Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Station Musée d'Aquitaine (Tram de Bordeaux)
Musée d'Aquitaine station is located on line of the tramway de Bordeaux. The station is located by course Louis Pasteur in Bordeaux. Junctions with the following lines Cours Victor Hugo Bus de la TBC: Musée d'Aquitaine TBC Tramway de Bordeaux
Station Forum (Tram de Bordeaux)
The Forum station is situated on line of the tramway de Bordeaux. The station is located between the courtyard of the Libération at Talence. Église Notre-Dame de Talence Forum des Arts et de la Culture TBC Tramway de Bordeaux
Station Arts et Métiers (Tram de Bordeaux)
Arts et Métiers station is located on line of the tramway de Bordeaux. The station is located on the avenue des Facultés at Talence in the university area. Buses of the TBC: Université Bordeaux 1 Bibliothèque Universitaire Sciences ENSAM ENSEIRB-MATMECA Parking relais Arts et Métiers TBC Tramway de Bordeaux
Station Saint-Nicolas (Tram de Bordeaux)
Saint-Nicolas station is located on line of the tramway de Bordeaux. The station is located by Argonne in Bordeaux, it served as the provisional terminus during the partial opening of line B from 15 May to 3 July 2004. There are no junctions with other tram buses at this station. Église Saint-Nicolas TBC Tramway de Bordeaux
Station Béthanie (Tram de Bordeaux)
Béthanie station is located on line of the tramway de Bordeaux. The station is located on the avenue Roul in Talence. There are no junctions with other tram buses at this station. Université Bordeaux 1 Clinique Béthanie TBC Tramway de Bordeaux
The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the city of Bordeaux in Aquitaine in southwestern France. The first line of Bordeaux's modern tramway opened on 21 December 2003; the system is notable for using a ground-level power supply of the Alimentation par Sol system in the city centre. It has been operated by Keolis Bordeaux since 1 May 2009; the first tramway line of Bordeaux, with cars towed by horses, dates back to 1880. In 1946, the public transportation system in Bordeaux had 38 tram lines with a total length of 200 kilometres, carrying 160,000 passengers per day. A rudimentary system of ground-level power supply was used on some stretches with mixed success; as in other French cities at the time the mayor, Jacques Chaban-Delmas, embraced anti-tram arguments and decided to terminate the operation of the tramway. He found the tramway to be old-fashioned compared to the bus and its attachment to set tracks on the ground hindered the increasing flow of cars; the lines were closed one after the other.
In 1958 the last line of tramway was terminated. By the 1970s the failure of the "all car" transport policy had become obvious, but Chaban was not prepared to backtrack. A grandiose automatic light underground railway scheme was promoted; the VAL idea was dropped. Chaban remained. Bordeaux had to wait until 1995 and the election of Alain Juppé as mayor – as well as the total strangulation of the city by its transport problems – before the situation was tackled. Following two years of studies, the Bordeaux Urban Community adopted the tramway plan in 1997. Recognized by the central government in 2000 as a Public Interest Project, the scheme got under way and by 21 December 2003 was carrying passengers on three routes, one of, extended on 25 September 2005, with further extensions opened in 2007 and 2008. A particular feature of the new Bordeaux tram network is its ground-level power supply system, used in the city centre to avoid overhead wires spoiling the view of buildings; this was the source of many breakdowns when first introduced.
Improvements since however, have increased reliability and the network is now one of Bordeaux's principal plus points, valued not just for enabling the people of the city to get about but for its contribution to the aesthetics of the city and its quality of life. The new trams are an essential part of Bordeaux's current tourist redynamization strategy; the three lines were extended in 2007 and 2008 to reach several housing estates as well as the suburb of Mérignac. The whole system is with a camera installed inside each vehicle. Trams operate on all lines from around 4.30am until midnight, seven days a week with service on Thursdays and Saturdays until around 1.30am. All stops have panels showing the waiting time until the next tram. On Sunday and holiday mornings, trams run every 30/40 minutes until around 1000am every 20 minutes. Weekday and Saturday services operate every 10 – 12 minutes with additional service during'rush hour' and for special events. However, there is no service at all on Labour Day holiday.
As of July 2009, the Bordeaux tram network has a total route length of 66.1 kilometres, with 116 stops. The current routes of the three lines are: The first line was opened on 21 December 2003 in the presence of President Jacques Chirac, the mayor of Bordeaux, Alain Juppé, it ran between Lormont/Cenon. It was extended on 26 September 2005 to new termini at Saint-Augustin. Further extensions opened in 2007. A new extension from Lormont Lauriers to Carbon Blanc opened in May 2008. Line C was the next to open on 24 April 2004, following delays; the first part of the southern extension from Gare St. Jean to Terres Neuves was opened in February 2008, as was the northern section to Les Aubiers. From there via Berges du Lac to the final terminus at Parc Des Expositions in the Bordeaux Lac commercial and exhibition district it went into service in January 2015; this was followed in mid-March 2015 by the southwards extension to Lycée V. Havel. Line B was opened on 15 May 2004 and throughout on 3 July 2004.
29 May 2007 saw the opening of the first phase of its 2007 extension of when it began to serve Pessac Centre at its western end. On 23 July 2007 a further extension of the line from its previous terminus at Quinconces, along the left bank of the Garonne, to a station at Bassins à Flot opened; the final extension to northern terminus of the line at Cité Claveau, near to the Pont d'Aquitaine on the Bordeaux ring road, opened in October 2008. The main depot for trams is at Thiers Benauge and a secondary depot has opened on Line B at Rue Achard on the new extension towards Claveau. A'tram-train This 7.2 kilometres line branch from Line C, turning off after the stop Cracovie is in service from 17 December 2016. It joins the route of the former Médoc line at La Vache run parallel to it as far as Blanquefort, via several stations including the existing SNCF stop at Bruges; the overall system recorded 117 million passenger journeys in 2012. By demand of the Municipality of Bordeaux, part of the system uses ground-level power supply.