A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal
Irish Museum of Modern Art
The Irish Museum of Modern Art known as IMMA, is Ireland's leading national institution for the collection and presentation of modern and contemporary art. Located in Kilmainham, the Museum presents a wide variety of art in a changing programme of exhibitions, which includes bodies of work from its own collection and its education and community department, it aims to create more widespread access to art and artists through its studio and national programmes. The Museum’s mission is to foster within society an awareness and involvement in the visual arts through policies and programmes which are excellent and inclusive; the Irish Museum of Modern Art was established by the Government of Ireland in 1990. It was opened on 25 May 1991 by Taoiseach Charles J Haughey; the Irish Museum of Modern Art is housed in the 17th-century Royal Hospital Kilmainham. The Royal Hospital was founded in 1684 by James Butler, the Duke of Ormonde and Viceroy to Charles II, as a home for retired soldiers and continued in that use for 250 years.
The Royal Hospital is a striking location for displaying modern art. Modelled on Les Invalides in Paris, it is arranged around a courtyard and the interior has long corridors running along series of modest interlocking rooms; the original stables have been restored and converted into artists' studios, the museum runs an artist-in-residence programme. IMMA holds the Irish National Collection of modern and contemporary art, consisting of over 3500 works by Irish and international artists; the collection's emphasis is on works produced post-1940 and features works by many significant artists including Marina Abramović, Louise Bourgeois, Joseph Cornell, Robert Rauschenberg, Sol LeWitt, Louis le Brocquy, Matt Mullican, Roy Lichtenstein and Lawrence Weiner. The collection is catalogued and searchable via a dedicated websiteThe Hennessy Art Fund for IMMA Collection was launched in 2016 in part as a response to funding cuts preventing the museum from having a viable acquisitions budget to collect the work of emerging and mid-career artists since 2011.
The fund is a new multi-year corporate partnership and acquisition fund to purchase works by Irish and Irish based artists that are not yet part of the IMMA National Collection of Contemporary and Modern Art. Prior to this the museum relied on private philanthropy; the Hennessy Art Fund has thus far allowed the collection to acquire the work of Kevin Atherton, David Beattie, Rhona Byrne and Dennis McNulty in 2016. The Museum is a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital; the company is funded by grant-in-aid through the Department of Arts and the Gaeltacht and by sponsorship and own resource income. Official website IMMA Collection online catalogue]
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Saint Patrick's Saltire
Saint Patrick's Saltire or Saint Patrick's Cross is a red saltire on a white field, used to represent the island of Ireland or Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. In heraldic language, it may be blazoned a saltire gules. Saint Patrick's Flag is a flag composed of Saint Patrick's Saltire; the red saltire's association with Saint Patrick dates from the 1780s, when the Order of Saint Patrick adopted it as an emblem. This was a British chivalric order established in 1783 by George III, it has been suggested that it derives from the arms of the powerful FitzGerald dynasty. Most Irish nationalists reject its use to represent Ireland as a "British invention". After its adoption by the Order of Saint Patrick, it began to be used by other institutions; when the 1800 Act of Union joined the Kingdom of Ireland with the Kingdom of Great Britain, the saltire was added to the British flag to form the Union Flag still used by the United Kingdom. The saltire has served unofficially to represent Northern Ireland and been considered less contentious than other flags flown there.
An early recorded mention of a Saint Patrick's flag is from the journal of John Glanville, writing about the Anglo-Dutch fleet that sailed to Cádiz, Spain, in 1625. In it Glanville remarks: That this was an Englishe and not an Irishe action, the colours contended for the fflagg of St George and not of St Patericke, which hee intimated to himselfe being a Baron of England much auntient to my Lord Cromwell to bee more proper and worthie to carry anie Irish Viscount whatsoever The Order of Saint Patrick, an Anglo-Irish chivalric order, was created in 1783; the order was a means of rewarding those in high office who supported the Anglo-Irish government of Ireland. On its badge was a red saltire on a white background, which it called the "Cross of St Patrick": And the said Badge shall be of Gold surrounded with a Wreath of Shamrock or Trefoil, within which shall be a Circle of Gold, containing the Motto of our said Order in Letters of Gold Viz. QUIS SEPARABIT? Together with the date 1783, being the year in which our said Order was founded, encircling the Cross of St Patrick Gules, surmounted with a Trefoil Vert each of its leaves charged with an Imperial Crown Or upon a field of Argent.
The use of a saltire in association with St Patrick was controversial because it differed from the usual crosses by custom worn on St Patrick's Day. In particular, the previous crosses associated with Saint Patrick were not X-shaped; some contemporary responses to the badge of the order complained that an X-shaped cross was the Cross of St Andrew, patron of Scotland. A February 1783 newspaper complained that "the breasts of Irishmen were to be decorated by the bloody Cross of St Andrew, not that of the tutelar Saint of their natural isle". Another article claimed that "the Cross of St Andrew the Scotch saint is to honour the Irish order of St Patrick, by being inserted within the star of the order... a manifest insult to common sense and to national propriety". An open letter to Lord Temple, to whom the design of the Order of St Patrick's badges were entrusted, echoes this and elaborates: The Cross used on St Patrick's day, by Irishmen, is the Cross pattée, small in the centre, so goes on widening to the ends, which are broad.
As bearing the arms of another person is reckoned disgraceful by the laws of honour, how much more so is it, in an order which ought to carry honour to the highest pitch, to take a cross for its emblem, acknowledged for many ages as the property of an order in another country? If the cross worn as the emblem of the Saint, ascribed to Ireland is not agreeable to your Excellency, sure many others are left to choose from, without throwing Ireland into so ignominious a point of view, as to adopt the one that Scotland has so long a claim to. Many subsequent commentators have believed that the saltire was taken from the arms of the FitzGeralds, who were Dukes of Leinster; the Dukes of Leinster dominated the political and social scene of 18th century Dublin, from their ducal palace of Leinster House. William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster was the premier peer in the Irish House of Lords and a founder member of the Order of Saint Patrick. On the other hand, Michael Casey suggests that Lord Temple, pressed for time, had based the Order's insignia on those of the Order of the Garter, rotated its St George's Cross 45 degrees.
Henry Gough in 1893 doubted the antiquity of Patrick's Cross on the basis that, if a cross had been an established symbol of Ireland during the Protectorate flags of the era would have used that instead of the gold Irish harp. A variety of sources show saltires in use earlier than 1783 in Ireland and in an Irish context, although there is no suggestion that they are linked to St Patrick; the Flag Institute states that arms derive from those of the powerful FitzGerald dynasty, who were Earls of Kildare. Gearóid Mór FitzGerald and his son Gearóid Óg were Lord Deputies of Ireland in the late 15th and early 16th centuries; the design on the reverse of some Irish coins minted c. 1480 includes two shields with saltires. At this time, Gearóid Mór FitzGerald was Lord Deputy of Ireland, the shields are considered to be his arms. A 1576 map of Ireland by John Goghe shows the FitzGerald arms over their spheres of influence, it shows a red
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are called Cabinet ministers or secretaries; the function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions.
Under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president, head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet's advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, in three countries that do often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is the head of government who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports; the second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are important originators for legislation.
Cabinets and ministers are in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus the majority of new legislation originates from the cabinet and its ministries. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of Minister, each holds a different portfolio of government duties. In a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, United States, the title of Secretary is used for some Cabinet members. In many countries, a Secretary is a cabinet member with an inferior rank to a Minister. In Finland, a Secretary of State is a career official. In some countries, the Cabinet is known by names such as "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" or "Council of State", or by lesser known names such as "Federal Council", "Inner Council" or "High Council"; these countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is established. The supranational European Union uses a different convention: the European Commission refers to its executive cabinet as a "college", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners", whereas a "European Commission cabinet" is the personal office of a European Commissioner.
In presidential systems such as the United States, members of the Cabinet are chosen by the president, may have to be confirmed by one or both of the houses of the legislature. In most presidential systems, cabinet members cannot be sitting legislators, legislators who are offered appointments must resign if they wish to accept. In parliamentary systems, several different policies exist with regard to whether legislators can be Cabinet ministers: cabinet members must, must not, or may be members of parliament, depending on the country. In the United Kingdom, cabinet ministers are mandatorily appointed from among sitting members of the parliament. In countries with a strict separation between the executive and legislative branches of government, e.g. Luxembourg and Belgium, cabinet members have to give up their seat in parliament; the intermediate case is when ministers are members of parliament, but are not required to be, as in Finland. The candidate prime minister and/or the president selects the individual ministers to be proposed to the parliament, which may accept or reject the proposed cabinet composition.
Unlike in a presidential system, the cabinet in a parliamentary system must not only be confirmed, but enjoy the continuing confidence of the parliament: a parliament can pass a motion of no confidence to remove a government or individual ministers. But not these votes are taken across party lines. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in many others this is prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. Instead, there is a minister of justice, separate from the attorney general. Furthermore, in Sweden and Estonia, the cabinet includes a Chancellor of Justice, a civil servant that acts as the legal counsel to the cabinet. In multi-party systems, the formation of a government may require the support of multiple parties. Thus, a coalition government is formed. Continued cooperation between the participating political parties is nece
Red Rose of Lancaster
The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower of Lancashire. The exact species or cultivar which the red rose relates to is uncertain, but it is thought to be Rosa gallica officinalis; the rose. It was one of the badges of Henry IV of the first king of the House of Lancaster. Following the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, it became the emblem of Lancashire. Lancaster's Red Rose is an official variety and is the first cultivated rose; the rose was discovered by the ancient Persians and Egyptians. Adopted by the Romans, who introduced it to Gaul where it assumed the name Rosa gallica, it is documented. The rose was appreciated for its medical value and was utilized in countless medical remedies; the Red Rose of Lancaster derives from the gold rose badge of Edward I of England. Other members of his family used variants of the royal badge, with the king's brother, the Earl of Lancaster, using a red rose, it is believed that the Red Rose of Lancaster was the House of Lancaster's badge during the Wars of the Roses.
Evidence for this "wearing of the rose" includes land tenure records requiring service of a red rose yearly for a manor held directly from Henry VI of England. There are, doubts as to whether the red rose was an emblem taken up by the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses. Adrian Ailes has noted that the red rose “probably owes its popular usage to Henry VII responding to the pre-existing Yorkist white rose in an age when signs and symbols could speak louder than words." It allowed Henry to invent and exploit his most famous heraldic device, the Tudor Rose, combining the so-called Lancastrian red rose and the White Rose of York. This floral union neatly symbolised the restoration of peace and harmony and his marriage in January 1486 to Elizabeth of York, it was a brilliant piece of simple heraldic propaganda.” The Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England. The rose does not form any part of the insignia of the Duchy of Lancaster, but came to be seen as an emblem of the county of Lancashire, as such was incorporated in the coats of arms of numerous Lancashire local authorities including the county council.
Since 1974 a number of metropolitan boroughs in Greater Manchester and Merseyside have included red roses in their armorial bearings to show their formation from parts of Lancashire. It is present in the crest of the coat of arms of the London Borough of Enfield; the traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was never registered with the Flag Institute and when this was attempted it was found that this flag had been registered by the town of Montrose, Scotland. As two flags of the same design can not be registered, Lancashire’s official flag is now registered as a red rose on a yellow field. Today the Red Rose is still used, not on a yellow background. Lancashire County Cricket Club still use; the Trafford Centre features Red Roses in its architecture, most noticeably on all of the glass panes in the shopping centre. Lancashire GAA features. Manchester City Football Club featured the red rose on the club badge from 1972 to 1997 and reinstated it in 2015, reflecting Manchester's history as part of Lancashire.
It features on the badge of Blackburn Rovers and Bolton Wanderers. Edge Hill University in Ormskirk uses the Red Rose on a yellow background on its crest along with a Liver bird which signifies its current location and origins in Liverpool; the shield of Lancashire County Council's coat of arms, displays not one but three red roses, on gold piles on a red background. The arms have been official since 1903. From the nineteenth century the red rose was part of the badge of a number of units of the British Army recruiting in the county. In World War I the rose; the cap badge of the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, formed in 2006, features. The Saskatoon Light Infantry of the Canadian Army incorporated the red rose into the design of their cap badge and regimental buttons, due to an alliance with the York and Lancaster Regiment of the British Army; the Canadian city of Montreal has a Lancastrian rose in the top right hand corner of its flag, representing the city's historical English community. The U.
S. City of Lancaster, known as "Red Rose City", uses the Lancastrian rose as its seal, in its flag. Royal Badges of England Wars of the Roses White Rose of York Tudor rose Lancashire villages homepage concerning the rose 55th Territorial
Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper and similar metals, or certain stones, wooden furniture, or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. Additionally, leather aficionados use the term to describe the ageing of high quality leather; the patina on leather goods are unique to the type of leather, frequency of use, exposure. Patinas can provide a protective covering to materials that would otherwise be damaged by corrosion or weathering, they may be aesthetically appealing. On metal, patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as oxides, sulfides, or sulfates formed on the surface during exposure to atmospheric elements, a common example of, rust which forms on iron or steel when exposed to oxygen. Patina refers to accumulated changes in surface texture and colour that result from normal use of an object such as a coin or a piece of furniture over time. Archaeologists use the term "patina" to refer to a corticated layer that develops over time, due to a range of complex factors on flint tools and ancient stone monuments./ This has led stone tool analysts in recent times to prefer the term "cortification" as a better term to describe the process than "patination".
In geology and geomorphology, the term "patina" is used to refer to discolored film or thin outer layer produced either on or within the surface of a rock or other material by either the development of a weathering rind within the surface of a rock, the formation of desert varnish on the surface of a rock, or combination of both. It refers to development as the result of weathering of a case-hardened layer, called "cortex" by geologists, within the surface of either a flint or chert nodule; the word "patina" comes from the Italian patina derived from the Latin patĭna. Figuratively, patina can refer to any fading, darkening or other signs of age, which are felt to be natural or unavoidable; the chemical process by which a patina forms or is deliberately induced is called patination, a work of art coated by a patina is said to be patinated. The green patina that forms on copper and bronze, sometimes called verdigris consists of varying mixtures of copper chlorides, sulfides and carbonates, depending upon environmental conditions such as sulfur-containing acid rain.
In clean air rural environments, the patina is created by the slow chemical reaction of copper with carbon dioxide and water, producing a basic copper carbonate. In industrial and urban air environments containing sulfurous acid rain from coal-fired power plants or industrial processes, the final patina is composed of sulphide or sulphate compounds. A patina layer takes many years to develop under natural weathering. Buildings in damp coastal/marine environments will develop patina layers faster than ones in dry inland areas. Facade cladding with alloys of copper, e.g. brass or bronze, will weather differently from "pure" copper cladding. A lasting gold colour is possible with copper-alloy cladding, for example Colston Hall in Bristol, or the Novotel at Paddington Central, London. Antique and well-used firearms will develop a patina on the steel after the bluing, parkerizing, or other finish has worn. Firearms in this state are considered more valuable than ones that have been re-blued or parkerized.
The patina protects the firearm from the more damaging rust that would occur were the patina to be polished off. Artists and metalworkers deliberately add patinas as a part of the original design and decoration of art and furniture, or to simulate antiquity in newly made objects; the process is called distressing. A wide range of chemicals, both household and commercial, can give a variety of patinas, they are used by artists as surface embellishments either for color, texture, or both. Patination composition varies with the reacted elements and these will determine the color of the patina. For copper alloys, such as bronze, exposure to chlorides leads to green, while sulfur compounds tend to brown; the basic palette for patinas on copper alloys includes chemicals like ammonium sulfide, liver of sulfur, cupric nitrate and ferric nitrate. For artworks, patination is deliberately accelerated by applying chemicals with heat. Colors range from matte sandstone yellow to deep blues, whites and various blacks.
Some patina colors are achieved by the mixing of colors from the reaction with the metal surface with pigments added to the chemicals. Sometimes the surface is enhanced by oiling, or other types of lacquers or clear-coats. More the French sculptor Auguste Rodin used to instruct assistants at his studio to urinate over bronzes stored in the outside yard. A patina can be produced on copper by the application of vinegar; this patina will not last on the outside of a building like a "true" patina. It is used as pigment. Patina is found on slip rings and commutators; this type of patina is formed by corrosion, what elements the air might hold, residue from the wear of the carbon brush and moisture. Patinas can be found in woks or other metal baking dishes, which form when properly seasoned; the patina on a wok is a dark coating of oils that have been burned onto it to prevent food sticking and to enhance the flavor of the foods cooked in it