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States of Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen partly-sovereign states. Since the German nation state was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions and Hamburg are called Stadtstaaten, as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven; the remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer. The creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states created in the aftermath of World War II. In 1949, the states of the Federal Republic were Baden, Bremen, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern. West Berlin, while not part of the Federal Republic, was integrated and considered as a de facto state. In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern merged into Baden-Württemberg.

In 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. German reunification in 1990, in which the area of the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic, was performed by the way of accession of the re-established eastern states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia to the Federal Republic, as well as the de facto reunification of West and East Berlin into Berlin and its establishment as a full and equal state. A regional referendum in 1996 to merge Berlin with surrounding Brandenburg as "Berlin-Brandenburg" failed to reach the necessary majority vote in Brandenburg, while a majority of Berliners voted in favour of the merger. Federalism is one of the entrenched constitutional principles of Germany. According to the German constitution, some topics, such as foreign affairs and defence, are the exclusive responsibility of the federation, while others fall under the shared authority of the states and the federation. Though international relations including international treaties are the responsibility of the federal level, the constituent states have certain limited powers in this area: in matters that affect them directly, the states defend their interests at the federal level through the Bundesrat and in areas where they have legislative authority they have limited powers to conclude international treaties "with the consent of the federal government".

After 1945, new states were constituted in all four zones of occupation. In 1949, the states in the three western zones formed the Federal Republic of Germany; this is in contrast to the post-war development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first, the individual states were created as units of a federal state. The use of the term Länder dates back to the Weimar Constitution of 1919. Before this time, the constituent states of the German Empire were called Staaten. Today, it is common to use the term Bundesland. However, this term is not used neither by the constitution of 1919 nor by the Basic Law of 1949. Three Länder call themselves Freistaaten: Bavaria and Thuringia. From the 17 states of the Weimar Republic, six still exist: Bavaria Bremen Hamburg Hesse Saxony ThuringiaThe other 11 states either merged into one another or were separated into smaller entities. Anhalt is now part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt Baden is now part of Baden-Württemberg Braunschweig is now part of Lower Saxony Lippe is now part of North Rhine-Westphalia Lübeck is now part of Schleswig-Holstein Mecklenburg-Schwerin is now part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg-Strelitz is now part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Oldenburg is now part of Lower Saxony, Rhineland-Palatinate and Schleswig-Holstein Prussia is now dissolved into the states of Berlin, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein.

All other states, except Bremen and Bavaria, include former Prussian territory. Former Prussian territory east of the rivers Neisse and Oder is now part of Russia. Schaumburg-Lippe is now part of Lower Saxony Württemberg is now part of Baden-WürttembergA new delimitation of the federal territory keeps being debated in Germany, in contrast to how there are "significant differences among the American states and regional governments in other federations without serious calls for territorial changes" in those other countries. Arthur B. Gunlicks summarizes the main arguments for boundary reform in Germany: "the German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implemen

Cat meat

Cat meat is meat prepared from domestic cats for human consumption. Some countries eat cat meat whereas others have only consumed some cat meat in desperation during wartime or poverty. Prehistoric human feces have contained bones from the wild cat of Africa. In some cultures of Cameroon, there is a special ceremony featuring cat-eating, thought to bring good luck. In Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in south-eastern China, some—especially older—people consider cat flesh a good warming food during winter months, it is estimated. In Guangdong, cat meat is a main ingredient in the traditional dish "dragon, phoenix", said to fortify the body. Organized cat-collectors supply the southern restaurants with animals that originate in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. On 26 January 2010, China launched its first draft proposal to protect the country's animals from maltreatment including a measure to jail people—for periods up to 15 days—for eating cat or dog meat. With the increase of cats as pets in China, opposition towards the traditional use of cats for food has grown.

In June 2006 40 activists stormed the Fangji Cat Meatball Restaurant in Shenzhen, forcing it to shut down. Expanded to more than 40 member societies, the Chinese Animal Protection Network in January 2006 began organizing well-publicized protests against dog and cat consumption, starting in Guangzhou, following up in more than ten other cities "with optimal response from public." In Japan, cat meat was consumed until the end of the Tokugawa period in the 19th century. In Korea, cat meat was brewed into a tonic as a folk remedy for neuralgia and arthritis, not as food. Modern consumption is rare and more to be in the form of cat soup. Cat meat is eaten in Vietnam though it is technically illegal, it is seen on menus with the euphemism "tiểu hổ" "baby tiger" rather than the literal "thịt mèo". Cat galls have aphrodisiacal properties according to people in North Vietnam. Cat appears on traditional Christmas menus in some areas of Switzerland – in the regions of Lucerne, Jura and in the canton of Bern.

According to the Food Safety and Veterinary Office, the sale of dog or cat meat is not allowed, but it is legal for people to eat their own animals. The Swiss parliament rejected changing the laws to protect dogs and cats for human consumption in 1993. In June 2008, three students at the Danish School of Media and Journalism published pictures of a cat being slaughtered and eaten in Citat, a magazine for journalism students, their goal was to create a debate about animal welfare. The cat was shot by its owner, a farmer, it would have been put down in any case; the farmer slaughtered the cat within the limits of Danish law. This led to criticism from Danish animal welfare group Dyrenes Beskyttelse, death threats received by the students. In 18th-century Britain, there are a few records of cats being eaten as a form of entertainment. In February 2010, on a television cooking show, the Italian food writer Beppe Bigazzi mentioned that during the famine in World War II cat stew was a "succulent" and well-known dish in his home area of Valdarno, Tuscany.

He claimed he had been joking, but added that cats used to be eaten in the area during famine periods, historically. He was criticised in the media for his comments and dropped from the television network. Cat consumption is a stereotype attributed to Vincenzans in Italy. According to the British Butchers' Advocate, Dressed Poultry and the Food Merchant of 1904, "Just before Christmas it is common for a group of young men in northern Italy to kill some cats, skin them and soak them in water for two or three days, they are cooked with great care on Christmas day and served up hot about 1.30 P. M. after mass.... Many people in Italy, ` on the quiet,' keep. A catskin there is worth ten pence, as the material for muffs for girls... Extraordinary care has to be taken in procuring the animals, for the Italian Society for the Protection of Cats is vigilant, offenses against the law are followed by imprisonment only. We have no fines in Italy."According to The Dietetic & Hygienic Gazette in 1905, "Italy cultivates the cat for home consumption as English people raise rabbits.

It is to be done on the quiet, for in spite of the profit in the business and the demand for the delicacy, the law has to be looked out for, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Cats is vigilant. Offenses against the law are visited with imprisonment. Cats are raised for the market nonetheless. Fattened on the finest of milk, a choice specimen will attain the weight of fifteen pounds." There are accounts of cat being consumed in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, in Spain in the 17th century, during WWI and WWII. Cats were sometimes eaten as a famine food during harsh winters, poor harvests, wartime. Cat gained notoriety as "roof rabbit" in Central Europe's hard times during and between World War I and World War II. Indigenous Australians in the area of Alice Springs roast feral cats on an open fire, they have developed recipes for cat stew. Some other inhabitants of the area have taken up this custom, justified on the grounds that felines are "a serious threat to Australia's native fauna".

Scientists warned that eating wild cats could expose humans to harmful toxins. Cat is not a regular menu item in Peru, but is used in such dishes as fricassee and stews most abundant in two specific sites in the country: the southern town of Chincha Alta and the north-central Andean town of Huari. Used b

Holland, Hannen & Cubitts

Holland, Hannen & Cubitts was a major building firm responsible for many of the great buildings of London. The company was formed from the fusion of two well-established building houses that had competed throughout the decades of the nineteenth century but came together in 1883: this was implemented by Holland & Hannen acquiring Cubitts, a business founded by Thomas Cubitt some 70 years before. During the Second World War the company was one of the contractors engaged in building the Mulberry harbour units. In the 1960s, when Lord Ashcombe was the Chairman of the company, it held a major stake in ACI Property Corporation, the developer for the Le Cartier Apartments in Montreal; the company was acquired by Drake & Gorham Scull in 1969 and by Tarmac in 1976 and subsequently integrated into Tarmac Construction. The combined business went on to construct many important buildings and structures including the Holborn Bars in High Holborn completed in 1906, the Cunard Building in Liverpool completed in 1917, the Cenotaph in London completed in 1920, County Hall, London completed in 1922, Ironmongers' Hall completed in 1925, Unilever House completed in 1930, South Africa House in London completed in 1933, the Senate building of the University of London completed in 1937, the Royal Festival Hall in London completed in 1951, the Roxburgh Dam in New Zealand completed in 1956, New Zealand House in London completed in 1961, the West London Air Terminal completed in 1963, Trawsfynydd nuclear power station completed in 1965.

Hartcup, Guy. Code Name Mulberry: The Planning Building and Operation of the Normandy Harbours. Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 978-1848845589