Office for National Statistics
The Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament. Its main office is in Newport near the United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office and Tredegar House, but another significant office is in Titchfield in Hampshire, ONS co-ordinates data collection with the respective bodies in Northern Ireland and Scotland, namely NISRA and NRS. The ONS was formed on 1 April 1996 by the merger of the Central Statistical Office, following the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the United Kingdom Statistics Authority became a non-ministerial department on 1 April 2008. This is often produced in ways that make comparison with other societies and economies possible. Its publications, and analyses by other users based on its data, are reported and discussed daily in the media as the basis for the public understanding of the country in which they live. The complexity and degree and speed of change in the society, combined with the challenge of measuring some of these rise to periodic debates about some of its indicators.
Consequently, unexpected or incomplete data or occasional errors or disputes about its analysis can attract considerable attention, ONS data can be used in epidemiologic studies such as survival analysis. This was originally a 1997 Labour manifesto commitment and was the policy of the Liberal Democrat, such independence was sought by the Royal Statistical Society and the Statistics Commission. The National Statistician would be accountable to Parliament through a more widely constituted independent governing Statistics Board. The ONS would be a government department so that the staff, including the Director, would remain as civil servants. The details of the plans for independence were considered in Parliament during the 2006/2007 session and resulted in the Statistics, on 7 February 2008, following the first meeting of the shadow board, it was announced that it would be known as the UK Statistics Authority. In 2012, Andrew Dilnot replaced Michael Scholar as chairman of the Authority, since its establishment, ONS has had five Directors, Professor Tim Holt, Len Cook, Karen Dunnell, Jil Matheson, from October 2012, Glen Watson.
Len Cook was the first Director to hold the newly created role of National Statistician, the roles of Director of ONS and National Statistician were combined until 2012 when Jil Matheson continued as National Statistician while Glen Watson became Director of the ONS. John Pullinger replaced Jil Matheson as National Statistician in July 2014, the work of the ONS covers the collection of data and the analysis and publication of statistics covering the economy and society of the UK. Where data is broken down by geographical area, this is usually done by the areas defined in the ONS geographical coding system and they are members of the Government Statistical Service and are the professional responsibility of the head of the service, who is the National Statistician. Each department has a statistical service Head of Profession, for example, data on Agriculture and Forestry comes primarily from the Department for the Environment and Rural Affairs. ONS is responsible for the maintenance of the Inter-Departmental Business Register and this ceased to operate from 1 April 2008.
The General Register Office and the post of Registrar-General for England & Wales ceased to be part of ONS from that date, the annual United Kingdom National Accounts are published in an online publication by the Office for National Statistics
Balance of trade
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports, is the difference between the monetary value of a nations exports and imports over a certain period. Sometimes a distinction is made between a balance of trade for goods versus one for services, generally trade surplus is seen as positive economic indicator, however in exceptional circumstances a trade deficit is due to government forex policy to achieve other macroeconomic goals. The balance of trade part of the current account, which includes other transactions such as income from the net international investment position as well as international aid. If the current account is in surplus, the net international asset position increases correspondingly. Equally, a deficit decreases the net asset position. The trade balance is identical to the difference between a countrys output and its domestic demand, measuring the balance of trade can be problematic because of problems with recording and collecting data. This cannot be true, because all transactions involve an equal credit or debit in the account of each nation, the discrepancy is widely believed to be explained by transactions intended to launder money or evade taxes and other visibility problems.
Especially for developing countries, the statistics are likely to be inaccurate. In export-led growth, the balance of trade will shift towards exports during an economic expansion, with domestic demand led growth the trade balance will shift towards imports at the same stage in the business cycle. Monetary balance of trade is different from physical balance of trade, developed countries usually import a lot of raw materials from developing countries. Typically, these materials are transformed into finished products. Financial trade balance statistics conceal material flow, most developed countries have a large physical trade deficit, because they consume more raw materials than they produce. Many civil society organisations claim this imbalance is predatory and campaign for ecological debt repayment. S debt that has funded the consumption, the U. S. has a trade surplus with nations such as Australia. The issue of trade deficits can be complex, Trade deficits generated in tradeable goods such as manufactured goods or software may impact domestic employment to different degrees than trade deficits in raw materials.
Economies such as Japan and Germany which have savings surpluses, typically run trade surpluses, china, a high-growth economy, has tended to run trade surpluses. A higher savings rate generally corresponds to a trade surplus, the U. S. with its lower savings rate has tended to run high trade deficits, especially with Asian nations. The economist Paul Craig Roberts notes that the comparative advantage principles developed by David Ricardo do not hold where the factors of production are internationally mobile. In 2010, economist Ian Fletcher wrote Free Trade Doesnt Work, What Should Replace It and Why, small trade deficits are generally not considered to be harmful to either the importing or exporting economy
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, interpretation and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory.
In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg. The organisations in the different countries which actively cooperate with Eurostat are summarised under the concept of the European Statistical System, Eurostat operates pursuant to Regulation No 223/2009. As a Directorate-General of the Commission, Eurostat is allocated to the portfolio of the European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Labour Mobility, Marianne Thyssen. The current acting Director-General of Eurostat is Mariana Kotzeva since January 1,2017, former Deputy Director-General of Eurostat,1953 The Statistics Division for the European Coal and Steel Community established. 1958 The European Community founded and the forerunner of Eurostat established,1959 The present name of Eurostat as the Statistical Office of the European Communities adopted. First publication issued - on agricultural statistics,1960 First Community Labour Force Survey. 1970 The European System of Integrated Economic Accounts published and the general Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community established,1974 First domain in the statistical database Cronos databank installed.
1988 European Commission adopts a document defining the first policy for statistical information,1989 The Statistical Programme Committee established and the first programme adopted by the Council as an instrument for implementing statistical information policy. 1990 The Council adopts a directive on transmission of data to Eurostat. 1991 Eurostat’s role extended as a result of the agreement on establishment of the European Economic Area,1993 The single market extends Eurostat’s activities e. g. Intrastat established for statistics on intra-EU trade. Eurostat starts issuing regular news releases, harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices HICP published for the first time - designed for Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union convergence criteria. 1998 The eleven countries in at the start of EMU announced,1999 Start of EMU,1 January 2001. 2001 In April, Eurostat, in collaboration with five other international organisations launched the Joint Oil Data Exercise,2002 Start of the Euro on 1 January, Eurostat supplies key statistics for monetary policy.
2003 Irregularities were suspected in Eurostat, see Eurostat scandal,2004 Start of free-of-charge dissemination of all statistical data except microdata for research purposes. 2007 The currently valid five-year Statistical Programme 2008-2012 was adopted,2009 New European Regulation governing statistical cooperation in the European Union was adopted. 2010 Following strong critics from within and outside the EU on how it did handle falsified Greek data, the European Commission proposes powers for Eurostat to audit the books of national governments in response to the Greek government-debt crisis. 2011 Revision of European Statistics Code of Practice by the European Statistical System Committee, the Eurostat statistical work is structured into Themes and Sub-themes. They are placed on the Eurostat website at 11,00 in the morning and this is the time that the press release content may be distributed to the public by press agencies
Croatian Bureau of Statistics
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics is the Croatian national statistics bureau. The bureau was formed in 1875 in Austria-Hungary as the Zemaljski statistički ured for the Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia, in 1924, the bureau was renamed to the Statistical Office in Zagreb. In 1929, after royal monarchy was proclaimed in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, in 1939 with the formation of the Banovina of Croatia, the office was made subject to the presidential office on the Bans administration. In 1941 the Independent State of Croatia was formed and an Office of General State Statistics existed during this time under the control of the presidential government, in 1945 the Statistical Office of the Peoples Republic of Croatia was formed. The bureau was independent during this time, but was subject to the Yugoslavian Federal Bureau for Statistics, upon Croatian independence, the Central Bureau of Statistics was made the highest statistical body in the nation. The bureau collects and processes data for the Republic of Croatia, among other things, the bureau conducts the Croatian census.
The Bureau keeps records on Croatian censa since 1857, including the recent,1991 Croatian census 2001 Croatian census 2011 Croatian census Official website
Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. In Dutch it is known as the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek and it is a department of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and is located in The Hague and Heerlen. Since 3 January 2004, Statistics Netherlands has been a self-standing organisation and this independent commission must guard the impartiality, quality and continuity of the CBS, according to the Law on the CBS of 1996. The CBS has offices in Den Haag and Heerlen, the main office is located in Den Haag. The office in Heerlen was located there by the government in 1973 to compensate the area for the loss of ten of thousands of jobs because of closing the coalmines, the office in The Hague with the name Double U was designed by Branimir Medić and Pero Puljiz. It has a surface of 33,191 m2 and the total cost was €41,000,000, the office in Heerlen was designed by Meyer en Van Schooten Architects in 2009.
The office has a surface of 22,000 m2 and parking spaces for 296 cars, glass was used everywhere in the building. The main hall has a roof and the outside walls are fully glass. The several straight staircases in the hall have glass balustrades with a RVS handrail and were manufactured by EeStairs. Queen Beatrix from The Netherlands officially opened the building the 30th of September 2009
Statistics Norway is the Norwegian statistics bureau. Relying on a staff of about 1,000, Statistics Norway publish about 1,000 new statistical releases every year on its web site, all releases are published both in Norwegian and English. In addition a number of edited publications are published, and all are available on the web site for free, as the central Norwegian office for official government statistics, Statistics Norway provides the public and government with extensive research and analysis activities. It is administratively placed under the Ministry of Finance but operates independently from all government agencies, Statistics Norway has a board appointed by the government. It relies extensively on data registers, but are collecting data from surveys and questionnaires. Hans Henrik Scheel has been the Director General since 2011, Statistics Norway was originally established in 1876. The Statistics Act of 1989 provides the framework for Statistics Norways activities
Demography is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. As a very general science, it can analyse any kind of dynamic living population, Demography encompasses the study of the size and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration and death. Based on the research of the earth, earths population up to the year 2050 and 2100 can be estimated by demographers. Demographics are quantifiable characteristics of a given population, demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality and ethnicity. Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments, demographic thoughts can be traced back to antiquity, and were present in many civilizations and cultures, like Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and China. In ancient Greece, this can be found in the writings of Herodotus, Hippocrates, Protagoras, Polus and Aristotle.
In Rome and philosophers like Cicero, Pliny the elder, Marcus Aurelius, Cato, in the Middle ages, Christian thinkers devoted much time in refuting the Classical ideas on demography. Important contributors to the field were William of Conches, Bartholomew of Lucca, William of Auvergne, William of Pagula, and Ibn Khaldun. One of the earliest demographic studies in the period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt. Among the studys findings were that one third of the children in London died before their sixteenth birthday, such as Edmond Halley, developed the life table as the basis for life insurance mathematics. Richard Price was credited with the first textbook on life contingencies published in 1771, followed by Augustus de Morgan, at the end of the 18th century, Thomas Robert Malthus concluded that, if unchecked, populations would be subject to exponential growth. He feared that population growth would tend to outstrip growth in production, leading to ever-increasing famine.
He is seen as the father of ideas of overpopulation. Later, more sophisticated and realistic models were presented by Benjamin Gompertz, the period 1860-1910 can be characterized as a period of transition wherein demography emerged from statistics as a separate field of interest. There are two types of data collection—direct and indirect—with several different methods of each type, direct data comes from vital statistics registries that track all births and deaths as well as certain changes in legal status such as marriage and migration. In developed countries with good registration systems, registry statistics are the best method for estimating the number of births and deaths, a census is the other common direct method of collecting demographic data. A census is conducted by a national government and attempts to enumerate every person in a country. Analyses are conducted after a census to estimate how much over or undercounting took place and these compare the sex ratios from the census data to those estimated from natural values and mortality data
Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment, benefits can include health insurance, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws or regulations or legal contracts, employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labor productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship. The main ways for employers to workers and for people to find employers are via jobs listings in newspapers and online. Employers and job seekers find each other via professional recruitment consultants which receive a commission from the employer to find, screen. However, a study has shown that such consultants may not be reliable when they fail to use established principles in selecting employees, a more traditional approach is with a Help Wanted sign in the establishment. Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments and potential employee commonly take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview.
Training and development refers to the effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve job satisfaction. There are many ways that employees are paid, including by hourly wages, by piecework, by yearly salary, in sales jobs and real estate positions, the employee may be paid a commission, a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions, employees may be eligible for a bonus if they meet certain targets, employee benefits are various non-wage compensation provided to employee in addition to their wages or salaries. In some cases, such as with workers employed in remote or isolated regions, employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employer and lowers staff turnover. Organizational justice is a perception and judgement of employers treatment in the context of fairness or justice. The resulting actions to influence the relationship is a part of organizational justice.
Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working. Usually, either an employee or employer may end the relationship at any time and this is referred to as at-will employment. The contract between the two parties specifies the responsibilities of each when ending the relationship and may include such as notice periods, severance pay. In some professions, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, and some jobs, some employees may have tenure
Federal Statistical Office of Germany
The Federal Statistical Office is a federal authority of Germany. It reports to the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the Office is responsible for collecting, processing and analysing statistical information concerning the topics economy and environment. The purpose is providing objective and highly qualitative statistical information for the whole public, about 2780 staff members are employed in the departments in Wiesbaden and Berlin. The department in Wiesbaden is the office and runs the largest library specialised in statistical literature in Germany. It is the Office of the President who is by tradition, but not by virtue of the office, in this position he or she is the supervisor of the elections of the German Parliament and of the European Parliament. Census in Germany List of statistical offices in Germany Official website of the Federal Statistical Office of Germany