret and share many characteristics of trade secrets in other business sectors. As such there is a significant body of law that falls under the headings of "confidentiality" and "contract law" that might be used to control or protect them; these measures can allow a perpetual monopoly in secret information – i.e. it does not expire as would a patent or copyright. A company or individual can protect their confidential information through non-disclosure contracts with employees or business associates. A magician might therefore ask a partner or fellow magician to sign a non-disclosure agreement before sharing magic methods; that contract could be enforced through the courts. The terms of such contracts might be subject to constraints of employment law; as with law there will be variations across jurisdictions. Information which a magician has intentionally kept confidential and, not in the public domain may be deemed to have a enforceable quality of confidentiality.
The exact legal definitions of circumstances in which such protection applies vary across jurisdi
EUROCINEMA is a worldwide television service dedicated to Award-Winning European films and select Euro-centric lifestyle segments. Eurocinema is available on demand to 36 million cable and telco subscribers in the U. S. and Canada. Eurocinema content is available in the on-demand section of major providers throughout the U. S. and Canada, including the Comcast/Xfinity, Verizon FiOS, Charter Communications, Wave Broadband and Buckeye Cable System platforms. In addition, much of the film library and lifestyle content can be viewed online, through the website's streaming service. On March 15, 2013, Eurocinema entered a multi-year agreement with Miramax, allowing the network to debut some of the films from Miramax's international catalog. “Eurocinema’s partnership with Miramax is unprecedented,” said Sebastien Perioche, Chairman/CEO, Eurocinema. “Never before will such a high quality and diversified collection of world screen gems be available in one place and on demand. Eurocinema has become the go-to destination for fans of European cinema.”
New Miramax titles are made available each month. On October 15, 2013, Eurocinema launched a streaming video site that allows users to rent and watch movies on their desktop computers and mobile devices. In October 2015, Eurocinema announced its ambition to launch a linear television channel called Eurocinema World during 2016. On October 15, 2016, Amazon.com announced a deal to make a selection of Eurocinema content available on its Amazon Video streaming service under the brand Eurocinema Carte Blanche. Additional Eurocinema partners include Samuel Goldwyn Films, MusicBox Films, Kino Lorber, France 24, Alliance Francaise, French Cultural Office, French Consulate, others. Eurocinema was co-founder and launched in 2007 by Sebastien Perioche and made its cable debut that same year. Eurocinema is a registered trademark of Eurocinema-USA, LLC. Official Website European Lifestyle and News