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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Statism

In political science, statism is the doctrine that the political authority of the state is legitimate to some degree. This may include economic and social policy in regard to taxation and the means of production. While in use since the 1850s, the term statism gained significant usage in American political discourse throughout the 1930s and 1940s. Opposition to statism is termed anarchism; the latter is characterized by a complete rejection of all hierarchical rulership. Statism can take many forms from small government to big government. Minarchism is a political philosophy that prefers a minimal state such as a night-watchman state to protect people from aggression, breach of contract and fraud with military and courts; this may include fire departments and other functions. The welfare state is another form within the spectrum of statism. Totalitarianism is that which prefers a all-encompassing state. Authoritarian philosophies view a strong, authoritative state as required to legislate or enforce morality and cultural practices.

The ideology of statism espoused by fascism holds that sovereignty is not vested in the people, but in the nation state and that all individuals and associations exist only to enhance the power and well-being of the state. It repudiates individualism and exalts the nation as an organic body headed by the supreme leader and nurtured by unity and discipline. Fascism and some forms of corporatism extol the moral position that the corporate group the state, is greater than the sum of its parts and that individuals have a moral obligation to serve the state. Economic statism promotes the view that the state has a major and legitimate role in directing the economy, either directly through state-owned enterprises and other types of machinery of government, or indirectly through economic planning. Statism may be used to refer to state capitalism. State capitalism refers to forms of capitalism that feature high concentrations of state-directed commercial enterprises. In some cases, state capitalism refers to economic policies such as dirigisme which existed in France during the second half of the 20th century and to the present-day economies of the People's Republic of China and Singapore, where the government owns controlling shares in publicly traded companies.

Some authors define the former economies of the Eastern Bloc as constituting a form of state capitalism. The term statism is sometimes used to refer to market economies with large amounts of government intervention, regulation or influence over a market or mixed-market economy. Economic interventionism asserts that the state has a legitimate or necessary role within the framework of a capitalist economy by intervening in markets, regulating against overreaches of private sector industry and either providing or subsidizing goods and services not adequately produced by the market. State socialism broadly refers to forms of socialism based on state ownership of the means of production and state-directed allocation of resources, it is used in reference to Soviet-type economic systems of former communist states. In some cases, when used in reference to Soviet-type economies, state socialism is used interchangeably with state capitalism on the basis that the Soviet model of economics was based upon a process of state-directed capital accumulation and social hierarchy.

Politically, state socialism is used to designate any socialist political ideology or movement that advocates for the use of state power for the construction of socialism, or to the belief that the state must be appropriated and used to ensure the success of a socialist revolution. It is used in reference to Marxist–Leninist socialists who champion a single-party state. While political theory has long questioned the nature and rights of the state, skepticism towards statism in Western cultures is rooted in Enlightenment philosophy. John Locke notably influenced modern thinking in his writings published before and after the English Revolution of 1688 A Letter Concerning Toleration, Two Treatises of Government and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In the text of 1689, he established the basis of liberal political theory, i.e. that people's rights existed before government.

Money market fund

A money market fund is an open-ended mutual fund that invests in short-term debt securities such as US Treasury bills and commercial paper. Money market funds are managed with the goal of maintaining a stable asset value through liquid investments, while paying income to investors in the form of dividends. Although they are not insured against loss, actual losses have been quite rare in practice. Regulated in the United States under the Investment Company Act of 1940, in Europe under Regulation 2017/1131, money market funds are important providers of liquidity to financial intermediaries. Money market funds seek to limit exposure to losses due to credit and liquidity risks. Money market funds in the United States are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Rule 2a-7 of the act restricts the quality and diversity of investments by money market funds. Under this act, a money fund buys the highest rated debt, which matures in under 13 months.

The portfolio must maintain a weighted average maturity of 60 days or less and not invest more than 5% in any one issuer, except for government securities and repurchase agreements. Securities in which money markets may invest include commercial paper, repurchase agreements, short-term bonds and other money funds. Money market securities must be liquid and of the highest quality. In 1971, Bruce R. Bent and Henry B. R. Brown established the first money market fund, it was named the Reserve Fund and was offered to investors who were interested in preserving their cash and earning a small rate of return. Several more funds were shortly set up and the market grew over the next few years. Money market funds are credited with popularizing mutual funds in general, which until that time, were not utilized. Money market funds in the United States created a solution to the limitations of Regulation Q, which at the time prohibited demand deposit accounts from paying interest and capped the rate of interest on other types of bank accounts at 5.25%.

Thus, money market funds were created as a substitute for bank accounts. In the 1990s, bank interest rates in Japan were near zero for an extended period of time. To search for higher yields from these low rates in bank deposits, investors used money market funds for short-term deposits instead. However, several money market funds fell off short of their stable value in 2001 due to the bankruptcy of Enron, in which several Japanese funds had invested, investors fled into government-insured bank accounts. Since the total value of money markets have remained low. Money market funds in Europe have always had much lower levels of investments capital than in the United States or Japan. Regulations in the EU have always encouraged investors to use banks rather than money market funds for short-term deposits. Money market funds seek NAV per share; the $1.00 is maintained through the declaration of dividends to shareholders daily, at an amount equal to the fund's net income. If a fund's NAV drops below $1.00, it is said that the fund "broke the buck".

For SEC registered money funds, maintaining the $1.00 flat NAV is accomplished under a provision under Rule 2a-7 of the 40 Act that allows a fund to value its investments at amortized cost rather than market value, provided that certain conditions are maintained. One such condition involves a side-test calculation of the NAV that uses the market value of the fund's investments; the fund's published, amortized value may not exceed this market value by more than 1/2 cent per share, a comparison, made weekly. If the variance does exceed $0.005 per share, the fund could be considered to have broken the buck, regulators may force it into liquidation. Breaking the buck has happened. Up to the 2008 financial crisis, only three money funds had broken the buck in the 37-year history of money funds, it is important to note that, while money market funds are managed in a safe manner, there would have been many more failures over this period if the companies offering the money market funds had not stepped in when necessary to support their fund and avoid having the funds break the buck.

This was done because the expected cost to the business from allowing the fund value to drop—in lost customers and reputation—was greater than the amount needed to bail it out. The first money market mutual fund to break the buck was First Multifund for Daily Income in 1978, liquidating and restating NAV at 94 cents per share. An argument has been made that FMDI was not technically a money market fund as at the time of liquidation the average maturity of securities in its portfolio exceeded two years. However, prospective investors were informed that FMDI would invest "solely in Short-Term MONEY MARKET obligations". Furthermore, the rule restricting which the maturities which money market funds are permitted to invest in, Rule 2a-7 of the Investment Company Act of 1940, was not promulgated until 1983. Prior to the adoption of this rule, a mutual fund had to do little other than present itself as a money market fund, which FMDI did. Seeking higher yield, FMDI had purchased longer maturity securities, rising interest rates negatively impacted the value of its portfolio.

In order to meet increasing redemptions, the fund was forced to sell a certificate of deposit at a 3% loss, triggering a restatement of its NAV and the first instance of a money market fund "breaking the buck". The Community Bankers US Government Fund broke the buck in 1994, paying investors 96 cents per

Xylophilus ampelinus

Xylophilus ampelinus is a species of proteobacteria, many of which cause plant diseases. It is available from the NCPPB in the United Kingdom and other international culture collections such as ICMP in New Zealand, LMG in Belgium. Xylophilus ampelinus was known as Xanthomonas ampelina until it was renamed in 1969 by C. G. Panagopoulos; the type strain was isolated on 5 March 1966 by C. G. Panagopoulos from grape vine in Greece and was deposited into the NCPPB in 1968 from where it has been distributed to other culture collections for research and diagnostic reference material. Published references to the organism include "Panagopoulos, C. G. 1969. Annls. Inst. Phytopath. Benaki. N. S. 9: 59". Xylophilus ampelinus is a rod-shaped bacterium, considered slow growing at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees Celsius, it is gram negative and develops round, yellow colonies when grown on nutrient agar and after extended growth, becomes filamentous. The bacterium is catalase positive, Kovacs negative, urease positive, produced from cysteine, did not produce acid from any carbohydrate media.

X. ampelinus is only known to infect a singular species and related subspecies of grapevine, Vitis vinifera, native to the near east and has since spread across the globe to produce wine. Symptoms manifest 3-4 weeks in shoots and stems and in 10-14 days on leaves; this disease displays multiple symptoms depending on the location on the plant. On plant shoots, symptoms begin to appear in spring through June and first appear on the lower nodes of growth, before spreading upward along the shoot; the symptoms appear as red/brown streaks before progressing into cracks in the woody structure and cankers,7. After this, shoots wilt and dry up, before dying back. If infected post leaf growth, leaves show symptoms of chlorosis, angular red/brown lesions, in some cases signs of bacterial ooze may be seen around these lesions. If infection occurs post bud break and flowers are present, these will develop a black color before dying and falling to the ground. Root symptoms are rare and manifest as general stunting of the plant shoots.

This pathogen has the potential to affect grape crops. All V. vinifera subspecies are at risk of infection, with most of the geographic spread contained to South Africa, Greece and France. In infected vineyards, fruit harvest losses have been reported as high as 70% of typical yield; this illustrates the massive damage that X. ampelinus has the potential to cause grape growers not only in Europe, but to all areas practicing viticulture. The EPPO categorizes X. ampelinus as a quarantine A2 organism as its potential international spread and limited efficient control routes can lead to significant economic losses in unaffected regions. The complete life cycle of X. ampelinus has yet to be described, continued research into infection steps is being undertaken. It is believed the bacteria overwinters in fallen grapes from the previous harvest, as well as remaining dormant and protected within the woody tissues of the vines. In a 2003 study by Grall et al. they discovered that depending on the mode of primary infection, different symptoms and disease spread was observed.

If infected via a wound, similar to a pruning cut, infection occurred in the xylem tissues and was unable to spread upward throughout the plant and instead only infected nodes below the wound. It was found that if applied via foliar sprays, the bacterium would infiltrate the leaves and young shoots and spread to all areas of the vine, resulting in complete inoculation. Method of inoculation caused different symptom displays. Wound only infection resulted in stem cankers and cracks resulting from hyperplasia of xylem and cambium tissues within the stem. However, if sprayed on the plants, symptoms were systemic. Although current research is limited on the effects of chemical controls, historical studies have found no chemicals to be effective in eliminating or controlling the spread or infection of X. ampelinus. There have been anecdotal reports of a copper-based spray limiting spread within vineyards in South Africa, but these claims have not been substantiated with study. Cultural control via proper viticulture practices in the field are the only proven effective control measures.

Any infected plant tissues should be burned, pruning should be done in dry environments with clean tools that are disinfected, avoidance of mass irrigation use is recommended. It was noted that most infection spread is local within a vineyard via natural water and wind action, however spread across great distances is possible if infected cuttings are distributed inadvertently; the bacteria can stay latent within stem tissues for up to 2 years and grafting infected stocks into healthy plants can result in new infection. Vine tissue taken from regions with known history of infection should be tested via ELISA or PCR to ensure pathogen free tissue and reduce the spread of the bacteria. Direct inoculation of the bacteria via environmental factors, irrigation, or plant grafting are the only known vectors of X. ampelinus, making control a straightforward matter. X. ampelinus prefers humid and wet conditions which favor its spread from vine to vine within the vineyard. For this reason, it is recommended pruning

Sony BMG v. Tenenbaum

In the case of Sony BMG Music Entertainment et al. v. Tenenbaum, record label Sony BMG, along with Warner Bros. Records, Atlantic Records, Arista Records, UMG Recordings, accused Joel Tenenbaum of illegally downloading and sharing files in violation of U. S. copyright law. It was only the second file-sharing case to go to verdict in the Recording Industry Association of America's anti-downloading litigation campaign. After the judge entered a finding of liability, a jury assessed damages of $675,000, which the judge reduced to $67,500 on constitutional grounds, rather than through remittitur. After both parties appealed, the First Circuit Court of Appeals reinstated the original damage award of $675,000 and remanded the case to the District Court, ruling that the judge should have avoided the constitutional issue by first considering remittitur; the Supreme Court refused to hear Tenenbaum's appeal arguing against the remand. A new District Court judge found no cause for remittitur, held that the statutory damage award was constitutional.

Tenenbaum again appealed to the First Circuit. Joel Tenenbaum is from Rhode Island, he earned his bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics along with a music minor from Goucher College in 2006, Ph. D. in physics at Boston University. Tenenbaum's issues started as a college student where he was accused of spreading songs to millions of people by uploading them onto P2P networks like Napster and Limewire; the record companies alleged they had given him warnings of these crimes prior to the trial and told him to stop what he was doing right away. They claim. Tenenbaum was not the only one, given a lawsuit as, after September 8, 2003, there were thousands of similar lawsuits being filed. Over 5 years the number of cases surpassed 35,000 and caused the court to apply the Copyright act to the digital realm. In 2003, a demand for $3,500 was received at Tenenbaum's parents' house for songs that the 20-year-old downloaded. Tenenbaum explained his financial situation as a student and offered a partial payment of $500, rejected.

After several other correspondences, the five record labels filed suit against Tenenbaum in August 2007, accusing him of copyright infringement for the sharing of thirty-one music files via Kazaa, demanding statutory damages. Tenenbaum offered the plaintiffs the original complaint amount of $5250, but the music companies declined, subsequently demanded "double." In a pre-trial conference in June 2008, Tenenbaum's mother stated "my son was offered $12,000, your Honor, every time we appear that goes up." The plaintiffs responded that Tenenbaum had filed several motions with the court, that "as our legal fees go up, so will the settlement amount that we offer."A few months before the trial, the court dismissed Tenenbaum's abuse of process claim against the plaintiffs, excluded four of his expert witnesses, denied his motion to exclude all MediaSentry evidence, which could be used to link the file-sharing to his computer. Jurors who used social networks to obtain music were excluded. Harvard Law School professor Charles Nesson, Tenenbaum's pro bono attorney, claimed this was unfair as Tenenbaum no longer had a trial by a jury of peers.

In the month before the trial, Nesson petitioned the Court to be allowed to present a fair use defense to the jury. Although the Court considered the late addition of the defense "troubling," the Court allowed limited discovery to proceed over the plaintiffs' strenuous objections. However, eight hours before trial, upon consideration of both parties' arguments, the Court issued a summary judgment against the defense. In its detailed response five months the Court described Nesson's fair-use arguments as "perfunctory"; the case went to trial in the last week of July 2009. Nesson argued that Tenenbaum's situation was similar to the Napster situation in 1999 and that he did not intend any harm nor understood the copyright laws; the plaintiffs claimed Tenenbaum infringed copyright laws and that he had taken actions to evade the law. During the trial, Tenenbaum answered "yes" to the plaintiff's counsel's question "Mr. Tenenbaum, on the stand now are you now admitting liability for downloading and distributing all 30 sound recordings that are at issue and listed on Exhibits 55 and 56 of the exhibits?"

The next day, Judge Nancy Gertner issued a directed verdict, instructing the jury that liability was no longer at issue. Nesson had planned to appeal. On July 9, 2010, Judge Gertner reduced Tenenbaum's fines to $67,500, holding that arbitrarily high statutory damages violate due process and are thus unconstitutional, far greater than necessary to serve the government's legitimate interests in compensating copyright owners and deterring infringement. In fact, it bears no meaningful relationship to these objectives. To borrow Chief Judge Michael J. Davis' characterization of a smaller statutory damages award in an analogous file-sharing case, the award here is simply'unprecedented and oppressive.' On July 21, 2010, both parties filed notice to appeal the ruling. Oral arguments in the appeal were held in the First Circuit on April 4, 2011; the appeal broached several topics, one

Ju-On: The Grudge (video game)

Ju-On: The Grudge, known in Japan as Kyōfu Taikan: Ju-On, is a survival horror video game developed for the Wii. It was produced in honor of the Ju-On series' 10th anniversary; the game was directed by Takashi Shimizu, who helmed the films. The game was developed by feelplus and published in Japan by AQ Interactive on July 30, 2009, in North America and Europe in October of the same year by Xseed Games and Rising Star Games, respectively; the game is centered on a family. Several family members are playable characters and each story is viewed from the perspective of the character being played in scenarios called episodes; the game was panned by critics. The Wii Remote is used to direct the player character's flashlight. Movement is executed by the Wii Remote's control pad and B Button, the character is steered in the direction their flashlight is being held; the player is pressured not to remain in the same place for too long or move too as this will cause Kayako, the onryō to appear to the player.

If there is a second Wii Remote synced to the console in the game's "courage test", each of the buttons on that controller can be used to trigger a unique scenario for the player to experience. The game features a mechanic that measures the Wii Remote's movements during gameplay, so that the more the player flinches, the worse their success rate becomes; as evidenced from the game's few teaser trailers, there were five stages expected to be playable in Ju-On: The Grudge: a warehouse, a hospital and a mannequin factory, in addition to an abandoned apartment complex and the Saeki residence. A blurb summarizing the game's plot implied. In most cases, the flashlight provides the only means of visibility for the player, so it is necessary to replenish the power of the tool using batteries found throughout the level, which do not spawn in the same location with each play. If the flashlight runs out of batteries, ghosts will appear and attack the player which will result in a game-over; this battery power is displayed in the form of a meter on the lower-left corner of the heads-up display and acts like a health bar.

If the game's lead specter Kayako Saeki takes hold of the player, the Wii Remote can be shaken to break her grip. Furthermore, when in Kayako's grip, her death rattle can be heard through the Wii Remote's speaker; the game claims. When an average housewife in Nerima, was murdered in a grisly fashion, it gave rise to a curse so powerful that it threatens to kill at a pace thought unimaginable before; the curse manifests on those who encounter the curse by any means, such as entering Saeki House or being in contact with somebody, cursed. Once Erika Yamada is exposed to the curse, while searching for her dog in an abandoned warehouse, the entire Yamada family is put in grave danger when she returns home; each family member must face his or her individual challenge alone, only by overcoming the curse together will the family become free again. Erika's family moves into the Saeki home. While at home, the family dog, runs off into an abandoned factory. Erika decides to venture into the factory to find Ivy.

Erika soon comes across a broken-down elevator. After entering the elevator, Ivy reunites with Erika. Kayako attacks but Ivy chases her off, they escape the factory, she calls the other members of her family. Erika heads home to find out. Michiko, the mother of Erika, has been hospitalized for about a month, her children and husband go to visit her. One night, she wakes up in notices a small boy running around; the phone is ringing, all of the staff and patients seem to have disappeared. She makes her way to the roof of the hospital. Toshio fails. Kayako appears, she pushes Miki off of the roof and kills her. Kenji, a delivery boy, the brother of Erika, son of Michiko, is on his way home from his delivery route, sees a package on the sidewalk in front of three apartment buildings; the package is addressed to "Building 3 apartment 301", so he decides to deliver it. When he reaches his destination, the package turns into Kayako. Ken runs for his life. Ken stops before the exit and turns around to see whether he is being followed.

Just as he is about to leave, Kayako appears in front of Ken and kills him. The father of the family, Hiroshi, is working a late-night shift at a mannequin factory as a security guard, he notices a person wandering around on a security camera, the power goes out. After he restores the power, he begins to exit the building. An alternate ending shows the door opening and Kayako chasing Hiro and kills him. After surviving her ordeal, Erika makes it home, she and her family live at the same house where Takeo Saeki brutally murdered his son. She finds that her house is abandoned, Erika is locked and trapped inside by Kayako, forcing Erika to continue exploring the house, she is tormented by visions of her violently killed family still in the house, discovers her family's bodies in the attic. She is led downstairs by Ivy's barking; when she makes it downstairs, she realizes that the barking wasn't Ivy's, it was used as a lure. Kayako crawls down the stair

Anosy Region

Anosy is one of the 22 regions of Madagascar. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the eastern side of what was once the Toliara Province; the name Anosy means "island" in Malagasy. Due to a strategic sea route running along its coast, Anosy had been an important crossroads for the Malagasy and Europeans. In the mid-1600s, it was the location of the first French colonial settlement in the Indian Ocean; the region was part of the Imerina Kingdom for much of the 1800s and part of the French colony of Madagascar from the late 1800s to 1960. Its exports have included human slaves, live cattle, natural rubber, rosy periwinkle, uranothorianite, lobster and ilmenite. Due to its biodiversity and unique wildlife, efforts commenced in the 1980s to promote environmental conservation and tourism in the region; the region suffers from poverty. General references for the geography section: Vincelette et al. and is about the immediate Tôlanaro region. Anosy is a region in southeastern Madagascar, which covers 25,731 km2.

It borders Androy region across the Mandrare River. To the west is Atsimo-Andrefana, to the north is Ihorombe region, to the northeast is Atsimo-Atsinanana region. To the east and south is the Indian Ocean; the region is 150 kilometres wide along its coastline and extends 250 km inland. Anosy's capital and most-populous city is Tôlanaro, located about halfway along the region's coast and 1,122 km south of the national capital of Antananarivo. Anosy means "island" or "islands" in Malagasy, it may have been named for the island in the Fanjahira river where the Zafiraminia first settled when they arrived in the 16th century. Another theory is that the name means "land of the islands" because of the many temporary islands created when the Efaho valley floods during the rainy season. Along the ocean are coastal lagoons and about 50 km of sandy, rolling coastal hills that butt up against the Vohimana mountains; this mountain range dominates the area, terminating just outside Tôlanaro at Mount Bezavona, which stands at 529 metres.

The interior bedrock is granite, with cordierite gneiss exposed where erosion had occurred along the coast. The sand dunes along the coast, which average 18 m in depth, have mineral deposits of ilmenite, zircon and monazite. There are three primary hydrologic drainage areas in Anosy: the Mountain Zone, the Bedrock Plain, the Coastal Sands; the Mountain Zone covers 30% of the total catchment area and is distinguished by steep slopes, rapid runoff, defined rivers. The Bedrock Plain has rolling hills with several large rivers; the Coastal Sands are dunes at the ocean's edge cut with meandering rivers, ribbon lakes, a series of lagoons and bays which vary in size from a few to two dozen square kilometres. The Coastal Sands can be further subdivided into the Andriambe, Efaho, Lakandava, Manampanihy, Vatomena and Vatorendrika basins. There are three major rivers in Anosy: the Mandrare River along the southwestern border, the Efaho just west of Tôlanaro, the Manampanihy which drains the Ranomafana valley, emptying into the ocean at Manantenina.

Other rivers in the Anosy region include the Isoanala, Mangoky and Isoanala. The average temperature in Tôlanaro ranges from 26 °C in January–February to 20 °C in July, with ocean temperatures ranging from 25 °C in January–February to 19 °C in June–July; the humidity of Tôlanaro ranges from 77 to 84 percent. Rainfall is highest on the eastern side of the mountains. In general, Anosy is wet and humid in the northeast and becomes arid as one moves southwest. Tôlanaro receives 1,800 millimetres of annual rainfall. Monthly precipitation is about 150 mm in November through March, 190 mm ) in April, less than 100 mm for September and October. Tôlanaro is a windy town, with Force 6 winds August through November; the region is damaged by cyclones, such as Cyclone Deborah in 1975, Cyclone Daisy in 1994, Cyclone Gretelle in 1997. Tsitongambarika New Protected Area Vohidava Betsimalaho New Protected Area Ambatotsirongorongo Special Reserve Angavo New Protected Area Andohahela National Park. In 1932, the Andohahela natural reserve was created.

Ambatoatsinanana New Protected Area Petriky New Protected Area Mandena New Protected Area Ankodida New Protected AreaOther protected areas include part of Kalambatritra Reserve. In 1996, Anosy was recognized as one of the most ecologically diverse regions of Madagascar. In 2014, Tôlanaro's coast was identified as threatened due to "rise in sea level and coastal erosion"; the region was estimated to have a population of 671,805 in 2013. At its present growth rate, it is expected to double its population in 15 years; the region is administratively divided into three districts. The people who have lived in Anosy are known as the Antanosy people, they may be more described as "those from Anosy" given the region's history. The Antanosy live in the east, along the coast a