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Statistical inference

Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying distribution of probability. Inferential statistical analysis infers properties of a population, for example by testing hypotheses and deriving estimates, it is assumed. Inferential statistics can be contrasted with descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics is concerned with properties of the observed data, it does not rest on the assumption that the data come from a larger population. Statistical inference makes propositions about a population, using data drawn from the population with some form of sampling. Given a hypothesis about a population, for which we wish to draw inferences, statistical inference consists of selecting a statistical model of the process that generates the data and deducing propositions from the model. Konishi & Kitagawa state, "The majority of the problems in statistical inference can be considered to be problems related to statistical modeling". Relatedly, Sir David Cox has said, "How translation from subject-matter problem to statistical model is done is the most critical part of an analysis".

The conclusion of a statistical inference is a statistical proposition. Some common forms of statistical proposition are the following: a point estimate, i.e. a particular value that best approximates some parameter of interest. Any statistical inference requires some assumptions. A statistical model is a set of assumptions concerning the generation of the observed data and similar data. Descriptions of statistical models emphasize the role of population quantities of interest, about which we wish to draw inference. Descriptive statistics are used as a preliminary step before more formal inferences are drawn. Statisticians distinguish between three levels of modeling assumptions. For example, one may assume that the distribution of population values is Normal, with unknown mean and variance, that datasets are generated by'simple' random sampling; the family of generalized linear models is a used and flexible class of parametric models. Non-parametric: The assumptions made about the process generating the data are much less than in parametric statistics and may be minimal.

For example, every continuous probability distribution has a median, which may be estimated using the sample median or the Hodges–Lehmann–Sen estimator, which has good properties when the data arise from simple random sampling. Semi-parametric: This term implies assumptions'in between' and non-parametric approaches. For example, one may assume. Furthermore, one may assume that the mean response level in the population depends in a linear manner on some covariate but not make any parametric assumption describing the variance around that mean. More semi-parametric models can be separated into'structural' and'random variation' components. One component is treated the other non-parametrically; the well-known Cox model is a set of semi-parametric assumptions. Whatever level of assumption is made calibrated inference in general requires these assumptions to be correct. Incorrect assumptions of'simple' random sampling can invalidate statistical inference. More complex semi- and parametric assumptions are cause for concern.

For example, incorrectly assuming the Cox model can in some cases lead to faulty conclusions. Incorrect assumptions of Normality in the population invalidates some forms of regression-based inference; the use of any parametric model is viewed skeptically by most experts in sampling human populations: "most sampling statisticians, when they deal with confidence intervals at all, limit themselves to statements about based on large samples, where the central limit theorem ensures that these will have distributions that are nearly normal." In particular, a normal distribution "would be a unrealistic and catastrophically unwise assumption to make if we were dealing with any kind of economic population." Here, the central limit theorem states that the distribution of the sample mean "for large samples" is normally distributed, if the distribution is not heavy tailed. Given the difficulty in specifying exact distributions of sample statistics, many methods have been developed for approximating these.

With finite samples, approximation results measure how close a limiting distribution approaches the statistic's sample distribution: For example, with 10,000 independent samples the normal distribution approximates the distribution of the sample mean for many population distributions, by the Berry–Esseen theorem. Yet for many practical purposes, the normal approximation provides a good approximation to the sample-mean's distribution when there are 10 independent samples, according to simula

Constantinos Caratheodory (1802–1879)

Constantinos Caratheodory was an Ottoman Greek physician who served as the personal physician of Abdülmecid I, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The historian Johann Strauss describes him as one of the "best known" teachers at the Imperial School of Medicine in Constantinople, now known as Istanbul. Caratheodory was born in Adrianople, now known in English as Edirne, he graduated from the Greek School of Adrianople and attended the Greek School of Bucharest for a year. However he moved to Vienna after his uncle from his mother's side, Cyril VI of Constantinople, died in the Constantinople massacre of 1821. Cyril and an uncle from his father's side, a doctor named Stephanos Caratheodory, who later taught at the Imperial School of Medicine. Had helped guide Caratheodory's education, he attended medical school in Pisa, beginning in 1824 and receiving his degree on 30 May 1827. He did additional medical coursework in Paris and London, in 1827-1829 and 1829-1830 with the former being in surgery, he became a professor at the School of Medicine in Constantinople on 10 May 1830.

Stephanos Caratheodory was a professor there, it was established at the time he arrived. The Ottoman court designated him as one of its doctors, Caratheodory became the Hospital of Infectious Diseases' head doctor, in 1836 the professor of the surgical ward, he founded the Ottoman Imperial Medicine Society, co-founded the Greek Literary Society of Constantinople. He was friends with Spyridon Mavrogenis, who wrote a biography of him, "The Life of Constantine Caratheodory", first published by Gauthier-Villars in Paris in 1885; the biography was issued for a 7 January 1880 celebration. As the Ottoman authorities censored works published domestically, this biography was published abroad. Caratheodory's older son asked Mavrogenis to add two narrations, one about a presentation by Caratheodory at the Medical Academy of Paris and one about an account of Mahmud II's death deriving from a pamphlet edited by Caratheodory. Mavrogenis edited the biography five years after the initial publication. In 1835 he married Grand Dragoman Stavraki Aristarchi's daughter, after her death remarried another woman.

Circa 1838 his first son, was born, he in total had at least four children. His first and his second wives both died of childbirth, the first from birthing Stephanos and the second from birthing the fourth child, he married a third wife. Trompoukis, Constantinos. "The professor Constantinos Caratheodory - His biography by Spyridon Mavrogeni Pasha". Yeni tıp tarihi araştırmaları = The new history of medicine studies: 27-33. Βίος Κωνσταντίνου του Καραθεοδωρή: Ψηφίσματι του εν Κωνσταντινουπόλει Ελληνικού Φιλολογικού Συλλόγου / συνταγείς και εκφωνηθείς παρ' αυτού εν Συνεδριάσει του εν Κ. Π. Ελλ. Φιλολογικού Συλλόγου υπό Σπυρίδωνος του Μαυρογένους - at the University of Crete

Miroslav Benka

Miroslav Benka, born April 22, 1956, is a Serbian screenwriter, actor and designer. Benka was born in Ašanja, Serbia to a Slovak family, he graduated from the College of Applied Arts in Design and the Acting Department of the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad|Academy of Arts in Novi Sad. Benka graduated from the Directing Department of the University of Arts in Belgrade, he was a guest professor at the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava and the International University in Novi Pazar, artistic director of the City Drama Theatre in Žilina, the National Theatre Sterija in Vrsac and the Vrsac Autumn Theatre Festival. Benka has directed 60 productions by classical and contemporary playwrights, advertisements, television programs, music videos, radio dramas and the multimedia project Lux in Tenebris at Bojnice Castle. Benka has performed at the Belgrade International Theatre Festival in 1991 and 2004, the Novi Sad Sterija Theatre Festival in 1995 and 1998, the Vojvodina Theatre Festival in 1991, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999 and 2001, the Vrsac Autumn Theatre Festival in 1994, 1996, 1998, 2001 and 2002, the Sarajevo Theatre Festival in 1991 and 2004, the Ljubljana Theatre Festival in 2006, the 1991 Zagreb Dance Week Festival, the 1998 Užice Yugoslav Theatre Festival, the Prešov Slovak Theatre Festival in 1994 and 1995, the International Theatre Festival in 1992 and 1995, the 2012 Touches and Connections Theatre Festival, the 2013 International Theatre Festival and Herceg Novi Summer Festival.

He has contributed to S. O. S. Soft Dreams and Circuses, Painted in Frost and Images of My World, he has exhibited work at the World Stage Design Exhibition during the Prague Quadrennial. Other exhibitions include the Museum of Art and Crafts in Belgrade and the Triennial of Theatre Scenography and Costume Design in Novi Sad. 1991: S. O. S. by Miroslav Benka 1994: Lux in Tenebris by Bertolt Brecht 1994: Soft Dreams by Miroslav Benka 1998: Kamen za pod glavu by Milica Novković 2004: Bread and Circuses by Miroslav Benka 2008: Painted in Frost by Miroslav Benka 2009: Images of My World by Miroslav Benka 2010: On the Wings of Dreams by Miroslav Benka 2011: Abode/Bydlisko/Boraviste by Miroslav Benka 2012: Days of Einstein's Dreams by Miroslav Benka 1991: Jurislav Korenić best young director award 1991: Best experiment in contemporary theatre award 1994: State Prize for direction 1994: Best Director 1995: Best Director 1995: RTVBG – RTVNS Award of National TV RTS, Belgrade 1998: Best Director 1999: Golden Mark of Union of Culture and Education, Belgrade 2001: Special Award for Directing and Dramaturgy 2001: Best Scenography 2006: Grand Prix 2007: Best Scenography Benka in the Serbian Wikipedia Isakov and Biro, Mikloš.

Top 10, Vojvodina, p. 84. NDN Vojvodine, Novi Sad ISBN 8643100196. Vehovec, Roman. Leksikon umetnika Vojvodine. Vega Media, Novi Sad, pp. 3, 29. Stojšić, Borislav. Znamenite ličnosti Srema. Muzej Srema, Sremska Mitrovica, pp. 354, 357, 358. Ballek, R. Dikošová, E. Dlouhy, O. and Jaborník, J. Mestské divadlo Žilina, MD Žilina, DÚ Bratislava, pp. 30–31. ISBN 8088987636. Penčić and Poljanski, Dejan. 55 Festivala pozorišta Vojvodine. ZPPV Novi Sad- Subotica. Str. 233, ISBN 8685123046 Ćirilov, Jovan: Svi moji savremenici. Prosveta, Beograd, pp. 293–297. ISBN 9788607017416. Verešová, Katarína. Storočie divadla v Starej Pazove. ESA Bratislava, pp. 189– 239. ISBN 9788085684605. Vagapova, Natalija. BITEF: pozorište, festival, život. Altera-BITEF-Službeni Glasnik, Beograd, pp. 326, 330, 560, 572. ISBN 978-86-6007-054-0. Šuvaković, Miško. Istorija umetnosti u Srbiji: XX vek, Knjiga 1: Radikalne umetničke prakse. Orion Art, Beograd, pp. 779–789, ISBN 978-86-83305-52-0. Sklabinski, Milina. Slováci v Srbsku.... UPKVS, Nový Sad, pp. 352–362, ISBN 9788687947061.

ПАШИЋ, Феликс. "Елита на окупу", ВЕЧЕРЊЕ НОВОСТИ, Belgrade, 14 March 1991. Korenić, Bojan. "Pokrenute slike", Sarajevo, 9 April 1991. ХЛОЖАН, Б.. Драматургија ирационалног, ДНЕВНИК, Нови Сад, 18 March 1991 p. 13. Б. Б. М. "S. O. S. за свет", Вечерње Новости, Belgrade, 26 April 1991. Foretić, Dalibor. "O 32 MES-u", Zagreb, 1991. Vrgoč, Dubravka. "Opori humor", Zagreb, September 1991. ИВАНОВСКИ, Иван. "O 32. MЕС-у". НОВА МАКЕДОНИЈА, Скопје, April 1991. КОПИЦЛ, Владимир. "32. MЕС - Војвођански дан". ДНЕВНИК, Нови Сад, 9 April 1991. Knežević, D.. "Čudo iz Pazove". Politika Ekspres, Belgrade, 10 April 1991. Bartuc, Gabriella. "S. O. S.". Magyar Szö, Ujvideki-Novi Sad, 11 May 1991. Babín, Emil. "Vzývanie božstvatálie". PRAVDA na nedeľu, Bratislava, 19 July 1991. КРЕШИЋ, Ирена. "Сјајни етерични плес". ПОЛИТИКА, Београд, October 1991. Zajcev, Milica

Immaculate Conception Academy–Greenhills

Immaculate Conception Academy known as ICA Greenhills or ICAgh is located at 10 Grant Street, San Juan, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is a private college preparatory Catholic school for Chinese Filipino girls run by the Missionary Sisters of Immaculate Conception; the school directress is Sr. Irene Ferrer, MIC. ICA is a non-stock, non-profit elementary and secondary school owned and directed by the Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception, a Canadian-founded congregation of women religious by Delia Tetreault. ICA caters to Chinese Filipino female students. ICA traces its foundation in 1933-1936 when the Chinese families in Binondo requested the MIC sisters to open a school so that their children who have been baptized in the Catholic Church could be followed up in the practice of living out of their faith; the school moved seven times to accommodate its growing population due to influx of Chinese immigrants escaping the Sino-Japanese War as well as the damage of school buildings as a result of the shelling of Manila by the Americans and the Japanese during World War II.

The close ties between ICA and its neighboring exclusive school for boys and co-member of the EDSA-Ortigas Consortium, Xavier School, that can be seen today can be traced to the 1950s. At the invitation of the Jesuits who were building Xavier School in 1958 in the newly opened subdivision in Greenhills, the MIC Sisters constructed a building, completed in 1960. In 1975, ICA-Intramuros was fused with ICA-Greenhills. At present ICA-Greenhills has a population of 3,381 with 1,009 in the high school department. ICA was considered an Anglo-Chinese school with a double curriculum. In 1954, ICA became a Filipino school offering the Chinese Language Arts program as an essential part of the curriculum. While majority of the student population is Chinese Filipino, Chinese heritage is not a main criterion for admission to ICA. ICA undertook the accreditation process of Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools and Universities or PAASCU in SY 1983-84 and received full-accredited status in 1986, it was reaccredited in 1989, 1994, 1999 and 2004.

In late 2009, the High School Department was granted a top-tier Level III Accreditation by the Federation Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines. ICA has seven gates. Gates 1 and 2 are located at Grant Street, Gates 3a and 3b are at Xavier Street, Gates 4a and 4b are located at Roosevelt Street and Gate 5 is at Washington Street. Dona Juanita Gokongwei Building Felicidad Tan Sy Building LRC DTASC known as the school gymnasium and school auditorium SAC Henry Sy Sr. Senior High School Building The general management of ICA is vested in a board of five trustees composed of members of the Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception whose Provincial Superior acts as chairman. Elected by the members of the Immaculate Conception Academy, Inc. they serve for a term of one year until election of their successors. Queena Lee-Chua, award-winning journalist & writer, Summa cum Laude Teresita Sy-Coson, eldest child of Henry Sy, Sr. and vice chairperson of SM Investments Corporation Carlene Aguilar, Filipino beauty queen, former Miss Philippines Earth and Former Bb.

Pilipinas World Arlene J. Chai, novelist Gretchen Ho, volleyball player, model and TV hosts Nancy Chu-Reyes, Triathlete Rin Chupeco, Young Adult novelist Kim Yap, Celebrity Stylist Boop Yap, Celebrity Stylist Gretchen Fullido, TV Anchor, Journalist Roxanne Farillas, founder of Plains & Prints Tiffany Grace Uy, Highest UP GWA since post World War I Robina Gokongwei Pe, Eldest Daughter of John Gokongwei and President Robinsons Retail Paulina Suaco-Juan, Former Editior-in-Chief of Preview Magazine, Current Executive Director of CITEM Official Website

Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America

The Polish Highlanders Alliance of America was founded in 1929 in Chicago as an organization that unites all other Góral organizations in the United States. Most of Chicago's Góral community is concentrated on Chicago's Southwest Side along Archer Avenue where the headquarters known as the "Highlander Home" is located; the Highlander House is styled as a Carpathian chalet in the traditional Zakopane Style of Architecture. Located at 4808 S. Archer Avenue in Chicago, the structure underwent renovation under the eye of famed artist Jerzy Kenar in 2005. In 2012 the Highlander House was upgraded with state of the art video equipment; the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America is a not for profit organization run by an executive board. The members of the current board are: Andrzej Gedlek - president Karolina Walkosz-Strzelec - vice president Michal Ploskonka- vice president of economic affairs Jozef Cikowski - vice president of cultural affairs Malgorzata Stopka- vice president for the East Coast Helena Studencka - general secretary Mateusz Staszel - financial secretary Monika Pawlikowska - treasurer Tomasz Radecki - marshall Jozef Fryzlewicz- Secretary of Records Waclaw Pilat, Jozef Krzystyniak - standard-bearer Wojciech Dorula, Anna Zalinska - public relations Fr.

Jacek Palica, Fr. Waclaw Lech, Fr. Bartlomiej Stanowski, Fr. Slawomir Kurc, Fr. Franciszek Florczyk chaplain Kapelmistrz: Marek Bukowski, Wladyslaw PawlikowskiChicago's Góral community publishes its own quarterly newspaper "Podhalanin," in addition to transmitting radio programs such as "Gawędy", "Poezja i muzyka góralska", or "Na góralską nutę", broadcasting from WPNA 1490 AM; the Polish language Chicago area daily Dziennik Związkowy publishes a section titled The Highlander Chronicle "Kronika podhalańska". Jan Sabała's memorial circle Władysław Orkan's memorial circle Morskie Oko Morskie Oko - Detroit, Michigan Władysław Zamoyski's memorial circle Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer's memorial circle in Passaic, New Jersey Inactive General Galica's memorial circle Armstrong Creek, Wisconsin J. Janosik’s memorial circle Tatra Mountains Górals in Passaic, New Jersey Polish Highlanders in New York Dr. Stefan Jarosz memorial circle Tatry, Pennsylvania Inactive Association of Polish Highlanders from Zakopane in Utica, New York Makow Podhalanski circle Giewont circle in Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania Duch Knapczyk's memorial circle Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer’s memorial circle Czarny Dunajec Maniowy Odrowąż Podhalański Szaflary Harklowa Raba Wyżna Witów Gronków Ciche Wierchy Spytkowice Dzianisz Zakopane Maruszyna Skawa Leśnica Groń Ludźmierz Chabówka Biały Dunajec Nowy Targ Wróblówka Białka Tatrzańska Chochołów Śleboda Poronin Stare Bystre Ski Club “Tatry” Babia Góra Kluszkowce Pieniny Ostrowsko Czerwienne Klikuszowa parish Kościelisko Ratułów “Podhale” Soccer Club Bukowina Tatrzańska Ząb Morawczyna Małe Ciche Łopuszna Hubertus - Hunting circle Waksmund under the patronage of St. Hedwig Czarna Góra Ciche Dolne, Miętusowo parish Dębno Pieniążkowice Gliczarów Górny "Wierchowiany" Skrzypne Polish Highlanders in Arizona Nowe Bystre Ochotnica Zaskale Tylmanowa Dział Kruszów Bukowina Podszkle Zagórzanie of Mszana Dolna Florida under the patronage of Our Lady of Ludźmierz Polish Highlanders in Washington State Bustryk Piekielnik Podczerwone Giewont in Lemont Gronik TOPR Zespol Goralski "SIUMNI," Polish Highlander Folkloric Group representing Polish Highlander Alliance in Chicago and the Brighton Park circle, Podhalan Women's Club, The Ski Club, Podhale Soccer Club.

Official website of the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America - Oficjalny Portal Internetowy Najstarszej Polskiej Ligi Piłkarskiej w Chicago Chicago Public Radio series on diaspora communities in Chicago, including one on Goral Music in Chicago Info-Portal Gorale in Polish Gorale - old photographs

Scholander pressure bomb

A pressure bomb or pressure chamber or Scholander bomb is an instrument that can measure the approximate water potential of plant tissues. A leaf and petiole or stem segment is placed inside a sealed chamber. Pressurized gas is added to the chamber; as the pressure increases at some point the liquid contents of the sample will be forced out of the xylem and will be visible at the cut end of the stem or petiole. The pressure, required to do so is equal and opposite to the water potential of the sample. Pressure bombs are field portable and mechanically simple, which make them the predominant method for water potential measurements in the fields of plant physiology and ecophysiology. Several water potential variables can be determined using the pressure bomb analysis; the most common of which are predawn leaf water potential and midday leaf water potential. Measurements conducted on plants predawn are considered a good representation of the total water status of plant; as no transpiration through stomata should be occurring at night, the plant's water potentials should be in equilibrium across the entire plant and be similar to the water potential of the soil around the roots.

Midday leaf water potential is less used as it is more variable and does not correlate well with other physiological measurements of water status. However, midday water potentials can be used to determine times of peak water stress or diurnal changes in plant water status. Additional variables and methods that involve pressure bombs for analysis include: stem conductance, xylem embolisms, vulnerability curves. A more advance method that uses the pressure bomb in plant physiology is pressure-volume curves analysis or p-v curve. Through this method one measures the changes in leaf or stem water potential and relative water content to isolate the underlying components of total leaf or stem water potential. While the measurements can be time intensive, variable such as solute potential, turgor loss point, apoplastic water content and symplastic water content can all be determined using this method; the general protocol for measuring p-v curves involves repeated measure of water potential and mass in succession.

As water is forced out of the sample with each measurement in the pressure bomb the mass is reduced. Tracking these changes over many measurement should show a precipitous drop and a steady linear decline after an inflection point. Cochard, Hervé. "A new validation of the Scholander pressure chamber technique based on stem diameter variations". Journal of Experimental Botany. 52: 1361–1365. Doi:10.1093/jexbot/52.359.1361. ISSN 0022-0957