The Northeast Corridor is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States. Owned by Amtrak, it runs from Boston through Providence, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia through Wilmington, Baltimore to Washington, D. C; the NEC parallels Interstate 95 for most of its length, is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency as of 2013. The NEC carries more than 2,200 trains daily. Branches to Harrisburg, Springfield and various points in Virginia are not considered part of the Northeast Corridor, despite frequent service from routes that run on the corridor; the corridor is used by many Amtrak trains, including the high-speed Acela Express, intercity trains, several long-distance trains. Most of the corridor has frequent commuter rail service, operated by the MBTA, Shore Line East, Metro-North Railroad, New Jersey Transit, SEPTA, MARC. Several companies run freight trains over sections of the NEC. Much of the line is built for speeds higher than the 79 mph maximum allowed on many U.
S. tracks. Amtrak operates intercity Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains at up to 125 mph, as well as North America's only high-speed train, the Acela Express, which runs up to 150 mph on a few sections in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Acela covers the 225 miles between New York and Washington, D. C. in under 3 hours, the 229 miles between New York and Boston in under 3.5 hours. Under Amtrak's $151 billion Northeast Corridor plan, which hopes to halve travel times by 2040, trips between New York and Washington via Philadelphia would take 94 minutes; the Northeast Corridor was built by several railroads between the 1830s and 1917. The route was consolidated under two railroads: the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad between Boston and New York, the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington. Boston–Providence: Boston and Providence Railroad opened 1835 realigned in 1847 and in 1899. Became part of the Old Colony Railroad in 1888. Providence–Stonington: New York and Boston Railroad opened 1837.
Stonington–New Haven: New Haven, New London and Stonington Railroad opened 1852–1889, realigned in New Haven, 1894. New Haven–New Rochelle: New York and New Haven Railroad opened 1849. New Rochelle–Port Morris: Harlem River and Port Chester Railroad opened 1873. Port Morris–Sunnyside Yard: New York Connecting Railroad: opened 1917. Sunnyside Yard–Manhattan Transfer: Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal Railroad opened 1910. Manhattan Transfer–Trenton: United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company opened 1834–1839, 1841. Trenton–Frankford Junction: Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad opened 1834. Frankford Junction–Zoo Tower: Connecting Railway opened 1867. Zoo Tower–Grays Ferry Bridge: Junction Railroad opened 1863–1866. Grays Ferry–Bayview: Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad opened 1837–1838, 1866, 1906. Bayview Yard–Baltimore Union Station: Union Railroad opened 1873. Baltimore Union Station–Landover: Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road opened 1872. Landover–Washington, D. C.: Magruder Branch opened 1907 The New York Central Railroad began planning electrification between Grand Central Terminal and the split at Mott Haven after the opening of the first electrified urban rail terminal in 1900, the Gare d'Orsay in Paris, France.
Electricity was in use on some branch lines of the NYNH&H for interurban streetcars via third rail or trolley wire. An accident in the Park Avenue Tunnel near the present Grand Central Terminal that killed 17 people on January 8, 1902 was blamed on smoke from steam locomotives; the NH announced in 1905 that it would electrify its main line from New York to Stamford, Connecticut. Along with the construction of the new Grand Central Terminal, opened in 1912, the NYC electrified its lines, beginning on December 11, 1906 with suburban multiple unit service to High Bridge on the Hudson Line. Electric locomotives began serving Grand Central on February 13, 1907, all NYC passenger service into Grand Central was electrified on July 1. NH electrification began on July 24 to New Rochelle, August 5 to Port Chester and October 6, 1907 the rest of the way to Stamford. Steam trains last operated into Grand Central on June 30, 1908, after which all NH passenger trains into Manhattan were electrified. In June 1914, the NH electrification was extended to New Haven, the terminus of electrified service for over 80 years.
At the same time, the PRR was building its Pennsylvania Station and electrified approaches, which were served by the PRR's lines in New Jersey and the Long Island Rail Road. LIRR electric service began in 1905 on the Atlantic Branch from downtown Brooklyn past Jamaica, in June 1910 on the branch to Long Island City, part of the main line to Penn Station. Penn Station opened September 8, 1910 for LIRR trains and November 27 for the PRR. PRR trains changed engines at Manhattan Transfer. On July 29, 1911, NH began electric service on its Harlem River Branch, a suburban branch that would become a main line with the completion of the New York Connecting Railroad and its Hell Gate Bridge; the bridge opened on April 1, 1917, but was operated by steam with an engine change at Sunnyside Yard east of Penn Station until 1918. Electrification of the portion north of New Haven to Providence and Boston had been planned by the N
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Mount Vernon, Baltimore
Mount Vernon is a neighborhood north of downtown Baltimore, Maryland. Designated a National Historic Landmark District and a city Cultural District, it is one of the city's oldest neighborhoods and was home to the city's most wealthy and fashionable families; the name derives from the Mount Vernon home of George Washington. The Baltimore City Planning Commission defines the neighborhood as being bound by Eager Street to the North, The Jones Falls Expressway to the east, Franklin Street to the South, Eutaw Street to the West; the Commission considers the northern section to be the Midtown-Belvedere neighborhood after the Belvidere estate of John Eager Howard, the Revolutionary War patriot. The Inner Harbor is about half a mile south of Centre Street. Being close to downtown, Mount Vernon is well-served by public transit. Many area major bus routes head through the neighborhood on their way to the financial district including the Purple Line of Charm City Circulator which runs through Mt. Vernon northbound on Charles Street and southbound on St. Paul Street.
The Light Rail line runs along Howard Street on the west edge of the neighborhood, the Metro Subway runs beneath Eutaw Street a block west of that. Penn Station, served by Amtrak and MARC commuter rail, is one block to the north past Mount Royal Avenue and over the JFX. Although residential, Mount Vernon-Belvedere is home to a mix of institutions, including the Peabody Conservatory of the Johns Hopkins University, Walters Art Museum, University of Baltimore, Maryland Historical Society, Contemporary Museum, Maryland Institute College of Art, Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, Baltimore School for the Arts, Lyric Opera House, Center Stage, Enoch Pratt Free Library Central Branch, Spotlighters Theatre, the Eubie Blake National Jazz Institute, the Peabody Bookshop and Beer Stube. In the decades after World War II, the neighborhood has become home to many professional service providers, including medical and legal offices, publishing firms, architectural firms and financial institutions, fund managers.
Art galleries, retail stores and bed and breakfasts populate the neighborhood, Mount Vernon has a rich nightlife, with a variety of restaurants and bars located along N Charles Street and throughout the neighborhood. During the 1970s, Mount Vernon began to form into a gay village for Baltimore with the establishment of the Gay and Lesbian Community Center of Baltimore in 1977. LGBT milestones included the first Pride parade in 1975, the creation of the GLCCB Health Clinic in 1980; the centerpiece of the Mount Vernon neighborhood, the cruciform arrangement of parks surrounding the Washington monument, represent one of the nation's first examples of city planning for the express purpose of highlighting a monument. The Washington Monument was completed in 1829 to a design by Robert Mills, in 1831 the Howard family was granted permission to lay out the surrounding parks; the parks are now lined by stately homes. The parks, which have survived intact, are considered to be the finest existing urban landscapes by the Beaux-Arts architectural firm of Carrere & Hastings, who designed the New York Public Library, portions of the U.
S. Capitol in Washington, D. C. and the residence that houses the Frick Collection. Elsewhere in the neighborhood are many older apartment buildings and three- and four-story rowhouses. Though many have been broken up into multiple apartments, a growing number are being restored back to single family use; the historic beaux-arts Belvedere Hotel, opened in 1903, was converted to condominiums in 1991. On the northeast corner of Washington's monument sits the Mount Vernon Place United Methodist Church. Conceived as a cathedral of Methodism, it was built on the site of the Charles Howard mansion – the house in which Francis Scott Key died; the southeast corner is occupied by buildings comprising the Peabody Institute, the southwest corner includes three buildings forming the Walters Art Museum. The Stafford Hotel, built in Mount Vernon in 1894, now serves as an apartment building for students at Johns Hopkins University; the old Mount Vernon Hotel, built in 1847, was the mansion home of U. S. Congressman William Julian Albert where he entertained Abraham Lincoln.
The house was converted into a hotel and was where Oscar Wilde stayed as part of his 1882 lecture tour of America. The building is extant in the district. A portion of the neighborhood to the west and south of the Washington Monument, was designated a National Historic Landmark District on November 11, 1971, for the significance in architecture and landscape planning, it is included within the Baltimore National Heritage Area. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,520 people residing in the neighborhood; the racial makeup of Mount Vernon was 55.3% White, 33.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 7.4% Asian, 1.2% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. 60.4% of the population were employed, 3.5% were unemployed, 36.0% were not in the labor force, a reflection in part of the student population. The median household income was $21,225. About 15.2% of families and 26.9% of the population were below the poverty line.5.6% of occupied housing units were owner-occupied.
10.2% of housing units were vacant. Public schools are operated by the Baltimore City Public School Sy
SoHo, sometimes written Soho, is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, which in recent history came to the public's attention for being the location of many artists' lofts and art galleries, but is now better known for its variety of shops ranging from trendy upscale boutiques to national and international chain store outlets. The area's history is an archetypal example of inner-city regeneration and gentrification, encompassing socioeconomic, cultural and architectural developments; the name "SoHo" refers to the area being "South of Houston Street", a name coined in 1962 by Chester Rapkin, an urban planner and author of The South Houston Industrial Area study known as the "Rapkin Report". The name recalls Soho, an area in London's West End. All of SoHo is included in the SoHo–Cast Iron Historic District, designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1973, extended in 2010, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1978.
It consists of 26 blocks and 500 buildings, many of them incorporating cast-iron architectural elements. Many side streets in the district are paved with Belgian blocks. SoHo is part of Manhattan Community District 2 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10012 and 10013, it is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Because of the nature of neighborhoods in New York City, different sources will give different boundaries for each one. In the case of SoHo, all sources appear to agree that the northern boundary is Houston Street, the southern boundary is Canal Street, but the location of the eastern and western boundaries is disputed. In 1974, shortly after SoHo first came into existence, The New York Times described the boundaries as "stretching from Houston to Canal Streets between West Broadway and Lafayette Street" – a definition it continued to hold to in 2016 – but The Encyclopedia of New York City reports that SoHo is bounded by Crosby Street on the east, Sixth Avenue to the west.
These are the same boundaries shown by Google Maps. However, the AIA Guide to New York City gives the western boundary of SoHo north of Broome Street as being West Broadway, New York magazine gives the eastern boundary as Lafayette Street and the western boundary as the Hudson River; the map at the Community Board 2 profile page on New York City's official website has "SOHO" written near Broadway in the space equidistant between Houston Street and Canal Street. In the 1990s, real estate agents began giving an adjacent neighborhood below West Houston Street various appellations, with no general agreement on whether it should be called West SoHo, Hudson Square or the South Village; the AIA Guide calls that neighborhood "An intersection of brick and glass, searching for an identity", refers to the western section of it as "The Glass Box District". Unlike Hudson Square, the South Village has traditionally appeared on maps of Community District 2, centered near the intersection of Houston Street and Avenue of the Americas.
The more recent map of Community District 2 contains both the South Village and Hudson Square, with the latter written in the area below Houston Street, between Hudson Street and the Hudson River. The SoHo–Cast Iron Historic District is contained within the zoned SoHo neighborhood. Ending in the west at the eastern side of West Broadway and to the east at the western side of Crosby Street, the SoHo–Cast Iron Historic District was expanded in 2010 to cover most of West Broadway and to extend east to Lafayette and Centre Streets; the boundary lines are not straight, some block-fronts on West Broadway and Lafayette are excluded from the District. During the colonial period, the land, now SoHo was part of a grant of farmland given to freed slaves of the Dutch West Indies Company, the site of the first free Black settlement on Manhattan island; this land was acquired in the 1660s by Augustine Hermann, passed to his brother-in-law, Nicholas Bayard. The estate was confiscated by the state as a result of Bayard's part in Leisler's Rebellion, but was returned to him after the sentence was annulled.
In the 18th century natural barriers – streams and hills – impeded the growth of the city northward into the Bayard estate, the area maintained its rural character. During the American Revolution, the area was the location of numerous fortifications and breastworks. After the war, who had suffered financially because of it, was forced to mortgage some of the property, divided up into lots, but then there was little development in the area, aside from some manufacturing at Broadway and Canal Street. Serious development of the area did not begin until the Common Council, answering the complaints of landowners in the area, drained the Collect Pond, which had once been an important source of fresh water for the island, but which had become polluted and rank and a breeding ground for mosquitoes. A canal was built to drain the pond into the Hudson, the canal and pond were both filled in using earth from nearby Bayard's Hill. Once Broadway was paved and sidewalks were built there and along Canal Street, more people began to make their homes there, joining earlier arrivals such as James Fennimore Cooper.
By the mid-19th century, the early Federal- and Greek Revival-style homes were replaced by more-solid structures of masonry and cast iron, along Broadway, large marble-skinned commercial establishments began to open, such as Lord & Taylor, Arnold Constable & Company and Tiffany & Company, as well as grand hotels such as the St. Nicholas and the Metropolitan. Theatres followed in their wake, Broadway between Canal and Houston Streets became a lively theater and shopping district and the e
The Charles Theatre referred to as The Charles, is the oldest movie theatre in Baltimore. The theatre is a Beaux-Arts building designed as a streetcar barn in 1892 by Jackson C. Gott, located in what is now entertainment district; the theater was renamed the Charles circa 1959 and became a calendar revival house in 1979. Many of John Waters's early films premiered at this theatre. In 1999, it underwent a major expansion and is now a five-screen theater, though the original main theater has been left intact and is still the largest theater in the complex; the Charles now serves as an arthouse multiplex, showing a variety of independent films along with some major studio prestige pictures. The main theatre hosts revival series and special screenings several times a week, as well as the occasional live concert performance; the entire theater complex served as the host of the annual Maryland Film Festival from 1999 until 2013. The Charles sits just across the tracks of the Northeast Corridor from Penn Station, putting the theater within easy walking distance of Amtrak, MARC, Light Rail service.
Another Light Rail stop, University of Baltimore/Mt. Royal, is close by; the original structure, known as the Baltimore City Passenger Railway Power House and Car Barn, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. The pre-expansion Charles of the'70s was featured in the John Waters film Polyester as the X-rated theater run by Elmer Fishpaw, the husband of Divine's character, Francine Fishpaw; the first public screenings of the expanded 5-screen Charles took place within the inaugural year of Maryland Film Festival in April, 1999. The expanded Charles includes the former location of the Famous Ballroom, where the Left Bank Jazz Society held events in the 1960s and 1970s; that incarnation of the space can be seen in portions of the documentary Sun Ra: A Joyful Noise. Official site
Charles Village, Baltimore
Charles Village is a neighborhood located in the north-central area of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. It is a middle-class area with many single-family homes, in proximity to many of Baltimore's urban amenities; the neighborhood began in 1869. The land was divided and turned over to various builders who constructed home exteriors, leaving the interiors to be custom built according to buyer specifications; the area was first developed as a streetcar suburb in the early 20th century, is thought to be the first community to employ tract housing tactics. At the time, the area was known as Peabody Heights; the neighborhood history has been researched and published by Gregory J. Alexander and Paul K. Williams in their book Charles Village: A Brief History. Charles Village in a strict sense consists of the area to the east and south of the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus. However, smaller neighborhoods to the east of this area — including Abell and Harwood, are considered by residents and other Baltimoreans to be part of Greater Charles Village.
The Charles Village Community Benefits District covers a hundred-block area bounded by 33rd Street to the north, Greenmount Avenue to the east, 25th Street and 20th Street to the south, Johns Hopkins and Howard Street to the west. This area contains over 700 businesses; the Charles Village Community Benefits District Management Authority is a public entity that provides services within the CVCBD. One of the Charles Village's defining features is its proximity to Johns Hopkins Homewood Campus. Many of the university's staff and students live in the neighborhood in the areas adjacent to the campus; as a result, Charles Village has for the past several decades attracted a large population of artists and bohemians. The area has a reputation for being one of the more racially diverse neighborhoods in a city, segregated for decades; the neighborhood in general becomes more affluent as you travel from south to north and from east to west. Though there are a number of apartment buildings, much of Charles Village's housing stock consists of two- and three-story rowhouses built in the early 20th century.
Many of the houses have been well maintained and, along with the rest of the city, the neighborhood has seen a boom in real estate prices in the first half of the 2000s. Some of the larger rowhouses have been converted into multi-unit apartment houses in more recent decades. In 1998, Charles Village residents were challenged to take up a paint brush and choose vividly uncommon colors for the facades and front porches of their Victorian rowhouses. Within five years, residents had enlivened more than 100 homes, including several which the owners have repainted more than once. More was at stake, than just neighborly relations, and as the painters increased, so did the number of competitions, to up to three times a year with new prizes. City blocks, best railings, entire homes were up for judging; the contests ended in 2003, but Charles Village homeowners say they are looking for the funding to restart the contest. The contests' lasting result is that the neighborhood is now part of iconic Baltimore, with pictures of the "Painted Ladies", as the homes are known, appearing on travel guides and magazine covers.
The neighborhood includes several small commercial districts and is within walking distance to the well-attended Waverly farmer's market. However, unlike many of the trendier neighborhoods in the city, there are few large-scale retail areas; that is in the process of changing, however, as two blocks of St. Paul Street in the northern part of the neighborhood have been redeveloped. On October 21, 2006, the first phase of a new development project was completed: a Barnes & Noble bookstore opened as an anchor to the retail space of a new dorm building, called Charles Commons, for Hopkins students; the project, completed in 2007, converted a stretch of rowhouses and small apartment buildings to the 600+ capacity dorm as well as multi-story condominiums, all of which contain ground-floor retail. The Barnes & Noble now serves both as the Johns Hopkins student bookstore and as a standard retail outlet for residents of North Baltimore City; the Charles Village Community Benefits District Management Authority is a special taxing district, one of four in Baltimore, the others being the Midtown Benefits District in Mount Vernon, the Downtown Partnership and the Waterfront Partnership.
The CVCBD's geographical boundaries include four neighborhoods in the northern part of the city: Charles Village, Harwood and Old Goucher. Property owners within the CVCBDMA pay 12 cents per $100 of assessed value over and above city taxes to support the supplemental sanitation and safety services provided by the District; the CVCBD was formed in 1994 through the efforts of the Charles Village Civic Association, led by its then-president Ed Hargadon. Shafer had been spurred into action by the 1992 murder of an employee in the company parking lot, he had pursued Benefits District legisl
Maryland Institute College of Art
The Maryland Institute College of Art is a private art and design college in Baltimore, Maryland. It was founded in 1826 as the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts, making it one of the oldest art colleges in the United States. MICA is a member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design, a consortium of 36 leading US art schools, as well as the National Association of Schools of Art and Design; the college hosts pre-college, post-baccalaureate, continuing studies, Master of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts programs, as well as young peoples' studio art classes. The Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts was established by prominent citizens of Baltimore, such as Fielding Lucas Jr. John H. B. Latrobe, Hezekiah Niles and Thomas Kelso. Other leaders and officers in that first decade were William Stewart, George Warner, Fielding Lucas Jr. John Mowton, Dr. William Howard, as well as James H. Clarke and D. P. McCoy, Solomon Etting, Benjamin C.
Howard, William Hubbard, William Meeter, William Roney, William F. Small, S. D. Walker, John D. Craig, Jacob Deems, William H. Freeman, Moses Hand, William Krebs, Robert Cary Long, Jr. Peter Leary, James Mosher, Henry Payson, P. K. Stapleton, James Sykes and P. B. Williams; the General Assembly of Maryland incorporated the Institute in 1826, starting in November of that year, exhibitions of articles of American manufacture were held in the "Concert Hall" on South Charles Street. A course of lectures on subjects connected with the mechanic arts was inaugurated, a library of works on mechanics and the sciences was begun; the school operated for a decade at "The Athenaeum" at the southwest corner of East Lexington and St. Paul Streets facing the second Baltimore City/County Courthouse between North Calvert and St. Paul Streets; this first Athenaeum was destroyed by fire on February 7, 1835 along with all of its property and records. The fire was caused by a bank riot due to the financial panic following the collapse of several Baltimore banks.
In November 1847, Benjamin S. Benson and sixty-nine others, issued a call for a meeting of those favorable to the formation of a mechanics' institute, which resulted in the reopening of the Institute on January 12, 1848; the first annual exhibition was held followed by two more. The 1948 officers were John A. Rodgers – president, Adam Denmead – first vice president, James Milholland – second vice president, John B. Easter – recording secretary, Samuel Boyd – treasurer; the Institute was reincorporated by the state legislature at their December session in 1849 and was endowed by an annual appropriation from the State of Maryland of five hundred dollars. In 1849, the Board of Managers extended the usefulness and broadened the appeal of its programs to ordinary citizens by opening a School of Design and an additional Night School of Design was extended two years in the new hall and building, under William Minifie as principal of the reorganized Institute. Classes resumed in rented space over the downtown Baltimore branch of the U.
S. Post Office Department in the "Merchants Exchange"; the City Council in 1850 passed an ordinance granting the Institute permission to erect a new building over a reconstructed "Centre Market", laying the cornerstone on March 13, 1851, with John H. B. Latrobe, son of national architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe. In 1851, the Institute moved to its own building, built above the old Centre Market on Market Place between East Baltimore Street and Water Street alongside the western shore of the Jones Falls. Centre Market continued to be known in the city as "Marsh Market" after the former Harrison's Marsh from colonial times; the building covered an entire block and had two stories built on a series of brick arches above the market, with two clock towers at each end. The second floor with the Institute, housed classrooms, offices and studios and one of the largest assembly halls/auditorium in the state. During this period the Institute added a School of Chemistry, thanks in part to a bequest from philanthropist George Peabody, B.& O. Railroad President Thomas Swann, along with a School of Music.
Night classes for Design are added for men who work during the day, but would like training in Architecture and Engineering at night. In 1854, a Day School of Design opened for women—one of the first US arts programs for women. In 1860, the Day School for men opened, in 1870, the Day school became co-ed. For 79 years the Institute remained in the location above the Centre Market, its "Great Hall", large enough to accommodate 6,000, attracted many famous speakers and lecturers, it hosted events and shows related to the Arts, as one of Baltimore's largest halls, it hosted important events to the city and the region. In 1852, it hosted both of the National political conventions to nominate presidential candidates Winfield Scott and his opponent Franklin Pierce. During the American Civil War, the Institute served as an armory for the Union and